All those who believe that the warm floor - a modern invention, are badly mistaken. This idea occurred to the ancient Romans, who in this way successfully heat their baths - ancient baths. Since then have passed the century, the design has undergone significant changes, and there are new technologies.
Today, a user may select from different options, the basic difference in the systems is the type of coolant. To understand what underfloor heating is better - water or electric, you need to learn about the features of the device, installation and operation of heating systems.
The final decision on the organization floor heating is driven by the budget of the upcoming repairs, as well as the type of room and operating conditions. Answers to all these questions can be found in our article.
The content of the article:
All of the water systems
- The principle of operation and design features
- The nuances of the system installation
- Why choose a water floor
What you need to know about electric systems
- The principle of operation of electric warm floor
- Especially electrical arrangement
- Pros and cons of electric floor
- Comparative evaluation of both systems
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
All of the water systems
Before selecting one of the two sought-after system should be acquainted with the peculiarities of each.
The principle of operation and design features
Underfloor heating water type settling very simple. Under outdoor topcoat in the form of a closed loop stacked pipes that run coolant. Depending on the species of the heating system may be an antifreeze solution or water, etc.
Considering that the length of such a circuit is usually large enough must be present a circulation pump.
It will provide the necessary liquid circulation rate. two methods may be used to heat coolant.
option №1. Preparation of hot water from the centralized system. We must understand that it can be done only after obtaining authorization from the company supplying the heat, with the installation of additional equipment. For illegal connection imposed heavy fines and dismantle.
Warm water floor heating system is laid under the floor heating circuit liquid. It is preferable to choose for mounting plastic tube
In practice, this option is rarely used. In addition, let us assume it is only in the ground floors of apartment buildings due to the impressive weight floor screed, which is not calculated overlap, and because of the likelihood of leaks and too costly, complex circuit emergency call situations.
variant №2. Connecting the system to the boiler. Here too there are subtleties. Floor construction regulations prohibit heating above 30 ° C, thus the coolant temperature can not be above 35 ° C.
Standard fluid boilers heated to higher temperatures, to an average 65-95ºS. Therefore, it requires additional equipment to reduce the temperature of the coolant.
For this purpose, a so-called mixing unit, wherein the hot liquid is mixed with cold coming from the return pipe.
An exception may be considered condensing boilers. These devices are able to heat the heating medium to small values that are ideal for floor heating. Installation of the mixing unit in this case is not required.
Heat transfer fluid for the water the floor more often heats up the boiler. In this case, the need to install additional equipment - mixing unit. Here razogretaja liquid is mixed with the cool "return line", otherwise the floor will overheat (+)
For comfortable operation of the water floor provided temperature regulatorIt works in conjunction with temperature sensors. Recent placed in a heated room at a certain height. Input from the information analyzed thermostat, which in turn controls the amount of coolant heating.
A more convenient option - equipped with thermostatic controls each of the collector inputs.
The nuances of the system installation
Sex water type can be equipped in several ways. Each of them is rather complicated and expensive.
option №1. The most common method - use screed. In this case, it is assumed that the first on the leveled foundation insulation installed. This is a required moment when ignoring some of the heat will go down, heating basement.
Thus, the payment for heating will be higher than necessary. The insulation thickness is calculated individually for each room.
Be sure to use additional insulation around the room. Here, it puts a damper tape or insulation tape. This is to prevent heat loss through walls and prevent the occurrence of cracks due to thermal expansion.
Traditional water floor installation technology involves his laying in mortar so-called "wet" method. About as a result should look like "pie" warm floor ()
The pipes are laid directly on the insulation. Several mounting options: on the reinforcing grid tie for fastening tapes on special substrate. Further carried filling solution. It is concrete, to which are added additives to enhance thermal conductivity.
The thickness of the screed must be such that over the tubes is not less than 3 cm composition. Further, it takes time to the concrete dried out and scored strength. On average, it is not less than 28 days. The use of underfloor heating during this time is prohibited.
Among the shortcomings of this method of system arrangement can identify the most important:
- great massWhich gives a significant load on the bearing;
- low maintainability - in the case of a leak will have to dismantle the floor covering, split tie;
- considerable height - on average, taking into account the insulation of the water floor has a height of about 9-10 cm, height takes much space.
variant №2. The so-called grazing system. In this case, the pipes are laid without the use of screed. Special plates are used to form the structure. They can be made of polystyrene or wood.
Grooves are formed on the sheets, which are conveniently laid in the pipe. Considering that the material have a low thermal conductivity, cookers necessarily supplemented by metal elements.
Water floor plank type is easier to install, especially if you use plastic mats for laying pipes. They must be equipped with metal elements to increase the thermal conductivity of the base
Finish may be laid directly on wooden sheets. In the case of polystyrene need improvement more solid base for finishing.
Such a mounting method is less laborious and expensive. An additional plus - grazing system can stacked on hardwood floorsBecause its weight is small. In general, the installation of water heater is quite complicated in execution.
Why choose a water floor
In general, warm floor - a very efficient way of heating the home. The distribution of temperature in this heating is very beneficial to humans. The air is heated uniformly, wherein the maximum warm zone is formed, at the head in the lower part of the room - slightly cooler.
Specific use of point heaters convective flows that carry dust and microorganisms lacking.
Water can be used as flooring or as additional main heat source. For a relatively warm regions preferred the second option. For areas with a harsh climate is the best choice - the first. The main thing - pre calculate systemCorrectly determine the diameter of pipes and stacking step.
In addition to high efficiency and it allows you to save considerably on heating. If the boiler lay two heating circuits, the liquid is heated by first going to the radiators.
One of the best options for the use of underfloor heating, as there are also radiators and underfloor water circuit. This is the best option arrangement of heating in cold regions
After it has cooled down a bit, it is served in a warm floor, where it cools further. After that coolant is sent to the boiler. As a result, a user receives the maximum heating of the heat out. The room will be heated quickly and efficiently.
Besides the indisputable benefits of water have sex and disadvantages. The most important - the high cost of equipping the system.
The cost of completing high installation cost, taking into account all its complexity, too. However, these costs are fully paid off during use. Water floors effective, their efficiency is rather high. All this makes their operating costs minimal.
In fairness it should be noted that the cost of heating the coolant is used depends on the type of boiler. Minimum costs for the device will be running on gas.
If there is a need to repair, it will be easier to work with grazing systems. Will dismantle the floor enough, then it will have access to the pipes. In this case, one can speak of a relatively inexpensive and easy job.
In case of a tie the repair is likely to prove impossible. For its implementation will have to dismantle the actual screed, which is very expensive and time consuming. It will be easier to put the new system.
What you need to know about electric systems
Under the common name "electric field" hides multiple systems. They differ significantly on the basis of the work, performance characteristics, cost, etc.
The principle of operation of electric warm floor
There are two main varieties of the system, both of which are used for their work electricity.
option №1. Infrared heating. In this case, heating of rooms is due to the IR-waves that emits laid under the floor covering emitter. This can be IR flexible film coated with carbon or carbon rods, mounted in the form of mats. In both cases, the operating principle is the same.
The heater of the film type is very easy to install and use. If necessary, it can be removed and put in a different place. The film can be used not only on the floor but also on the walls and even the ceiling
When through a carbon emitter current passes, it generates infrared wavelength range. They are absolutely safe for living beings and they felt as heat.
Waves extend to dense barriers, in which case it will be a floor covering, and are accumulated therein. Gender warmed himself, then he begins to give up its heat to the surrounding air. This process takes place very quickly - literally in a few minutes.
mounted thermostats with mechanical or automatic controls for adjusting the degree of heating.
Types warm infrared systems:
- film heaters - the most easy to use and easy to install. They are laminated to polymer film carbon strip. The thickness of the heater - of the order of 3-5 mm. The winning feature - it can be mounted in a dry process, directly under the floor covering.
- carbon fiber rods look like a thick wire is attached to a plastic mat. They can be laid only "wet" method, that is, in the screed. But the cost of such heaters is 15-20% lower than the film.
It should be remembered that there is a likelihood of damage to the film, so you need a solid coating.
Differences resistive systems of solid and twisted pair cables are explained by their structure. The presence of the second core greatly reduces electromagnetic radiation and allows not looped system, which greatly facilitates the installation of (+)
variant №2. Cable systems. They, too, are varied. First of all, the difference lies in the type of heating cable. In all cases, it is a resistive wire. Its main feature - the maximum amount of heat generated by passing electricity through it.
Everything for sex involve one of two types of cable:
- single core. This is the cheapest option, but its use is somewhat uncomfortable. He has only one a heating wire, which requires the installation connections start and end of the wire. In addition, the appliance is in operation "gives" a sufficiently large dose of electromagnetic radiation, which can adversely affect the well-being of people nearby.
- sturdy. Characterized by a second cable feeder conductors. This allows you to mount it with great comfort. Connect the two ends of the heating segment is not required, which can significantly reduce the consumption of the cable. In addition, it emits much less, it is a significant advantage.
Available in both types of heaters or as a cable, or in the form of mats. In the latter case, the mesh cloth on which is mounted a resistive wire.
The most budget option for arranging floor heating - resistive cable. However, during installation it will have to tinker. The wire is laid out on the selected pattern and secured to the ground at short intervals. This is a very long and laborious
Mats much easier to stack, so you should choose this option. At a cost of a single cable is cheaper by about 15-20%.
The total "disaster" resistive heaters - length dependence of the amount of heat generated. It is important to calculate the length of the heating filament, otherwise it will burn out. A better kind of resistive heater - a self-regulating cable.
In its present design special sensitive film matrix. It is laid between the two cores. By lowering the dielectric constant of the film temperature starts to increase with an increase - decrease.
As a result, the cable is heated only when cooled and turned off when excessive heat. Such heaters can be operated without connecting the thermostat, as they themselves determine the need for and duration of heating.
Favorable difference of intelligent systems is economical. In addition, their use makes it possible to move the furniture after a warm floor installation. This resistive systems do not allow as large objects under the cable does not fit.
Otherwise it is overheating and equipment failure. Significant disadvantages of self-regulating cable - gradual utrachivanie matrix of their properties and high cost.
For more information about choosing an electric floor heating is presented in this article.
Especially electrical arrangement
As already mentioned, the "dry" method of assembly only film floor, the other species are laid in mortar. The main elements of the heating of the "pie".
First of all, it is leveled base - elevation changes should be minimal. On top of the basics necessarily fit insulation. It is desirable to use a metallised material to reflect thermal radiation.
Resistive Cable afraid of overheating, so all systems are collected based on it, should be protected from it. In the diagram, it is clear that a large furniture and appliances cable system does not fit (+)
Foil is not worth taking, it will collapse very quickly. Be sure to fit and tape sealant along the walls. Further mounted heaters.
The most complex for stacking option - bulk cable. It must be put on a fairly short distance from each other and securely fasten each wire, which is very time-consuming. Simply spread a film or mats.
You should know that resistance cables and film are afraid of overheating, so they are placed only where there is no bulky furniture or plumbing will be installed. Laying heaters is carried out in strict accordance with the instructions given by the manufacturer.
The ends of the wires connected to the thermostat, having got into the back box. You can enjoy a warm floor without installing the thermostat, but then it will not be effective, will overrun electricity and uncomfortable room temperature.
After the start of the test, check the correct working of the system, start laying the screed. Usually it is put on the reinforcing mesh. After drying screeds proceed to finishing work.
With film heaters act differently. You can put the tile adhesive is applied directly on top of the film, or to collect the base of plywood or a similar material under the topcoat.
Pros and cons of electric floor
Like their counterparts electric water floors provide a quick and very uniform heating of the room with the best in terms of the temperature distribution of physicians. Carrying dust convection currents here are also absent. The air loses its moisture due to the lack of radiators.
Electrical system very well to adjust, allowing you to maximize the efficiency of their use and get a comfortable room temperature.
Self-regulating cable resistance changes depending on the ambient temperature. It fully protects it from overheating, and provides an opportunity to maintain a comfortable temperature (+)
Electric floor can be used as an additional or primary heating system. Power of heaters in both cases will be different, but they coped well with the task.
Operation of the electrical system does not involve any maintenance. When properly conducted calculations, installation and use of the service life of such equipment is at least 30 years.
Additional equipment for electrical floor is not required. While the water, for example, require the installation of the heating boiler.
The only requirement - availability of sufficient power wiring, otherwise the system will not be able to function normally. Of significant deficiencies should be noted high operational costs.
Mats with resistive cable is very easy to install. They just spread out on the ground intended for them, and then fixed and connected to a common scheme
For all its efficiency heaters run on electricity, which every year only increases its value. Another drawback - the need to ensure electrical safety. This is especially true for areas where humidity is increased.
It is highly desirable to provide an efficient grounding and the use of RCDs. For this reason, optimal installation professionals trust.
Comparative evaluation of both systems
simple answer, what type of floor heating is better, you can not.
You can only make a few general conclusions:
- The cost of everything - accessories and installation systems about the same. It all depends on the type and features of the operating system. In some cases, the electric field can win due to lower costs for parts.
- cost of operation for water systems is much lower than for electrical. Especially in the case where the heat transfer fluid is heated gas boiler.
- design constraints. The water system is not used in the regeneration of high-rise buildings.
- Dependence on power supply - electrical systems are dependent on the presence / absence of electricity, water will work regardless of this.
- repairability. Cheaper and easier to repair electrical systems. Water, except for grazing options to repair difficult and expensive.
In general, both types of floor heating worked well. They are uniformly and quickly heated room, robust, with sound operation serve for decades.
When calculating the costs for the installation of a system it must be remembered that prior to installation of water floor in the first floor of an apartment building will need to get permission. This means additional costs for the collection of documents.
The choice of the type of heating system and affects embodiment flooring detail in articles:
- Which to choose a warm floor under the laminate: a comparative analysis of the best options
- What a warm floor under the tile is better: the pros and cons of different solutions + overview of the best manufacturers
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Which of the electric versions sexes prefer:
water floor heating system - how it works:
Compare water and electrical floor:
Underfloor heating both electrical and water type are equally well heated room. The issue of choice is often a purely economic, which one is cheaper.
For apartment buildings, it is easier and cheaper to install one of the electric varieties. However, exploitation will be more expensive. For private the best option - a water floor. Installation will result in a large amount, but the subsequent operation will pay for these investments quickly enough.
Have experience everything warm floor? Please tell the readers what version of the system you choose and why. Comment publication, participate in discussions and ask questions. the feedback unit is located below.