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To chicks or steers aboutthe expectations of the livestock breeder were true, it was not enough to get the first attracted animals. It is necessary that the breeds of cows selected for the farm should be adapted to the climate in a particular locality and to be raised in a private estate.
Descriptions and photos of the breeds of cows most in demand and popular in Russia and neighboring countries will help determine the choice and learn more about the existing species.
All breeds of cows, of which there are several hundred in the world, are divided into three types: meat, dairy, and meat and dairy. Russian variety is much smaller. The number of breeds found in the country is limited to seven dozens, with most of them being dairy breeds of cows. Such a choice has developed historically. Getting good weight gain from meat animals was hindered by a short summer in many regions and a cold winter, which deprived the cows of the juicy food they needed. The cost of keeping animals during the cold season made products much more expensive than other early types of meat.
Although today dairy breeds of cows in Russia are still popular and simply necessary, many farms, using foreign experience and their own experience, began raising modern meat animals.
Dutch breed of dairy cows
Among dairy-type animals, a cow of the Dutch breed, on the one hand, can be considered practically the ancestors of the direction, and on the other, its best representatives.
Cows and bulls from Holland were the ancestors of such famous breeds in Russia as Kholmogory, black-and-white. And now animals are actively used in breeding and selection work in many countries of the world.
Dairy cows are extremely popular in Europe, and over the past century, due to unceasing breeding, the productivity of animals has increased significantly. Dutch black and white cows have become more compact, muscular and resilient.
For a calendar year, a buren gives up to 4.5 thousand liters of excellent milk containing up to 4% of fats.
Representatives of this breed of cows quickly ripen, adult bulls can reach a weight of 1200 kg, and cows - 800 kg. Calves are born with a mass of about 35–40 kg, but every day they become harder, increasing to 800–1200 grams.
Simmental cow breed
Switzerland has become home to not one of the cow breeds, which is not surprising, given the wonderful natural conditions of this country, the abundance of juicy alpine herbs and a fairly mild climate. The meat and dairy breed of cows, called Simmental, perfectly got accustomed not only on the fat Swiss slopes, but also in the Russian conditions.
Simmental cows are quite unpretentious, easily adapt to different types of feed and therefore can easily be kept in private backyards. Animals have good milk yields, giving on average up to five thousand liters per year, and excellent milk quality, the fat content of which is close to 4%.Burenokh record holders have even 12 thousand liters. Milk productivity is not the only plus breed of cows. Being versatile, animals provide the owner with good lean meat.
The weight of an adult well-fed cow is about 600 kg, and the bulls - more than 800 kg.
In Russia, Simmental cows can be found in the southern regions, for example, in the Chernozem region, in the Saratov and Rostov regions.
Ayshir Cow Breed
A dairy cow breed from Scotland has an enviable endurance and excellent productivity. Not possessing such an outstanding weight, as many of its modern relatives, the red-motley Ayshir cows consistently give more than 5 thousand liters of milk with fat content up to 4.2% per year. Acclimatization is better in regions with a temperate climate, where animals will not be subjected to exhausting summer heat.
The distinctive feature of this breed is quite large lyre-like horns, even in females. The animals have a broad chest, wide-spread straight legs and a slender short neck. A harmonious physique with a slightly pronounced musculature immediately gives out a milky orientation of the breed. Animals are ripening and can give offspring already at the age of two.
Jayser breed of cows
Another dairy breed of cows from the UK is considered one of the oldest, but has not lost its relevance over the long years of its existence. These are Jersey cows, famous not so much for their abundant milk yields as for their milk fat, reaching up to 7%.This quality of the product initially had a negative impact on the distribution of animals in the world. British lawmakers have banned the export of cows from the country, so as not to mix the breed with others. But gradually the severity of the ban weakened, and animals appeared in farms of neighboring and distant states.
The distribution of this breed of cows was facilitated by its unpretentiousness and successful acclimatization in a variety of conditions, including arid areas and tropics. Cows are distinguished by light bones, a small head, a long body and a large calyx udder. The color of animals is usually brownish or brown. Red and white markings of different shades are allowed.
The weight of an adult bull does not exceed 700 kg, females are 150–200 kg lighter. Jersey cows are not bred for meat.
Holstein breed of cows
Dairy Holstein cows were not obtained in Europe, as it may seem, judging by the name of the breed, but in the New World. Breeders in the USA and Canada took the black-and-variegated variety of Dutch animals as a basis and for a hundred years have greatly changed it, making it the most common in the world.
The characteristics of the Holstein breed of cows include the average annual yield of about 7–8 thousand liters of milk, a relatively low fat content of 3.7%.At the same time, animals differ in high rates of milk yield up to 3.5 liters per minute.
Modern Holsteins are large bulls growing up to 1200 kg and cows weighing up to 700 kg. Representatives of the dairy breed of cows have a large long body, deep chest and a strong straight back.
Among the dairy cows in Russia, Holstein occupy one of the leading places, which is facilitated by their own breeding farms, which supply excellent healthy livestock that can meet any expectations of the farmer or the owner of the private farmstead.
Schwyz breed of cows
Meat and dairy high-yield Schwyz breed of cows obtained in Switzerland. These animals are predominantly brown in color, with thin skin and guta short wool. The torso of tall, large bulls and cows is long, the back is even and strong. The characteristics of the breed include a wide chest, a short, tight neck and a short head with a straight profile and small dark horns. Adult cows grow up to 600 kg, the weight of bulls can reach up to 950 kg.
Schwyz breed cows are distinguished by excellent health, fast acclimatization and early maturity. However, proper results from animals can be achieved only with appropriate care and well-chosen diet. From the cattle receive meat of good quality and up to 5 thousand liters of milk per year.
Black-and-white breed of cows
Dutch cows and local animals became the ancestors of the black-and-white variety bred in the Soviet Union. Dairy cows are widely distributed throughout Russia and in the number of livestock are second only to representatives of the red steppe breed and Simmental cows. Due to the popularity of the breed in the country, there are several types of black-and-white cows with a common origin, but adapted to different conditions of habitation and maintenance. So, for example, the Ural Burenka are very different from the Far Eastern tribeswomen, and the Central Russian cows are grazing in the southern regions of Russia.
The black-and-white breed of cows is distinguished by high milk productivity, but the meat qualities of animals are not in last place. As with all closely related species with Dutch roots, the black-and-white animal of domestic breeding is inherent:
- is a long body;
- wide back;
- rather large sizes.
Record milk yield of black-and-white cows can reach 18 thousand liters, but the average buren for a year gives more than 6 thousand liters of milk with an average fat content of about 3.5%.
Today, Russian breeders are trying to get animals to increase productivity and get fatter, demanded by the consumer product.
Kholmogory breed of cows
Among the dairy breeds of Russia, cows of the Kholmogory variety are known to practically everyone who is at least familiar with animal husbandry. Domestic Kholmogory breed of cows was obtained in conditions that are not too favorable to raising cattle. However, Arkhangelsk breeders managed to create a variety not only adapted to the harsh conditions, but also characterized by excellent milk yield and decent fat content of milk, reaching 4%.
On average, a Kholmogory Burenka, well cared for and properly fed, produces more than 6 thousand liters of food per year. At the same time, adult females weigh about 550 kg, and bulls grow to 800–950 kg. The animals of this breed have strong bones, well developed muscles, medium chest width and a wide ass. About the dairy orientation of cows says volumetric udder.
Yaroslavl breed of cows
The cows of the Yaroslavl breed, considered one of the best among domestic dairy varieties, are distinguished by:
- mostly black color;
- amazing ability to adapt to a variety of living conditions;
- excellent production performance.
In comparison with meat and dairy and, moreover, meat relatives, Yaroslavl cows cannot strike with well-developed muscles. They are angular and rather small. Dairy cows have a maximum weight of only 500 kg, and bulls grow to 800 kg. At the same time, the milk of cows of the Yaroslavl breed can have a fat content higher than 4.5%, which is an excellent indicator for Russian animals.
Kostroma breed of cows
The meat and dairy breed of cows that emerged in the nineteenth century became a continuer of the lines of Yaroslavl, Schwyz and Algaus cows. In the Soviet Union, the Kostroma breed of cows was registered and adopted for breeding in 1945.These are large, mostly gray-brown animals, whose strong constitution and weight, in bulls up to 1200, and in females up to 800 kg, immediately indicate the possibility of getting not only excellent milk, but also meat.
The average annual milk yield is 4.5–6 thousand liters with a fat content of about 4%.Cows bring quality offspring, perfectly adapt to different feeds and conditions of detention.
Today, animals of this breed can be seen in farms in many regions of the middle part of Russia, as well as in the Republic of Belarus.
Red steppe breed of cows
For the southern regions of the country, animals are needed that easily tolerate not only hot dry summers, but also keeping on pastures not too rich in fresh grass. This breed was the red steppe variety, rightfully occupying the second place in popularity in large farms and small private farmsteads.
The red steppe breed of cows can be recognized by its characteristic bright color, varying from light to dark red. In some cases, the cows have white markings, often grouped on the lower part of the body, on the limbs or on the head. The dairy purpose of animals is indicated by their relatively small weight, up to 550 kg in cows, and also the development of musculature is not very good.
For the year, a Burenka usually gives from 4 to 6 thousand liters of milk, and the record holders are almost twice as high as this level. Today, work is underway to increase the milk fat content of cows of the red steppe breed, as well as to improve their constitution.
Hereford breed of cows
Hereford breed of cattle can be attributed to meat breeds found in Russia. A characteristic feature of this breed of cows:
- amazing for powerful animals unpretentiousness;
- rapid growth;
- excellent consumer properties of juicy meat with small fat layers.
The Hereford breed of cows is one of the most popular in the world and is valued, among other things, for a calm, controlled disposition, quick acclimatization and the ability to consume a wide variety of food.
The weight of large, wide-breasted and straight-backed cows reaches 650 kg, bulls grow up to 1000 kg.
Belgian Blue Cow
Work began on producing Belgian blue cows in the 18th century in Belgium. Then it was assumed that animals would be universal and, along with meat, would provide owners with high-quality milk. But since the century before last, to improve the meat qualities of the cows, they were regularly crossed with the bulls of the Charolais breed. From the middle of the last century, a new type of animal was formed, in which a spontaneous mutation was fixed, causing an accelerated growth of musculature.
With insufficiently massive bones, a long body and short legs, the cows reach a weight of 1000 kg, and bulls are one and a half times more massive.
Color, as is clear from the name of the Belgian blue cow, mostly gray, almost white, brown. Spots of various shades and sizes are possible.
Excessively developed muscles of the backside do not allow the cow to resolve on its own from the burden, in young animals after 6 weeks of age, when the formation of muscles begins, problems with limbs are possible. Therefore, the farmer needs to take into account these features of the breed of cows and be ready to solve them.