Plastic windows, armored doors, on the one hand, maintain the desired temperature in the rooms, and on the other - give rise to problems with the air exchange. Properly arranged hood in a private home will eliminate the feeling of stuffiness and condensation. In most cases this is the only way to create a healthy microclimate in it.
We invite you to read a ducting version, capable of improving the microclimate. Together with you dismantle settlement of accounts with a concrete example. We have a process of forced exhaust assembly variants described in detail for those wishing to install their own hands.
Presented information based on regulatory requirements. Information is supplemented by illustrations, step by step photo tutorials, diagrams, tables, and video.
The content of the article:
- drawing options in a private house
- Necessary preliminary calculations
- Natural ventilation in the house
- Requirements for private house ventilation
- Ventilation with recirculation Union
Installation of forced exhaust of a private house
- exhaust mount technology in the kitchen
- Forced withdrawal bathrooms private home
- cellar ventilation apparatus
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
drawing options in a private house
Both in public buildings and in private homes use different types of ventilation systems. They differ purpose, method of activation of the air flow and the promotion of air masses. ventilation systemFor supplying clean air in a house, called plenum.
The design, the function of which is to remove exhaust air outside the room, the exhaust has a name. Special mission performs ventilation with recirculation. In this case the mixing of the air discharged from the room with external cold air masses with further heating of the mixture to the preset temperature and feeding back it to room.
All points regarding ventilation devices should consider at the stage of preparation for the construction of their own homes (+)
Air movement is the result of processes that occur naturally due to displacement by cold air having a higher bulk density, hot air with a lighter weight from the room.
The flow in such a system travels at a low speed, because the weight of the warm and the cold mass differs by a small amount. an air flow passage ventilation with the natural impulse irrational use if it horizontally longer than 8 m.
More efficient is the system activation artificial air flow provides cooling fans. The ducts in this case are quite long and may pass through several rooms. Elements of the system is most often placed in the attic. It justified this option for large-area buildings.
There is a division in the channel system and ductless. In the first case, the air moves through the channels and ducts, in the second - Organized air movement is absent. In this case it is necessary to open the window transoms, doors. Natural ventilation creates a more comfortable environment residents of the house.
Ventilation system oriented to discharge the spent air mass, frees up space for admission of fresh air portion
By way of removal of exhaust air exhaust ventilating circuits are divided into channel and ductless
According to the type of air flow to movement impulses ventilation systems are natural, forced and combined. In natural air moves embodiments without the use of mechanical means, in combination - using mechanical means and the laws of physics
In embodiments, forced ventilation air vent device is due to the suction fan installed in the exhaust air duct
Powerful supply and exhaust system have usually in the attic. The ducts protect foil insulation
Forced exhaust systems are equipped advantageously with unstable room humidity and temperature performance. The kitchens are more than appropriate
The exhaust fan in the bathroom provide rapid reduction of humidity, which will eliminate the mold and protect the building construction for sale from destruction
Extract from the basement will provide a stable foundation of strength, allow the use of underground space
Exhaust ventilation system
Duct channel of the exhaust system
Natural ventilation of private homes
Fan extractor in the bathroom
The exhaust system is in the attic
Extractor fan in the kitchen in a country house
The exhaust fan in the bathroom
The chimney of the basement
Necessary preliminary calculations
The starting parameter in the calculation is displayed and the volume of air entering the room. There is not one method, but the most commonly used, are taken as a basis for health standards, and floor space.
According to the first request must start from the fact that the need for air in m3/ч. for one person conducting in-house most of the time, depending on the purpose of the room:
- Living - 40;
- bedroom - 20;
- kitchen - 60;
- WC - 25.
Based on the second criteria are based on the following regulatory requirements: 1 m² area of premises should fall 3 m3 replaced by air. at calculating ducts guided by the fact that the optimum value of the air velocity in the central channel 5 m / sec, and laterally -. a maximum of 3 m / sec.
Independently determine the pipe diameter may be of the formula:
S = L / 3600 / v,
wherein L - the performance, measured in m3/ H, v - air velocity in m / sec.
Data on the expenditure of air depending on the duct in the table.
Drag duct with a cross section of a circle less than a square. The square shape is more compact, fits well into the interior of the premises, it has a large range of sizes
The ducts are made of metal, plastic, aluminum foil, polyester. The last two relate to flexible systems. Sound and thermal insulation properties they are good and they are ideally suited for private homes.
Natural ventilation in the house
The basis of the natural air laid property gaseous portion and liquid substances with a higher temperature rise. Thus, the exhaust air is naturally derived from the room through the vertically positioned suction channel tightening, the outside air passing through air passages.
Natural ventilation does not always provide the comforts of home. Frequently used mixed option, when in addition to natural air movement and further comprising using fans (+)
The ineffectiveness ventilation indicates an excess of moisture in the room during a cold or a warm increased dryness. The presence of large amounts of dust, lack of oxygen - is also a sign of inadequate air flow from the outside.
bad consequence is drawing the formation of fungus under the wallpaper in the bathroom, deposition of soot on the kitchen walls, misted window.
Check the hood job easily. Ventreshetke enough to bring the sheet of paper. With good traction it vygnetsya towards the ventilation duct, otherwise nothing will happen. It must be concluded that the extract something jammed and to provide traction channel needs to be cleaned.
The efficacy of natural ventilation depends on the state of ventilation grilles and ducts. Normal air movement must not prevent dust build-up and fat
To test the natural drawing system sufficiently to make a lattice sheet of paper. If it does not press the air flow, an exhaust duct is not working
If there is any doubt in people's means of verification, it is necessary to contact the management company to test the system by technical means
To obtain reliable measurement readings should be in a cool day. At this time you need to open the window for air intake
Contaminated ventilation grille
Indicator clogged air duct
Technical testing activities ventilation
Terms for control
To ensure private house well ventilated to start with the calculation of air. According to the results of selected cross-section of the channel, the type of ventilation system and make the preliminary variant of the scheme ventilation duct passage point where space and ventilation equipment installation, and outputting sampling point air mass.
Private homes are mainly in the countryside, where the air, as opposed to urban, cleaner and there is no need for further purification. Therefore, natural ventilation for private homes is preferable.
A big obstacle for the fresh air supply are plastic windows, in which there are no cracks, and glass is very close fitting to the frames.
Yield installation supply valve. It is positioned on the upper frame, so the air coming from outside, leaving the ceiling and only after mixing with Convention streams and acquiring the room temperature is lowered.
Layout of the exhaust system must ensure that the air flow covering the entire house from the direction of the "clean" rooms to those where the air is most susceptible to contamination.
According to this rule in areas with special conditions, which include boiler rooms, kitchen with gas stove, cellars, rooms with fireplaces and columns, toilets, hoods must be present. These spaces are needed and valves.
Design features allow the supply valve to ventilate the room without creating drafts and without compromising the performance of the window. Thus no condensation. Slit-type valve, as in the photo, can be installed on an existing window unit
Exists ventsMounted on the wall. This nozzle having a circular section is inserted into the through hole in the wall and sealed gratings both the inner side and the outer.
Typically, the wall supply fan may submit to the House of 50-100 mᶾ air per hour. On the basis of this provision and take the appropriate calculation of the optimal number of selected
Grating disposed inside can be adjusted - to open and close fully or partially. When installing prefer a place near the window. Sometimes, the supply valve is mounted behind the radiator, and then immediately heated incoming air.
Requirements for private house ventilation
Sanitary and technical standards put forward a number of demands to the Sun. When deciding how to make an effective extract in a private house, all items should be considered:
- The inner walls of the channels should be smooth. To ensure this condition they stick round or rectangular ducts of constant cross section.
- Vent stack at the bottom equipped with an inspection door. It should be closed tightly.
- The exhaust channel is output to the roof with the rise above it at least 1.5 m. If the roof has a polygonal shape, in order to avoid occurrence of reverse thrust caused by the swirl flow in the exhaust duct mounted deflector.
- The device of the ventilation shaft. If initially the ventilation system was not in the building it is provided to one of the walls of the shaft ladders parked. To improve traction it needs to be warmed.
- Compliance with the rules of organization ventilation. You can not combine mechanical kitchen hood with a total Sun For her arrange a separate channel, otherwise there will be problems with the functioning of the natural traction in other areas of the house.
- The maximum allowable distance from the ceiling to the top of louvers 150 mm. When increasing this distance will occur outside the dead zone.
Doors separating adjacent spaces, even in the closed position should not prevent air from flowing.
The best solution - purchase a door with a special decorative lattice below. If you set a solid door between the floor and the door leaf leave a gap of less than 2 cm, or at the bottom of a series of holes drilled.
The essence of the main requirements is that the amount to be venting must equal the number of incoming. If this rule is not met, they will enter along with the air are different odors in the room. With a large imbalance between the volume of supply air and extract appear drafts.
Ventilation with recirculation Union
Recirculating called SV when the air removed from the room, is returned via the inflow of fresh air with an admixture. The disadvantage is that its application is limited to SNIP, and in regions with colder climates it does not work very effectively. Its action is limited outside of the room.
Recycling saves on power consumption for the reason that the power is only consumed for heating a small amount of air mass, abstracted from the street
Circuit recirculation system can be converted into ordinary purge ventilation by closing the recirculation valve and fully open the supply and exhaust. If you do the opposite, then the system begins to drive the air in a circle.
When the valve supply and exhaust open only partially, will begin mixing fresh outdoor air. By adjusting the degree of opening of optimize delivery elements providing liveability.
Installation of forced exhaust of a private house
Forced ventilation in comparison with the natural benefits in many respects:
- It works regardless of the weather.
- More effectively cleans the air.
- It is possible to adjust the rotation speed and the fan output.
- The air flow can be moved not only by means of the fan channel, but also by the use of monoblocks, which differ in ease of installation.
The main disadvantages - the dependence of power and the need for periodic replacement of individual elements. For forced-air ventilation has several mechanisms.
It can be a single air handling unit, a dial-supply systems, exhaust, air-conditioning channel. It is considered the most efficient supply and exhaust ST. The design includes a fan, automation, sensors, filters.
Distribution of cold air in the room during ventilation prevents special valve located in the housing
Forced withdrawal in the standard version has a single fan and is designed for smaller rooms. The CB type typesetting equipment is the same, but it is placed separately. System capacity is in the range of 80-7 000 m3/ч.
Practical advice of experienced craftsmen, it follows that in a small house consisting of 2 rooms, efficient cooker hood is operating, processing between 200 and 300 m3 air per hour.
In large-area buildings to be mounted hoods capacity from 350 to 500 m3/ч.
exhaust mount technology in the kitchen
Hood in the kitchen are placed, as a rule, over the stove. It is necessary that the exhaust hood extends beyond the plate 100-150 mm.
Performance selected orientation at room settings using the formula:
P = S x H x 12
Where the first character represents the second power - the third area - the height of the kitchen.
Depending on the installation method, cooker hoods are suspended, wall, island, embedded, and by the type of operation and supply and circulation
Ducts are usually held on the indirect path, because of what the suction power can be reduced. To guarantee, to the resulting calculation of the value added by 30%. The technology is simple installation therefore, to understand the circuit, you can do all the work yourself.
When there is no built-Sun you must first make a hole in the wall that matches the diameter of a section of the exhaust pipe. If we ignore this recommendation, the work will be accompanied by increased noise, and the air will be released at a slower rate.
Design itself dmstantsii positioned at least 0.7 m from the surface electric cookers and 0.8 m - from the gas.
The next step - fixing markup. Sometimes drawing kit includes the pattern, but if he is not, you can use a tape measure and level. Next, fix the exhaust hood, keeping horizontality.
Connect the structure to the previously configured outlet, connected to the mains and tested. If the home includes a gas heater, the ventilation pipe can be displayed in the boiler flue or heating furnace.
The process of installing the cooker hood with masking dome will show the next photo selection:
In order to bring the exhaust duct to the outside, are drilling the wall. We use the first tip for drilling tiles, then drill for brick and concrete walls
For exhaust duct device will use the corrugated tube. Try on it to the installation site, if necessary finalizing hole
Note in fact the point of attachment of the dome, through which we will mask the hood to the ductwork
The layout of holes drilled dowels set into which tighten the screws
Prune corrugated exhaust passage in accordance with the required dimensions. Cut with scissors
Puts camouflage canopy to the site of its future location, check the horizontal and vertical lines with the length of the corrugations
Connect the extractor to a dome inside the exhaust duct. First corrugation is slightly compressible, so that it tightly fits after, disposing in the hole
We connect the hood to the mains and check its performance, putting a piece of paper to the working area
Step 1: Drilling holes for the output duct
Step 2: Fitting the corrugations to the installation site
Step 3: Marking and apparatus attachment points
Step 4: Screwing in the fastening screws
Step 5: Trim the corrugations of the actual size
Step 6: Fitting the dome to the location
Step 7: Connect the hood to the ductwork
Step 8: Verifying the exhaust system
Forced withdrawal bathrooms private home
In the bathroom to perform the installation of mechanical ventilation exhaust fans operating in a wet environment:
- Power is supplied to the room and set the outlet;
- in the wall make hole corresponding to the cross section of the fan clutch;
- sleeve placed into the hole;
- drilled mounting holes;
- Connect the cables;
- removing the front cover from the fan, secure the latter to the wall;
- returning the removed panel into place;
- externally attach the grille.
Such a system should be used in the bathroom, on the second floor. Usually CB this room with the obligatory presence of the ventilation shaft lay in the project. Air flow through the gap between the floor and the door, and through the vents.
To create a forced ventilation in the bathroom in the room air systems inserted into the fan. He pulls out of the room exhaust air, opening the way for the arrival of the new portion of air from adjacent rooms
Sometimes, as an alternative solution to the question how to make an outlet in combination bathroom private home, along the wall Building carried something like a drain pipe with a diameter of 110 mm recommended serving higher level roof.
In the apparatus Ventilation of sanitary facilities axial fans are used, the installation of which operate in the standard sequence:
For arranging bathrooms, separate shower, toilet or bathroom buy axial fan with adequate protection against moisture categories
To sum up the exhaust hole or the wiring of a single switch, or by regular light switch line bath or toilet
Through the back of the body mark up the point of the fan wall mounting
Performed by marking drill holes in the wall using a drill bit with the appropriate material and size dowels
Introduce drilled dowel holes, then attach the lower body portion to the installation place and tighten the screws
Connect the fan to summing up the wiring to it in accordance with the manufacturer's requirements and PU
Check the fan running it. If all goes well, the closure device protection grid by snapping it into the bottom of the housing
When choosing a ceiling installation option of an axial fan held a similar assembly steps
Step 1: Purchase axial fan for bathrooms
Step 2: Wiring the fan connection
Step 3: Marking housing mounting points
Step 4: Hole Drilling attachment point under
Step 5: the rear part of the fan case Fixing
Step 6: Wiring to the venting devices
Step 7: Installing the fan cover grille
Ceiling installation option
cellar ventilation apparatus
For the basement need a simple and effective ventilation, otherwise it will not meet the demands imposed on it. For mounting the pipe section 2 need from 80 to 150 mm, insulation, protective visors, grating.
An inflow tube is mounted in one end wall, departing from the floor of about 0.3 m. The top of the pipe lengths about 5.5 m have to extend along the outer wall. It provides thrust temperature difference at the top and bottom of the pipe.
With ventilation large size basement can handle only supply and exhaust ventilation system option. The corners arranged vertical ducts, ceiling - the exhaust conduit, and at a certain height above the floor surface - supply
Top visors protect the pipes, which, besides the protective function, play an important role in regulating the passage of air speed.
The intensity of thrust depends on the difference of the lengths of supply and exhaust pipes. The greater this difference, the stronger the flow. The normal ventilation should provide a 2-fold air replacement within 60 min.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. How to implement a ventilation project according to the rules:
Video # 2. Familiarization with the natural ventilation operation:
The effectiveness of the ventilation of your own home is influenced by many factors. When choosing a type of aircraft and performing the calculations take into account the need to all. Only under this condition, it will function flawlessly.
Please write comments in the open under the text block shape. We welcome your stories about your device and use of exhaust systems. Here you can ask questions and point out the flaws, if you find them in the provided information for the inspection.