content of the article:
fruit trees including plum, attracted the attention of a wide variety of insects. Descriptions of how pests of plums look and fight against them, photos of potential enemies and a schedule of necessary measures will help the gardener to be fully armed and preserve the harvest.
The main and most visible crop damage is caused by the plum moth, or rather the caterpillars of small silver-gray or brownish butterflies no more than one and a half centimeters long.
Layed on the flower buds and egg buds, turning into pink-red caterpillars, they move inside the ovary and grow, feeding on the pulp of ripening plum. As a result, the ground under the tree is littered with immature fruits, and those that have time to fill themselves, inside are spoiled by the voracious pest.
The crop, spoiled by the plum moth, is significantly worse in quality, is not stored and is practically suitable for culinary processing.
The caterpillars, which have abandoned the fruits, winter in the clefts of the bark, and in June they turn into a new generation of butterflies.
Although only caterpillars, fighting against plum pest, bring tangible damage, in the photo, they are complex and throughout the warm period of the year:
- Treating trees with insecticides in early spring and at the green cone stage.
- From the veins and before the onset of cold weather, they regularly clean and loosen the near-stem rings. Remove weeds and cut basal shoots.
- To prevent the caterpillars from comfortable wintering, they carry out sanitary pruning, clean the dead bark, and whitewash the trunk.
- Collected ovary is collected and burned.
If the presence of pests is detected when the plums are already poured, protection should be applied very carefully, referring to the instructions and the timing of the breakdown of the active chemical.
Ringed and unpaired silkworm
The caterpillars of these species of moths with an appetite destroy foliage, buds and buds. With the mass appearance of the pest, the damage from it can be devastating. Therefore, the struggle begins in advance when the butterflies lay eggs, or in early spring before the leaves bloom, until the caterpillars themselves appear.
From the second half of the summer, the caterpillars turn into pupae hiding in the cracks of the bark or in drying leaves. To prevent the spring spread of the plum pest depicted in the photo, help simplify the fight against it:
- collecting and destroying fallen leaves;
- barrel sanitization and pruning;
- manual collection of spider nests with tracks;
- destruction of eggs;
- large-scale processing of fruit trees with plant and chemicals.
An inconspicuous, winged insect that is no more than a centimeter long does not seem to be a formidable enemy of a plum, but its 5 mm white larvae can cause a significant decrease in yield.
The eggs are laid by the female into the newly formed ovary, after which the larva actively grows inside the seed, feeding on it and causing the immature fruits to fall off towards the middle of summer. If the drop is left under the tree, the plum thistle will spend the winter well. And with the beginning of flowering in the spring will begin the years of young insects ready for laying eggs.
For the prevention of an attack, the dead ovary is destroyed and, as an effective method of control, the plum treatment after flowering is used, 7–10 days after the petals fall. The rest of the prevention and control of this pest plum has no features.
Scale on the sink: methods of struggle
Faced with a shield or a false guard, beginning gardeners often cannot identify these pests on time, taking dangerous insects as frozen gum drops or growths on the bark.
The fact is that both species are distinguished by low mobility and excellent masking. Sucking on young shoots and leaf stalks, shchitovki literally grow into the surface and harm, actively feeding on the sap of the plant. Only males and juveniles can move.
With a massive defeat of plums, especially still fragile seedlings weaken, their foliage dries and falls, and sometimes the trees lose fruit and even die. If time does not take all measures to combat the shield on the drain, the situation is complicated. The pest multiplies rapidly and produces a sticky drop, on which soot fungi willingly settle, making it difficult to breathe and interferes with growth.
In contrast to the shield with a flattened shield, the false shield is more like a hemisphere. However, it does not grow together with the bark, that is, it can be separated by mechanical means, and does not emit dew acid.
Anti-spatter-on-drain control measures differ little from those taken during infection with scutes. Insects should be removed with a brush and sprayed with a solution based on kerosene and soap or soap-alcohol liquid.
If large areas are covered with pests and household methods do not help, turn to chemical protection means by conducting several treatments from the scythe at weekly intervals.
Green plum aphid is a sucking pest that weakens plants and slows the growth of trees. First of all, insects settle on young foliage and new, non-ligneous shoots, creating a silvery-green swarming layer. The fight against the pest plum, as in the photo, complicates:
- speedy reproduction;
- ability of females to fly from tree to tree;
- spacing aphids by ants.
In order to prevent crop losses, in the spring and in the fall, pruning of the crown is carried out, root shoots and fat shoots are regularly removed, and trapping belts are installed and the stalks of fruit trees are whitened.
Insecticides also play a significant role. However, the processing of plums from aphids after flowering is best done using natural products based on tobacco or soap infusion, mustard water or decoction of tomato tops.
Black and yellow plum sawfly
All cultivars of plum are prone to plum sawfly. Harm caused by insect larvae, damaging the leaf plate and ovary.
The black sawfly is activated during the bud swelling phase. In an unopened flower, an adult female lays eggs, turning into larvae. In the early stages of development, the pest feeds on the pulp of the ovary, and then infects the leaves, literally turning them into openwork, green skeletons.
The yellow plum sawfly, besides the plum itself, does not shy away from other types of stone fruit. Traces of insect activity are visible on the leaves and fruits. If you do not take urgent measures and do not engage in prevention, the defeat will be widespread.
As a preventive measure, soil loosening is used around a trunk under the entire tree crown. It is especially important not to neglect this in early spring and before the onset of cold weather. Before flowering, besides spraying with insecticides, mechanical removal of pests that are shaken onto a spread canvas or non-woven material will help. In the summer it is necessary to mercilessly remove and destroy the affected fruit.