pools in the country have long since ceased to be a rarity. Only the sizes of such structures and their shape vary. The pool can be either full-fledged, fully equipped with the appropriate equipment, or small, designed only for bathing children.
Types of country pools and their features
First you need to decide which of the country pools you plan to place on your site. By installation methods, they are divided into:
- stationary: they are made of frost-resistant materials and have a long service life;require the presence of a pit, pouring bowl or concrete cushion;equipped with filling, draining and cleaning systems;
- collapsible: small or medium-sized tanks without a complex cleaning system( maximum - the simplest filter), filled with water only for the summer season;
- inflatables made from multi-layered polyvinyl chloride with or without a reinforced metal frame: simple to install and can be installed even in small areas.
According to the materials of manufacture, the pools for the dacha are divided into products from:
- concrete: the pool bowl is completely made of reinforced concrete with additional hydroprotection and tile, mosaic or PVC film finishing;
- red ceramic bricks: they only trim walls, the base, as in the previous case, is poured with concrete;to make such a construction as strong as possible, the walls are laid out in 2 bricks with a reinforcing mesh;
- metal( steel): due to the fact that the places of welding of such structures quickly rust, in recent years almost never used;
- multi-layer( composite) fiberglass that can withstand even heavy blows;the bowl is laid in a pit with a concreted bottom or a solid ground frame made of concrete or wood;Polypropylene
- : although this material is inferior to the composite in strength, it tolerates seasonal temperature fluctuations and can last for quite a long time.
A fixed pool is better protected with at least a simple canopy. In this case, it will be less accumulated debris and fallen leaves.
filtration system Without a high-quality filtration system, stationary pools for giving in the shortest possible time will simply be overgrown with mud. Depending on the method of circulation of water in them, you can choose any of the cleaning systems:
- overflow: through the funnels with filter nets located around the perimeter of the upper part of the pool, water enters the pipeline, where it is cleaned and returned;when the system is equipped with a pump, all layers are cleaned;
- skimmer type: a less expensive method, more suitable for small reservoirs;water for cleaning is not collected using overflow trays, but through built-in or mounted skimmers — coarse filters, which are small hollow tanks, to the bottom of which the water intake pipe is connected.
Monolithic concrete pool for giving
Durable reinforced concrete can be made as a small body of water for swimming, and a full-fledged swimming pool equipped with modern equipment. But in either case, the process of its arrangement is in many ways similar. We describe in detail how to build a pool in the country with their own hands from concrete.
Selection of location and preparation of the territory
In order to warm up the pool water as quickly as possible, it is placed in an open space, away from tall buildings and trees blocking the sun. The proximity of vegetation is also undesirable because in the fall the crumbling foliage will clog the pool, and it will take much longer to clean it. The growing roots of the same powerful plants such as poplar, willow or birch can easily destroy even concrete.
Consideration should also be given to the direction of the prevailing winds, so that the main part of the garbage is nailed to a place convenient for cleaning. In the selected area is carried out cleaning of shrubs and cut the sod. It is also necessary to remove large branches of trees hanging above the pool.
If there is a place on the site with a close passage of clay, it is better to build a pool for giving it there. After all, this sedimentary rock is able to retain water and serve as an additional layer of waterproofing.
Preparation of the pit
The simplest basin looks like a rectangular or oval-shaped tank, on one side of which a small pit is made, but deeper than the main bowl, pit( drainage well).It should be located 0.7 m below the bottom level. A pump for pumping and drain pipes will be placed in it.
We describe the process of preparing the pit in stages:
- To install the spacers under the formwork and convenience of approach, the width and length of the pit should be 60-80 cm larger than planned.
- In order to protect the soil from shedding, its walls are made with a slight incline.
- If adults swim in the pond, the most comfortable depth is 1.5 m with a length of 5.5 m. For children, it is necessary to isolate a separate zone. Taking into account the bottom plate, the cushion of rubble and sand and the finishing tile, this size should be increased by 40-50 cm.
- Water supply, drainage pipes and drain pipes are laid at the stage of preparation of the pit. The water supply pipes are led out into the pit so that they have a slight slope.
- For a large pool, 2-3 drain holes are being prepared, pipes for drainage should also be located at a slight angle.
- A slight slope( for 1 m 2-3 cm) should have a bottom of the pool.
- Geotextiles are rolled over the bottom with an overlap of 10-20 cm. It protects from the ingress of moisture from the soil and the cracking of the concrete when it freezes, and also prevents the soil and clay from mixing with bedding. For smaller structures, geotextiles can be replaced with roofing paper or thick plastic wrap.
- To protect concrete from the damaging effects of groundwater, a pad of sand from rubble 30–35 cm is first filled up. It should be carefully tamped down.
It is desirable to warm the bottom of the pool. In this case, it will warm up much faster, and at night it will cool down much more slowly. To do this, use penoplex or polystyrene foam. Polyfoam should not be used - it flattens under the weight of water, and the effect of insulation will be zero.
Pouring the concrete bowl
The concrete used to fill the pool, special requirements. It should have frost resistance and not crack under the influence of temperature and pressure drops. Therefore, for arranging its bowl, a concrete mix of high-strength cement M400-500 with the proportions of sand-cement-crushed stone 1: 3: 5 is used:
- It is desirable to use hydraulic concrete with special waterproof additives, but it costs a lot. To reduce the cost of the solution, such additives can be purchased separately.
- In order to obtain a solid base, first make a thin spilling of the bottom with a cement solution of "lean" concrete from inexpensive cement M100-200.
- The sand is selected clean, not silted, with an average size of granules.
- Kneading concrete by hand for a large construction is problematic - it is better to order ready-made or to rent a concrete mixer.
- Excessive water in a solution, as well as its deficiency, can impair the quality of concrete - a not too thick creamy mixture is prepared for it, which will not drain from the trowel or wooden stick.
- At first dry components are mixed, and only then liquid is gradually added to the solution.
- For the concrete bowl, formwork is made of wooden panels or moisture-resistant plywood, which is held together with metal pins.
- To avoid deformation of the formwork under the weight of a heavy mortar, spacers from a bar are installed every 0.5 m.
- The bottom of the pool is reinforced with a bar of 8-14 mm in two tiers with a pitch of 20-25 cm and wire strapping. It is undesirable to use soldering - when the ground moves, such a bundle will simply burst. On non-rocky soils with a shallow depth of the reservoir, 10-mm rods are allowed.
- The first layer of reinforcement is located 5 cm above the bottom of the slab( the rods are placed on supports from fragments of bricks).The second - at the same distance from its top. Since the standard slab thickness is 20 cm, about 10 cm should remain between the reinforcement layers.
- To the edges of the slab( in the area of future walls), the rods are bent in the shape of the letter “G”.
- To remove air voids when laying concrete, it is necessary, as it is filled, to be spliced with a shovel or pressed with a vibrating compactor.
- When pouring the side parts of the bowl, the embedded elements are mounted in them - supply and withdrawal nozzles. They are carefully sealed with cords with additional waterproofing sealant.
- It is advisable to fill the bottom and walls of the pool at the same time, using the method of continuous supply of concrete, not allowing it to harden. Otherwise, a so-called “cold” joint is formed at the joints, which is a problem area - when the ground moves, the concrete bowl in this place can simply burst. However, in this case, special formwork and special equipment for casting will be required.
- For uniform drying and hardening of the concrete it is covered with plastic wrap. In the hot season, the surface is periodically moistened with water.
- Further pool finishing works for the dacha are carried out only after a month - this time will be enough for the concrete to fully strengthen.
- The formwork for steps is also mounted after the bowl has completely solidified. Bent steps can be obtained by using plywood as a formwork.
If continuous pouring of concrete is impossible, and you can’t do without a “cold joint” at the junction of the bottom and walls, you can lay a masonry grid and a special cord at the junction - it can expand and completely fill the free space when in contact with the liquid. The joint is additionally treated with waterproof sealant.
Selection of the filter unit
The simplest filter equipment consists of a central pump and a set of pipes with nozzles, figings and valves for its connection. A container with sand or other filler for cleaning is supplied to it. To track the process, pressure gauges, time clocks, and gauges can be supplied with more expensive installations.
Naturally, the main parameter of such equipment is its power. For a small pool, it is enough to purchase a unit capable of pumping water at a speed of 1200-1500 l / h. It is worth paying attention to the time of continuous work - it can be from 2 to 12 hours.
constructions By cleaning methods, filter equipment is divided into:
- working on sorbent cartridge: the cheapest option, but they will have to be changed every 2 weeks;
- with a sandy filler: very reliable and durable, the lack of a cleaning system of the smallest dust particles is one of the disadvantages;
- diatoms: the most expensive and efficient, water is filtered by passing through several cartridges containing the smallest particles of silicon.
Before starting the finishing work, the quality of the waterproofing must be checked. To do this, fill the pool with water, measure its level and leave for 10-12 days. It should be noted that in the warm season it may slightly decrease due to evaporation of the liquid.
Plastering of walls is carried out with the help of reinforced metal mesh. To do this, use special waterproof solutions with additives. They must be put into the solution strictly according to the norm. Increasing the amount of additives is not worth it, otherwise the strength of the plaster may decrease. The approximate composition of the plastering solution is 1: 2( cement M 500 and sand) with the addition of latex additives and microfiber.
The plastered and fully dried walls and the bottom are coated with liquid waterproofing using fiberglass mesh. If the groundwater is in close proximity to the soil, it is better to additionally treat them with a penetrating primer.
For the decoration of the concrete bowl, you can use:
- cold-resistant ceramic tile with anti-slip notches;
- mosaic tile for swimming pools;
- PVC or butyl rubber film: this option is more budget.
Pavement tiles, paving stones, stone or pebbles are laid on the perimeter of the pool to protect against pollution. Sand is undesirable to use - it will fall into the reservoir.
Finishing a concrete pool with PVC film - video
Installing a frame pool at the cottage
It will require much less effort and free time to equip its pool. These pools are installed, slightly buried in the ground or directly on the surface. In winter, frame pools( with the exception of special frost-resistant) must be dismantled to avoid plastic cracking.
When digging a pit for such a basin, its bottom for protection from groundwater is poured with rubble of large fraction 30-40 cm and carefully tamped. Then it is poured with a 30 cm thick concrete screed. If the structure is not planned to be buried in the ground, it is advisable to prepare a flat concrete platform extending into the ground by 20 centimeters without significant bias, and reinforce the structure itself with concrete or brick supports. So that the water in the pool does not cool at night, under its base is placed insulation - polystyrene plates.
Regardless of the size and shape, except for the bowl, the frame frame, made of durable metal pipes, is always included in the set of frame pools. The industry also produces extremely durable, completely rigid structures. However, the weight of such a bowl will be significant, and the installation may require the help of specialists.
For assembly of the simplest frame pool, you only need a screwdriver:
- it is better to install it near utilities so that the water supply does not become a constant problem;
- , since such a structure is not capable of holding heat for a long time, it is better to insulate not only its bottom, but also the walls;
- first assembles a metal frame onto which a plastic sheet is subsequently tensioned or sheets of plastic are attached;
- it is better to install a swimming pool on a warm day - the film will soften slightly in the sun and it will be easier to straighten it;
- in order to avoid leakage during the assembly process, it is necessary to control the tightness of fitting each part;
- the main power element of this design - the upper hoop, based on vertical racks;its fastening is made with the help of tees;in the places of their connection there are holes for pins.
Low-priced Chinese models come with low-power water filters that quickly become clogged with dirt. If you do not plan to allocate a significant amount for the purchase of high-quality frame pool to the country, it is better to limit yourself to a small children's model that can be cleaned manually.
Inexpensive frame pool from an old ad banner
The banner fabric is in many respects similar to a durable tarpaulin, but its basis is not cotton, but waterproof polyester. For work it is better to choose the thickest banner of high density. You can buy it for a symbolic price at any advertising agency. If the fabric seems thin to you, you can use two banners at once and lay them one on top of the other.
As it will be problematic to install stationary cleaning devices in such a reservoir, it is better to make it in the form of a pond in which water purifying plants will be planted. To protect against algae, well-developed in the absence of oxygen, the pond can be equipped with a compressor to saturate it.
So, how to make a pool in the country from an old banner:
- the pit for such a reservoir is prepared in such a way that the banner goes far beyond its limits:
- gluing joints is carried out without glue using a building hair dryer;to make them durable, it should be done on a flat surface;after folding the fabric, the seams are heated and then rolled with a roller;
- around the bowl poured small sides, which are lined with bricks over the banner;
- around such an improvised pool can be made of wood flooring or impose a stone on it.
The pool from the banner can not be buried in the ground. In this case, a strong frame is prepared for it from pine boards( they are less susceptible to rotting), metal or thick-walled plastic sheets:
- is first filled with a sand pad 10 cm thick;
- in the corners of the building are fixed support columns;
- every 0.5 m to the same depth around the perimeter of the log;
- it connects horizontally located edged board, which is mounted about 20-30 cm from the ground;
- reinforce the structure by using additional strapping at the top and bottom of the structure.
The glued-on bowl is fixed with 35-mm washers. The top is fixed with self-tapping screws with a step of 30 cm. Just like a regular stationary pool, the banner structure can be equipped with water-flow meters.
Production of composite pools - video
So, we have described in detail how to make a pool in the country with their own hands. If you have any questions, you can familiarize yourself with the process of building a concrete structure in the following video: