Preparation of seed material and time of sowing of flowers for a variety of rage: ить:: том атов атов атов в атов атов атов атов атов атов атов атов атов атов атов атов атовOutside assistance an excellent crop of tomatoes can be perfectly every novice gardener, observing all the agrotechnical norms of sowing, diving and planting seedlings. Only by ensuring the correct vegetative mode of development of an annual plant can we expect an excellent result of its work in the garden.
The pledge of a large crop is always in the quality of the seed. Before sowing these, it is necessary to determine the varieties of tomatoes, the time of their ripening and the temperature conditions of sowing.
Variety Classification of Tomatoes
One should take into account the fact that tomatoes are classified according to stem height, fruit shape, and ripening time. Among the most popular high-yielding modern varieties, taking root in our natural and climatic conditions, stand out: small-fruited
- - Sweet 100, Evita, Mirabell;
- medium fruit - Martina, Goldene Koeniging, Harzfeuer, Balkonstar;
- Plum Roses - Roma, San Marzano;
- large-fruited - Master, Beefmaster, Supermarmande.
A variety of tomatoes for planting each land owner chooses from the calculation of the fleshiness and elasticity of the fruit for the purpose of further application in the economy - preservation, sandwiches, salads or cooking sauces.
Before planting, it is necessary to decide in advance on the assignment of the variety to a determinant or non-determinant species. The first option involves the development of undersized plants, the second is prone to forcing the stem more than two meters. This aspect implies completely different agrotechnical conditions for growing tomatoes in open ground.
Seed preparation and timing of sowing tomatoes for seedlings
Planting tomato seeds for seedlings begins with the preparation of seed material, in particular, soaking the seeds in room temperature water with the addition of flower fertilizers and growth stimulants. The proportions of drugs are always indicated on the packaging.
After bubbling, the seeds are distributed in one ball on a wet gauze, folded in several layers, and covered with the same materials in order to create a warm vacuum at 30 ° C with an effective air exchange. After a couple of days, the wet and warm seeds swell and expel the first buds.
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Sow the seeds in the soil in early March or early April. Growing seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse causes an earlier sowing. For the distillation of parostki need a tray, the dimensions of which are selected depending on the expected number of grown seedlings of tomatoes. This can be a rectangular flower pot bought in a supermarket, or an unnecessary old vessel in the form of a metal or plastic basin.
The sowing tank is filled with loose earth mixed with compost. You can buy friable humus in a specialty store, or prepare it at home in the autumn time period.
The filled layer of soil should not exceed fifteen centimeters; this height will ensure optimum moisture impregnation and will not create an overabundance. Sowing tomato seeds in seedlings is carried out at the rate of one seed per three square meters.see land. The layer covering the sown seeds should not be dense and thick. Ideal - 2-3 millimeters.
After the seeding procedure is completed, the capacity is placed in a warm place and the first shoots are expected. When these appear, it is necessary to take care of efficient lighting of the place where the tank is installed, since the heat-loving plant, receiving a sufficient amount of light, will form not only the stem, but will give all its strength to the leaves, which will ensure a strong and enduring seedling later.
At the beginning of the forcing, the first two leaflets are formed on the stalk. It is from this moment that the intensive lighting of the shoots begins in order to effectively form the root system with plants and their hardening - carrying out on the street for several hours, increasing the time every day by twenty minutes. With the growth of shoots and increases the time of seedlings on the street.
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Planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse
After hardening procedures at 60 days old, seedlings can be planted in a prepared greenhouse, the soil for tomatoes in which should be similar in structure to the ground in a tray for growing seedlings. The main useful property is the saturation of the soil with essential microelements capable of determining the conditions for the growth of strong and fruiting stems. The greenhouse must have a collapsible design, since after planting the tomatoes in the ground, the process of its adaptation to the natural climatic conditions will continue.
Very many professionals in the agronomical field advise sowing seeds in the greenhouse immediately. This makes it possible to simplify the task of growing seedlings, hardening and picking at times.
Picking tomatoes seedlings
Growing tomato seedlings at home may involve planting them in open ground without using greenhouse structures. For this, the sown material at the age of 30 days is subjected to picking, transplanting into separate pots in order to develop a strong root system of an individual stem. After the end of the period of late frosts, pickled seedlings are planted in fertilized soil, sinking the stem to the first lower leaf. If the seedlings have long stems, you should pay attention to their garter to a stable stable support, which can serve as an ordinary wooden bead.
After the seedlings have begun at the landing site, it is worthwhile to regularly monitor the emergence of new shoots with already developed sheets. These sprouts should be removed in order to further form a strong root system of tomatoes.
To ensure a high future crop of growing tomatoes, you should not miss the appearance of four shoots on the seedlings and remove the tops.
Top dressing of tomato seedlings
Initial fertilization of the land for tomatoes requires the presence of a sufficient amount of humus. However, this is not enough to provide the necessary micro and macro elements of plants throughout the growing season of development and fruiting. If the soil contains a balanced composition of the necessary biological substances, then problems with the growth of tomatoes do not arise. However, the ideal option is rarely found in nature, often the gardener has to independently monitor the condition of the soil and plants, adjusting the lack of useful components by introducing supplements.
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A shortage of certain types of elements is always characterized by external defective manifestations on the seedlings:
- if the stems of the planted plants are thin, dense and become purple in color, while the plants are short and do not throw out the inflorescences for a long time - there is a shortage of nitrogen, which can be replenished by applying nitrogen fertilizers;
- If yellow and dark brown spots appear on the leaves of the seedlings, the foliage twists and dries, and the stalks die - the tomatoes lack magnesium, thereby developing the so-called chlorosis;
- if the tops of the seedlings are yellowed, and the lower rows of foliage are still green - urgently you need to feed the tomatoes with calcium and iron;
- in cases of a long lack of inflorescences it is advisable to add phosphoric fertilizers to the soil;
- with a shortage of manganese, seedlings fade, weaken and are not able to physically form inflorescences;
- lack of boron contributes to the growth of many shoots from rhizomes when the main stem withers, the seedlings turn into bushy plantations.
Tomatoes are very whimsical to watering and saturation of the soil with useful components. Particularly useful component is the usual wood ash, which must necessarily be present on the beds of tomato cultivation.
A very important moment in the cultivation of seedlings is pest control. Especially dangerous for tomatoes is aphid, which eats foliage and inflorescences. To combat this help modern means of intoxication. An effective biological method of combating harmful insects is growing tomatoes in the same plot with nasturtium or poppy seeds, attracting other types of insects that destroy aphids.
Tomato seedlings love bright sun, warm, well-ventilated places, protected from the heat of the dining heat, frequent watering of the stem base with room temperature water.
Video: tips on growing tomato seedlings