Incandescent lamp - electric lighting device, the principle of action is due to heating of the refractory metal filament to high temperatures. The thermal effect of the current has been known for a long time( 1800).Over time, it causes strong heat( above 500 degrees Celsius), causing the thread to glow. In the country, little things bear the name of Ilyich, in fact, advanced historians are powerless to unequivocally give the answer to who is to be called the inventor of the incandescent lamp.
Construction of incandescent lamps
Let us examine the structure of the device:
- The tungsten filament acts as the working part of the incandescent lamp. The resistivity of the metal is three times higher than copper. Low indicator. Tungsten is chosen as a heated body for refractoriness, the filament section is reduced to the limit, increasing the electrical resistance. The melting point of the metal exceeds 3000 degrees Celsius.
- Incandescent glass bulb contains inert gas. Allowing you to save the helix from combustion, removes the need to create a vacuum( creates negative flask pressure, lowers the mechanical strength of the structure).
- Incandescent bulb coiled by molybdenum holders, powered by nickel electrodes. Materials selected according to purpose. Molybdenum is refractory, nickel liquidus temperature is lower, but it is endowed with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. The place of contact with the spiral avoids mechanical deformations, prolongs the service life of the incandescent lamp.
- Electrodes through copper conductors are connected to the contact pads of the base. Rarely incandescent lamp is supplied with its own fuse. Also inside the cap.
The history of the creation of incandescent lamps
Spirals are not immediately began to make tungsten. Applied graphite, paper, bamboo. A lot of people went in a parallel way, creating incandescent bulbs.
Powerless to provide a list of 22 names of scientists, called by foreign writers the authors of the invention. It is wrong to attribute merit to Edison, Lodygin. Today incandescent bulbs are far from perfect, rapidly losing their marketing appeal. Exceeding the amplitude of the supply voltage by 10%( half the way - 5% - the Russian Federation did in 2003, raising the voltage) of the nominal reduces the service life by four times. Reducing the parameter naturally cuts back on the luminous flux: 40% is lost with an equivalent relative change in the characteristics of the mains supply to the lower side.
Pioneers much worse. Joseph Swan( Joseph Swan) was desperate to achieve sufficient rarefaction of the air bulb lamp. Pumps( mercury) of the time unable to complete the task. The thread burned through oxygen preserved inside.
The meaning of incandescent lamps to bring the helix to the degree of heating, the body begins to glow. The absence of high-resistance alloys in the middle of the 19th century added difficulties - the quota of conversion of the electric current force is formed by the increased resistance of the conductive material.
The efforts of learned men were limited to the following areas:
- The choice of thread material. The criteria were simultaneously high resistance, resistance to burning. Bamboo fiber, which is an insulator, was covered with a thin layer of conductive graphite. A small area of the conductive layer of coal increased resistance, giving the desired result.
- However, the wood base quickly ignited. The second direction we consider attempts to create a complete vacuum. Oxygen has been known since the end of the 18th century; pundits quickly proved that the element is involved in combustion. In 1781, Henry Cavendish determined the composition of the air, starting to develop the glow lamps, the servants of science knew: the earth's atmosphere destroys heated bodies.
- It is important to pass the thread tension. There was a work aimed at creating detachable, contact parts of the chain. Clearly, a thin layer of coal is supplied with great resistance, how to bring electricity? It is difficult to believe, trying to achieve acceptable results, used valuable metals: platinum, silver. Obtaining an acceptable conductivity. Not cheap ways it was possible to avoid heating the external circuit, contacts, the thread was heated.
- We note separately the thread of the Edison base used today( E27).A good idea, which formed the basis of quickly replaceable incandescent bulbs. Other ways of making contact, like soldering, are of little use. The compound is able to disintegrate, heated by the action of current.
XIX century glassblowers reached professional heights, flasks were made easily. Otto von Guericke, constructing a static electricity generator, recommended that a spherical flask be filled with sulfur. The material hardens - break the glass. The result was a perfect ball, with friction collecting charge, giving the steel rod passing through the center of the structure.
The pioneers of the branch
You can read: the idea of subduing electricity to the purposes of lighting was first implemented by Sir Humphry Davy. Soon after the creation of the voltaic column, the scientist was experimenting with metals with might and main. I chose a noble platinum for the high melting point - other materials quickly oxidized with air. Simply burned. The light source came out dim, giving the basis of hundreds of subsequent developments, showing the direction of movement for those who want to get the final result: light, enlisting the help of electricity.
Occurred in 1802, the scientist turned 24 years old, and later( 1806) Humphry Davy presented to the public a fully functional discharge lighting device, in the design of which two coal rods played a leading role. The short life of such a brilliant star of the sky of science, which gave the world an idea of chlorine, iodine, and a number of alkali metals, should be attributed to the constant experiments. Deadly experiments in inhalation of carbon monoxide, work with nitric oxide( a powerful poisonous substance).The authors saluted the brilliant feats that shortened the life of a scientist.
Humphrey abandoned, cutting out a decade of lighting research, always busy. Today Davy is called the father of electrolysis. The tragedy of 1812 by Felling Colliery left a deep imprint, darkening the hearts of many. Sir Humphry Davy joined the ranks of those engaged in the development of a safe light source that protects the miners. Electricity was not enough, there were no powerful reliable energy sources. To make mine gas stop exploding from time to time, various measures were applied, like a metal diffuser mesh that prevents the spread of flame.
Sir Humphry Davy was well ahead of his time. Approximately 70 years. The end of the XIX century avalanche issued new designs designed to wrest humanity from eternal darkness, thanks to the use of electricity. One of the first Devi noted the dependence of the resistance of materials on temperature, allowing George Ohm later to get the famous law for the chain section. Half a century later, the discovery was the basis for the creation of the first electronic thermometer by Karl Wilhelm Siemens.
On October 6, 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated the incandescent bulb surrounded by a glass bulb to protect it from the action of the atmosphere. As the inventor put it: one could read a book, dispelling darkness at a distance of one and a half feet from a similar source. James Bowman, according to universally recognized sources, is the author of the idea of protecting the filament with a glass bulb. True?
Apt to argue, in this place world history is a bit confused. The first sketch of such a device dates from the year 1820.For some reason attributed to Warren de la Roux. Who was. .. 5 years old. A lone researcher noticed a nonsense, putting the date. .. 1840 year. Powerless kindergartener to make such a great invention. And forgotten in a hurry demonstration of James Bowman. Many historical books( one of 1961, authored by Lewis) were so interpreted by no one knows where the picture came from. Apparently, the author was wrong, another source, in 1986, Joseph Stoer, relates the invention to the account of Augustus Arthur de la Riva( 1801 year of birth).Much better is true, explaining the demonstrations of James Bowman fifteen years later.
Has passed unnoticed Russian-speaking domain. English sources interpret the problem as follows: the names of de la Roux and de la Reeve are clearly confused, at least four individuals can relate. Physicists Warren de la Roux, Augustus Arthur de la Rive are mentioned, the first in 1820 attended the kindergarten, figuratively speaking. The fathers of the men mentioned may clarify the story: Thomas de la Roux( 1793 - 1866), Charles Gaspard de la Rive( 1770 - 1834).An unknown gentleman( lady) conducted a whole study, convincingly proved: the reference to the surname de la Roux is untenable, referred to a mountain of scientific literature of the beginning of the 20th - the end of the 19th century.
Unknown bother to browse the patents of Warren de la Roux, there were nine pieces. The lamps of the described construction are absent. Augustus Arthur de la Riva, who began publishing scientific papers in 1822, is hard to imagine inventing a glass flask. He visited England - the home of the incandescent bulb - researched electricity. Those interested can write to the author of the article English-language site by e-mail [email protected] He writes "hedgehogs": he will gladly take note of the information concerning the issue.
The True Inventor of the
Incandescent Bulb It is reliably known that in 1879 Edison patented( US Patent 223898) the first incandescent bulb. Descendants recorded the event. With regards to earlier publications, authorship is in doubt. Unknown donation to the world collector engine. Sir Humphry Davy refused to take a patent for an invented safe flashlight for the mine, making the invention publicly available. Such whims create considerable confusion. They are powerless to find out who was the first to invent the filament inside a glass bulb, ensuring the operability of the structure used everywhere.
Incandescent lamps go out of fashion
Incandescent lamp uses the secondary principle of production of light. Reaches high temperature thread. The efficiency of the devices is small, most of the energy is wasted. Modern norms dictate the country to save energy. In a fashion bit, LED bulbs. Humphry Davy, de la Roux, de la Rive, Edison, who put their hands together to take humanity out of darkness, remain forever in memory.
Notice, Charles Gaspard de la Rive passed away in 1834.The following fall, the first public demonstration took place. .. Someone found the recordings of a deceased researcher? The question will solve the time, for all the secret will open. The readers noticed that an unknown force was pushing Davy to try using a protective flask, helping the miners. The heart of the scientist was too big to see a clear hint. The Englishman possessed the necessary information. ..