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It would seem that in the XXI century science has to be all known plant world. However, numerous types of philodendrons still continue to amaze scientists, becoming the cause of their controversy and even revision of the accepted classification of plants.
The reason lies in the rare diversity and variability of the indigenous inhabitants of the tropical regions of South America, Oceania and Southeast Asia. Today, botanists have almost a thousand varieties of philodendrons. They differ from each other in size and shape of leaves, lifestyle, coloring and other qualities. It is not surprising that lovers of domestic plants with pleasure "tame" the inhabitants of the humid tropics. Descriptions and photos of the most common types of philodendron when growing a house will help to navigate more easily in their colorful kingdom.
Philodendron golden-black, or Andre Philodendron( P. melanochrysum)
In the foothills of the Colombian Andes in nature there is a golden-black philodendron with large oblong-heart-shaped leaves and powerful, but brittle stems, densely decorated with air roots. This type of philodendron is a typical liana, climbing up the top tiers of the rainforest in the open air. The culture attracted the lovers of exotic plants with the size and original color of the foliage. The leaf plate has an average length of 60 cm. Adult leaves are dark green, with a velvety shimmer and noticeable, almost white veins. The young foliage has a brownish-copper shade and petioles of the same color.
In the nineteenth century, botanists received a variety of philodendron golden-black Black Gold with almost black adult leaves that retain a bronze or golden edging.
Philodendron Giant( P. giganteum)
The largest representative of the genus of philodendrons is considered to be the giant philodendron, originally from the islands of the Caribbean and several regions of South America. Dwelling under the canopy of a tropical forest, these plants reach a height of 4–5 meters, and their rounded heart-shaped leaves can grow up to 90 cm in length.
No wonder that such a remarkable look of philodendron was discovered in the middle of the XIX century, and today it adorns the best botanicalgardens and greenhouses of the world.
Philodendron wart( P. verrucosum)
Among its fellows, the warty philodendron stands out for its versatility and unique leaf appearance. If other types of philodendrons rarely change their habits and are either epiphytic or terrestrial plants, then this plant easily adapts to any conditions. It can be found under the canopy of trees and on them. Climbing vines easily rooted in the ground and find food on the branches.
The decoration of a plant is its patterned heart-shaped leaves. And the purple or brownish ornament formed by the green veins is not on the front, but on the back side. A slightly pressed sheet plate 15–20 cm long is supported on a long petiole covered with a greenish pile.
Philodendron Guitar-like( P. panduriforme)
As they mature, an amazing metamorphosis occurs with the leaves of many kinds of philodendron. From lanceolate or heart-shaped, they turn into pinnate, palmate or lobed. No exception - philodendron guitar-like.
This liana, which grows in nature to 4 - 6 meters, is almost two times less in pot culture. But it does not lose the ability to transform. And adult plants amaze with bizarre three-blade leaves, which reminded botanists of the appearance of an ancient Greek musical instrument, in honor of which this kind of philodendron was named.
Sometimes young plants of the guitar-like philodendron are confused with a biconiferous philodendron, but when these large indoor species mature, the difference between them becomes obvious even to a non-specialist.
Philodendron biconseous or Sello( P. bipinnatifidum)
This variety has many names, and it can serve as an excellent illustration of the story of decades-long confusion in the classification of philodendrons. Most often, flower growers know the plant under the names of philodendron, double-peristonadrezny, Sello or bicopypus.
If the name of the philodendron Sello is given in honor of the famous flora researcher and naturalist, then other names are a tribute to the unusual form of bizarrely jagged multi-leaf leaves reaching a length of 40–70 cm.
Indigenous people use aerial roots to make homemade ropes. Leaves and petioles provide healing, as the residents believe, juice.
Botanists who have studied the philodendron Cello noticed that during flowering the temperature around the anthers inexplicably increased by almost 13 ° C.As a result of this phenomenon, the sweet-honey smell is greatly enhanced, which literally attracts insect pollinators to the plant. The juicy berries of Philodendron biconopular ripening on the place of withered cobs are edible.
Philodendron reddish or reddening( P. erubescens)
Another creeper in the constellation of philodendron species for home cultivation is reddening philodendron, which has presented to growers a lot of varieties with original, including variegated, heart-shaped or pointy-ovate forms.
The name of the plant was given reddish petioles, internodes, and in some cases the leaf plates of this climbing, almost unbranching liana.
Having noticed an unusual shade for other philodendrons, breeders have at the moment received a lot of interesting varieties with pinkish, picture-green, densely purple and marbled leaves.
In addition to increased decorativeness, cultural varieties of philodendron blushing have more compact dimensions and better adaptability to room conditions.
Philodendron Arrowhead( P. sagittifolium)
This species of philodendron first came to the attention of scientists in 1849, and since then, thanks to the elongated leaves and unpretentiousness, a native of many parts of Central America has become a welcome guest of greenhouses and botanical gardens.
For home cultivation, philodendron arrowhead is too large, because its leaves can reach a length of 70 cm and petioles - 1 meter.
Philodendron scaly-carrying( P. squamiferum)
The peculiarity of this large liana with bizarrely dissected 5-lobed leaves is long petioles covered with reddish nap. Obviously, thanks to this, the scale-carrying philodendron got its name.
Leaves, like all philodendrons, first, whole, three-, and then five-lobed in length can grow up to 30 cm. Aerial roots help the plant to climb steep surfaces and hold on to any suitable supports.
Philodendron caplenosus( P. guttiferum)
This South American form of philodendron was described and studied in the first half of the last century. Like many of its collect, the capodelous philodendron can settle both on the ground and on the branches, and in a land form this liana is almost two times smaller and more modest than a similar epiphyte.
The elongated, pointed leaves on short stalks on the ground do not exceed 15 cm in length, and with vertical growth they grow to 20–30 cm in length.
Philodendron graceful( P. elegans)
When looking at a philodendron, a graceful inexperienced florist can confuse a plant with a monster or a philodendron Sello. However, with a general similarity, these cultures have many differences.40–70 centimeter leaves of a philodendron of an elegant artfully cut along each veinlet into narrow, linear lobes.
Philodendron ivy-like( P. hederaceum)
One of the most small-leaved, miniature, and popular among gardeners of types of philodendron can be considered the most multi-valued. The imitation-shaped philodendron at different times, and sometimes even today is referred to as a philodendron lazing, brilliant, clinging or pointed philodendron. No other species can “boast” of such a wide range of names. However, the plant does not hold human love!
Liana with wide-heart pointed leaves sitting on long flexible petioles is a favorite indoor culture. In popularity, a plant argues with a sindapus similar to it.
In nature, there are specimens with smooth dark green foliage, excellently withstand deep shadow. Today, at the disposal of indoor gardening lovers there are varieties not only of marble color with lemon and white spots. A variety of brilliant philodendron with completely yellow leaves is derived.
Philodendron lobed( P. laciniatum)
Among the plants with pinnate leaves, the lobed phylodendron, growing as an ampelous species or climbing liana, always attracts special attention. Bright decoration of the plant - fancy leaves up to 40 cm long, cut into uneven lobes.