- №1. Requirements for ventilation pipes
- №2. Metal pipes for ventilation
- No. 3. Plastic pipes for ventilation
- №4. Corrugated ventilation pipes
- №5. Ventilation from sewer pipes: is it possible or not?
- №6. Form and mode of production
- №7. What diameter / pipe size will be needed?
Remember how dashing heroes of Hollywood movies are moving through the confusing mazes of ventilation ducts? This, of course, is spectacular, but the main function of these pipes is the air outlet to the street. If you do not give proper attention to the organization of ventilation, the stuffiness, misted windows, dampness and mold will not take long. Fresh air enters the dwelling through leaks in the windows, special valves, ventilators and breathers. The exhaust air flows out through special ventilation ducts, which can be additionally equipped with fans. If in high-rise buildings all these nuances are thought out for us, then when building your own house you will have to delve into the essence of the matter in order to ensure a normal microclimate. What pipes for ventilation in a private house is better to choose? Which material should I prefer? What size pipe should I choose? And, the most interesting, is it possible to adapt for the organization of ventilation cheaper sewer pipes? Let's understand.
№1. Requirements for ventilation pipes
Well, if the ventilation system is installed during the construction phase of the house, because in this case, the air ducts can be hidden, and they will not disturb the aesthetics of the room. Channels can be laid out with a brick, but this is a long process. Today, in general, special ventilation pipes are used, which simplify and accelerate the entire installation process.
It should be noted that most often the ventilation ducts in a private house are necessaryfor removing air. However, if it is necessary to take all movements of air under maximum control, a compulsorycombined extract and input ventilation. This is a complex system, but in this case pipes will be needed todraw fresh air from the street.
The choice of duct material and its diameter depends on the mass of the factors. First of all, this is the type of room and the features of the air, which must be removed (temperature, chemical composition, etc.). Whatever it was, and no matter what option you choose, there isa number of requirements that the air duct must meet:
- ideal tightness;
- ability to ensure free passage of airflow of a specific volume and at a given speed;
- safety for human health (non-toxicity) and minimum noise level during the passage of air masses;
- if the pipes are not hidden, then the decorative qualities are also important.
Ventilation pipes are manufacturedfrom metal and plastic, the latter being used more often today. Products withround and rectangular section, different sizes. Separate sections are connected due to taps, connectors, tees, flanges and other elements. Due to the widest choice of pipes and connecting products, it is possible to build a ventilation system of any complexity. All the necessary for the organization of ventilation residents of Moscow and the region can find in the online store where the material. Ventilation is settled for many years, so it is better to contact a verified supplier who provides assistance in the selection, favorable prices and prompt delivery.
№2. Metal pipes for ventilation
This group includes pipes fromstainless steel, galvanized and black steel. To generaladvantagescan include the following qualities:
- resistance to high temperatures, pressures and corrosive environments;
- a wide choice of shapes and sizes, in which metal pipes are much superior to plastic ones;
- stiffness and strength;
High weight, considerable price and complexity of installation- the reasons why many prefer to abandon metal pipes in favor of plastic ones. In private homes today, almost no one is using metal ducts anymore - there is no need for them. They are more suitable for the organization of ventilation in industrial premises.
To the general disadvantages we add the shortcomings of different types of metal pipes.Cink Steelalthough it receives protection in the form of a deposition of a zinc layer, but does not differ in special longevity. The coating, of course, pushes back the appearance of corrosion and slows its development, but does not save it completely. The weakest places in galvanized pipes are joints. It is in these places that rust appears first, and as soon as it begins to develop, an unpleasant smell is formed. If it is a residential building, then this is a very serious drawback.
Stainless steelin operation behaves much better. It is more resistant to corrosion and therefore more durable. This material has an increased fire resistance and is suitable for transporting aggressive air masses. For production - an ideal option, but at home, massive metal pipes are justified to use only if they got to you for free and will be hidden in the wall.
All metal ducts have one more unpleasant property. Air, passing through such a pipe, and forming streams, can cause significant noise. To reduce the number of air vortices, it is necessary to minimize the number of turns of the pipe and to avoid angles of 90 degrees. In addition, the metal walls of the channel will resist the passage of air flow.
No. 3. Plastic pipes for ventilation
Plastic ventilation pipes have replaced the galvanized from residential premises and are already actively used in some industrial buildings. Manufacture of such ducts fromPolyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane and polypropylene, with the latter two species not widespread. When talking about plastic ventilation pipes, usually mean products made of PVC.
- price. Plastic pipes are much cheaper than metal ones;
- light weight, easy cutting, easy assembly and fastening technology allow us to talk about the maximum ease of installation;
- resistance to corrosion and putrefaction;
- smooth walls allow maximum free flow of air;
- excellent indicators of noise insulation, which is important;
- cute appearance, so if you can not hide the pipes behind walls or behind the ceiling, they will not spoil the picture;
- On the assortment of possible sizes, plastic pipes, of course, are inferior to metal, but in absolute Most cases of the existing choice will be enough to equip even the most complicated ventilation system. Plastic pipes are manufactured in lengthfrom 3 to 12 m, section from 16 to 1600 mm.
The main drawback of the material- inability to withstand high temperatures. PVC retains its original performance at temperatures not above + 800 ° C. If we talk about the usual home ventilation, then there is never such a temperature. If we are talking about the removal of hot air, for example, from the fireplace or in the production environment, then we will have to opt for a metallic analog.
A few opponents of plastic pipes reproach the products in low strength. It would be foolish to argue with the fact that the plastic is lower metal, but the ventilation pipes are usually mounted in a hidden way, so the impact on them from the outside is minimal, which means that less strength is not able to affect in any way durability.
№4. Corrugated ventilation pipes
Ventilation pipes can be divided into two large groups:
The first hold the form given to them in the factory, the second due to the presence of numerous ribs can take virtually any shape. Naturally, the installation process is much easier, because there is no need to use all kinds of connecting elements, but not everything is so simple.
The main advantages of corrugated ventilationpipes include:
- flexibility and elasticity. The product can be bent at any angle, to give it the desired shape, and this is an invaluable quality when it comes to installing ventilation in difficult areas;
- simplicity in installation;
- there is no need to use tees, adapters and other auxiliary elements.
To build the whole ventilation system only from corrugated pipes does not make sense. Of these, only those parts of the air ducts are equipped, where when using rigid pipes, too many turns and connections would have to be made. Everyone knows that the more knees, the worse air will pass, but a smooth bend in terms of aerodynamics is much better than turning at an angle, so that out of two evils choose a corrugated pipe.
Why corrugationuse only on short complex segments? Because she has a lotminuses:
- The ribbed surface worsens the air flow, slowing it down and reducing the efficiency of the ventilation. If in short areas this is not particularly noticeable, then on long the effect will be impressive;
- the appearance of vibrations and noise with a stably strong airflow;
- difficulty in securing.
The fact that the corrugation is not used on long sections is also confirmed by manufacturers who do not produce connecting elements for this type of pipe.
Corrugated pipes can be:
- aluminum, more precisely, made of a multilayer aluminum foil, they are slightly heavier than plastic, are more prone to condensation, but carry higher temperatures;
- plastic pipeis produced on the basis of polymers that are reinforced with aluminum. Such products are easier, less noisy, but will not endure high temperatures.
№5. Ventilation from sewer pipes: is it possible or not?
A domestic man has a thirst for economy, probably in the blood. One day someone noticed that the sewer and ventilation pipes are made from the same PVC, except that the air ducts cost several times more expensive. And since the products are the same, so why pay more? You can also fit the sewer pipes for air removal? Or is it still impossible?
From the use of plastic sewer pipes in the ventilation system, two factors usually keep:
- discrepancy between the diameters of ventilation and sewer pipes;
- there is information that the plastic used in the sewer pipes emits harmful substances.
Indeed, the sewage and ventilation pipes do not coincide in diameter. Difficulties can be avoided whenarrangement of ventilation from scratch.If immediately everywhere lay the ventilation pipe from the sewer pipes, then there will be no problems. Difficulties arise when it is necessary to connect the ventilation corrugation to such an air duct. It will also be difficult to expand the existing ventilation, which is made of conventional ventilation pipes, with the help of a piece of sewage pipe. But folk craftsmen also find a way out, tightly connecting segments of different-sized pipes with scotch tape. They believe that a 10 mm narrowing will not affect the efficiency of ventilation in any way.
The rules for constructing a ventilation system say that it is not recommended to switch to a different pipe diameter, but a smooth transition, without a so-called " "Steps". Provide it is quite difficult.
As for the theory of the toxicity of plastic, there is no reasoned evidence. However, even the most cautious in this regard, people boldly use sewerage for the organization of exhaust ventilation.
When choosing sewer pipes for building an air duct, remember that in this case, concealed installation is a necessity.
№6. Form and mode of production
Ventilation pipes in the form are:
- round and oval, they are easier to manufacture, differ in the best aerodynamics, are used more often in industrial buildings;
- square and rectangularare more often used in houses and apartments, as they are easier to assemble, and they use space more rationally. If the ventilation ducts are not closed, rectangular pipes in the color of the walls will be minimally evident. Negative - the worst figures for aerodynamics.
Round pipes arespiral and straight, square - only stitches. Spiral pipes are considered more rigid, but they are more expensive.
The pipes are attached with a step of 1-2 m, if you make the distance more, you may encounter sagging and a malfunction of the ventilation system. Keep in mind that with a significant temperature difference inside the duct and outside, condensation may form. For example, in winter, heated air is expelled through the ventilation duct, and if it passes through an unheated attic, condensation will appear on the walls, which, under constant influence, reduces the system's longevity. The way out is to insulate the ventilation pipes yourself or buy already insulated products.
№7. What diameter / pipe size will be needed?
Calculating ventilation is not an easy task. There are programs where you can drop all the initial data, and then get the recommended values for air exchange and duct size. There are specialists who will perform the calculation taking into account all the features of the premises of the house. The general principle of calculation is as follows.
First you need to find the amount of air, which should fall into the house and be deduced from it for an hour. Theoretically, the volume of incoming air = the volume of extracted air. How much air should go in and out to make us comfortable? In the normative documents everything is already counted.
According to SNIP 31-02-2001, air exchange for living quarters is equal to the volume of the room, i.е. for 1 hour the air should be fully refreshed once. For the kitchen, this figure is not less than 60 m3 / hour, for a bathroom - 25 m3 / hour. The volume of the room is easy to calculate.
The design standards of ABOK 2.1-2008 refer to the following air exchange standards.
Sometimes these norms give slightly different meanings, it is better to take into account what is greater. For the correct calculation it is necessary to arm the house plan, where the parameters of each room are indicated. It is convenient to do everything in the form of a table.
From each pair of numbers we choose the larger and summarize them. In the example, the total air exchange is 430 m3 / h. In the living rooms will need to organize the influx and extract, and in the kitchen and in the bathroom - only the hood. Fresh air there will come from neighboring rooms.
Further, when calculating,how the air will be vented, naturally or compulsorily. With the natural method, the speed of the air flow inside the duct will be no more than 1 m / s, with the forced speed - up to 5 m / s, in branches - up to 3 m / s.
Cross-section of the channelcount according to the formula S = L / (V · 3600) m2, where L is the air exchange, and V is the flow velocity. You can also use a special diagram. In this case, no fans can not do without. If we take the flow rate as 3 m / s, we get S 398 m2, or 398 cm2. It is possible to organize ventilation with one duct 200 * 200 mm, two 170 * 170, or three 150 * 150. This is all so that you understand the general scheme of calculation. It is more reliable, of course, to turn to specialists.
To the arrangement of ventilation many are too dismissive. If you do not want to later face the problems of the microclimate, break down walls and ceilings or mount the pipes for a fine finish, it is better to think everything over beforehand.