Communication - is an integral part of the project of modern construction. Whether it is municipal property, designed for mass settlement, or private buildings for one family - the domestic water supply and sewerage are carried out taking into account the established rules and regulations.
The same requirements are valid for the business objects, as applicable to building structures for different purposes, the height of which is within 75 meters.
Agree, without the knowledge of building codes can not be a well-designed communication network. In this article, we gathered the basic requirements and standards on internal water supply and sewerage. This information is useful when organizing new utilities or reconstruction of old lines.
The content of the article:
General rules for water supply unit
- Internal network diagrams cold-water and hot water
- communications device is in a country house
- Construction of water supply networks
- Covert and overt laying of pipes
- Removal of air from the system
- Measuring water consumption
Construction of internal sewerage
- Norms and installation of lines
- Ventilated risers: calculation and installation
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
General rules for water supply unit
Supply of buildings (structures) with cold water runs from the central or local sources. In this case, the source of choice for the domestic water supply is based on the requirements of hygienic sanitation and fire regulations.
For business requirements added manufacturing technologies. In any case it takes into account the existing scheme external water supply.
Water systems are designed and constructed with a view of the source. For large objects, as a rule, prefer to choose a centralized source. In terms of local water intake is often used drives
Hot water (DHW) most often satisfied by the principle of closed draw-off when hot water is obtained by heat exchangers or water heaters.
Normative range of temperature of hot water for residential premises:
- + 60 ° C - bottom line;
- + 75 ° C - the top figure.
At the design stage can be provided with hot water supply device to supply the heat of the network - the principle of open water pumping.
In general, based on the target object, the device provides the following water systems:
- domestic hot;
- hot water;
- production purposes.
Fire water in most cases may be combined into a single system with the utility and drinking water (production), if any, in the composition of the object structure.
But the domestic hot water is forbidden to unite with the networks transporting water of a quality that does not meet drinking standards, according to SanPiN 18.104.22.1684.
Internal network diagrams cold-water and hot water
Internal HVS water pipes, hot water, or industrial fire organized taking into account the following inclusion circuit modules and elements:
- entries into the building;
- accounting system consumption;
- breeders highway;
- technological risers;
- technological carts;
- valves and fittings.
Based on the specific conditions of the location of residential buildings or technical installations is permissible in the organization chart of internal water storage tanks - accumulators.
Domestic water supply systems are arranged at sites for different purposes. Therefore, in each case has its own nuances. But the established rules and standards are required for any project
Should be provided in the circulation circuit points DHW (the period of absence thereof), if there is a need constantly to keep the temperature within the limits established norm within 60-75 ° C.
In this connection draw-smoking nodes directly to pipelines circulation system. The pressure loss in the circulation circuits not permitted for more than 10% of the pressure values at other sites.
hot water supply schemes satisfied in view of minimizing heat loss. There is a certain value insulation pipe. Rules also provides isolation of cold water pipes
The norm of the maximum permissible value water pressure in potable water pipe is 0.45 MPa (4.5 atm.) at the point of sanitary device, located on a level below all the other existing in the circuit.
The pressure at the points of plumbing fixtures arranged above the other, must match values of the passport of these devices. In the absence of the document guided by the lower limit - 0.2 MPa (2,0 atm.).
If the pressure exceeds the specified norm, it is necessary to provide for the installation of pressure reducer or similar devices that can reduce the water pressure to normal values.
These devices should provide the calculated pressure norm in static and dynamic modes of potable water pipe. It is also allowed to use the valves, equipped with a built-in flow regulators - water meters.
Materials taken under the installation and wiring of internal water supply systems, including valves, pipes, equipment must meet the requirements of sanitary and epidemiological norms, national standards and SNIP.
for drinking water lines is permitted to build and put into operation only upon passage of sanitary and epidemiological expertise, obtaining the relevant permits and certificates.
communications device is in a country house
Equipment country house communications on technological methods and principles is similar to the arrangement of a city apartment. The only difference is that the water system with water removal for private buildings should take into account the possibility of preservation.
This fact provides the design regardless of whether the building is connected to a centralized network or at the site for him arranged independent withdrawals and established a local point of cleaning sewage - septic tank or VOCs.
Water supply and sanitation - two interconnected communications systems. If the private house equipped with running water, it is absolutely necessary to arrange the sewer to drain the used water
Water and sewer lines branch entered the house and derived from it, laid with a slope. Slope aqueduct towards the water intake is needed for water drainage system at the time of preservation
Communications ensure the supply of water and discharge of waste, are laid and fixed to the finishing of the blister. In the example to fill a floor screed and gypsum sheathing device
Both systems are brought to the installation of plumbing fixtures, laid open or concealed in kitchens, bathrooms reciprocally, bathrooms and sanitary rooms
According to building codes outlets sewer pipes are connected to the risers. When connecting several devices to a single pipe to its diameter should be no smaller than the diameter of the connected discharge
For supplying water to the mixer shower stall vodorozetki installed at a height optimal for direct connection of the mixer
To the installation and the sink in the bathroom sink in the kitchen are supplied water pipes fitted with valves for the isolation devices in case of repair or replacement. At the entrance to the aqueduct in plumbing devices installed shutoff valves
Preparation of sanitary hot water and heating medium for the heating loop is carried heater installed in the insulated space of the attic
Water supply and sanitation of private homes
Input and output water pipe sewage
Laying tube before the finish
Eyeliner on both routes to the sanitary appliances
Connection to the sewer line
Vodorozetki for shower cabins
Connection with stopcock for connecting shell
Supply pipe and return from the cylinder
Construction of water supply networks
The process of constructing pipelines WAN / HVS should allow installation of check valves provided creation of more than one input at the inner portion of the water network.
The horizontal distance between the input water pipe diameter of 200 mm and an outlet sewer system (according to established standards) is not less than 1.5 m. If the input is made of a pipe with a diameter of more than 200 mm, the rate on the horizontal distance before the release of sewage increases to 3 m.
When mounting the stops must be put in places piping bends (horizontal and vertical axes), when mechanical stresses are not compensated circuit connection.
EXAMPLE create stops the pipeline section. Apply different design options for stops, but the goal is to install them one - to perceive the mechanical stresses from thermal deformation of pipes
The rules state that the breeders HVS / WAN lines for residential building projects mounted in the following areas:
- in the cellars;
- Underfloor - provided a removable cover;
- under the ceiling of non-residential premises;
- on the technical floor;
Passage in the wall of the building in the place of its intersection with the input pipeline do with a clearance of not less than 200 mm from the surface of the pipe to construction elements. After mounting hole sealed water- and gas-tight elastic material. This installation is provided under the dry soil. On wet soils, instead of putting sealing gaskets.
Covert and overt laying of pipes
Risers and hot water / cold-water inlets, metering devices, valves, control modules are placed in the communication shafts, in a specially provided for such purposes, technical cabinets.
Required to provide free access to the technical cabinets. Open laying of risers and wiring is permitted along the walls of kitchens, shower rooms, bathrooms, considering the placement of valves and control devices.
Latent aqueduct gasket portion mounted polypropylene tubes. Standards allow such installation in residential buildings and objects for other purposes
If you use water pipes of polymer, The gasket provides a hidden type. The exception is the line of sanitary facilities. But it prohibits secretly laid steel pipes with threaded connections without creating conditions for free access to these compounds.
According to the requirements, line laying is performed with a slope of not less than 2 mm per meter length. When appropriate justification this rate may be reduced to 1 mm.
Cold-water pipeline may be placed in a single channel with the DHW line. In this case, the cold-water line should be placed on the lower horizon and both pipes should be insulated
Cold-water pipe, calculated on a year-round operation, mounted within the premises, where the minimum temperature is + 2 ° C. If these conditions can not be created, then the installation is carried out with the protection of pipes from freezing - equip extra heating, for example, mounted heating cable.
Required thermal insulation conduit portions located in the areas of the short-term reduction in the temperature to 0 ° C and below. These same requirements relevant to the lines located at the entry door or elsewhere in contact with the outside air.
Removal of air from the system
Pipelines GVS scheme should provide for the installation of air vent and purger valve. Air Release device must be mounted in areas diluted at a maximum height relative to the whole circuit.
Allowed to use instead of the air vent water fittings are also mounted on the high-altitude areas. Drain device is mounted in the lower points of the circuit, if not provided for installation in the same low points of the water fittings.
On the water pipes of hot water standards provide for the installation of special devices, automatically diverting air from the system. Air arresters installed on the upper horizon scheme
The development of each project should include hot water production activities to compensate the strain of water pipes, which inevitably arise in the process of change in water temperature. Scheme hot water plumbing calculated velocity of the fluid is not higher than 1.5 m / s.
Design decisions should take into account the service life of pipes and details of hot / cold water supply schemes.
- at least 50 years - if the temperature conditions up to 20 ° C;
- at least 25 years - at temperature up to 75 ° C.
These standards take into account the hydraulic resistance, whose value must remain unchanged during these periods.
Measuring water consumption
Building, equipped with water pipes Cold-water / hot water, must be equipped with water measuring metering units. Measuring equipment is installed at the points of entry HVS / hot water in every building, apartment. The rules need to install counters at branches of pipelines, which are aimed at any non-residential attached premises.
Simple gauging device node into two pipeline. However, any scheme creating water meter units must be performed in accordance with the rules and standards
Lines for hot water with a temperature of 90 ° C to prescribed measuring apparatus mounted on the supply and circulation line. In this circulation conduit is further equipped with a check valve.
In the course of the movement in the area in front of the meter is required to include filters - mechanical or magnetic and mechanical. Installing filter elements should be taking into account permissible pressure loss of not more than 50%.
On entering the cold-water installation of water meters made in areas where open easy access, where It has an artificial or natural light, and the ambient temperature drops below 5 ° C.
Meanwhile, measurement devices hot / cold water use should be mounted in a single location. Mounting devices should provide easy access for reading the information.
Water meters installed on supports or brackets. Regulations require protection counters vibration and mechanical stress in the pipeline.
If there are no conditions of placement of meters indoors is allowed to put them outside the building, in special pits. In this case, the device should be designed to operate in a flooded state.
Water meters of class "A", which may be mounted not only in horizontal water pipe systems, but also on vertical and inclined
Rules allow for installation on vertical or sloping ground, if such a setting is valid for the device passport. For placement on vertical pipelines in residential areas is allowed to put counters from the group "A" class.
Circuit piping meters provides:
- turn on the tap on both sides of the device;
- the creation of straight sections tubes on both sides of the device;
- the creation of a bypass line - only for cold-water.
All installed meters, as well as shut-off valve (open) to be sealed.
Construction of internal sewerage
Based on the purpose of the building provides for the construction of domestic sewage:
- sanitary - collection and disposal of fluids domestic nature coming from sanitary appliances (sinks, toilets, bathtubs, and the like);
- production - collection and removal of industrial waste;
- downspout - Collection and disposal of the products of precipitation.
For the internal domestic sewage is characterized by installing gravity pipelines are usually closed.
Bussing domestic sewage in the basement of the building. According to the norms and standards, there may be surface-mounted sewer pipes
Industrial waste water may be discharged by a pan open systems if effluents do not emit harmful gases, vapors, and leaves no unpleasant odors. Lots any sewage is strictly recommended to lay a straight line with a given slope.
Norms and installation of lines
Discharge lines connected to the risers by means of oblique crosspieces and tees. If you are connecting branch pipes by multiple plumbing fixtures arranged in one level by level, only the cross oblique be used.
It is not permissible to apply to drain lines cross, sharing them on the horizontal axis.
domestic sewage non-pressure line (pressure) type should be made on the basis of pipes and fittings with a service life of at least 25 years. Technical fittings must ensure the stability of the hydraulic resistance over the entire lifetime of the system.
recommended use sewer pipes and a connecting reinforcement made from polymers.
Sewage risers, tucked away in a box. On standards and rules box must be made of non-combustible materials. The exception is the material of a removable front panel of the box - allowed moderately combustible
Thus, laying sewer pipe lines of polymer made under the following standards:
- hidden installation of risers (in mines, boxes) with the faceplate equipment;
- Material mines and boxes nonflammable;
- Material faceplate shafts boxes corresponds combustibility group "r2";
- open laying of plastic pipes is conducted in the basement of the building;
- portion of the riser, rising above the slab is 80-100 mm, and cemented insulated layer 20-30 mm solution.
It is forbidden to carry concealed (open) laying sewer inside the walls, in the floor structure, the ceiling of premises of any purpose.
Allowed to introduce several sewer systems in buildings multifunction structure for draining liquids having different degrees of aggressiveness of the environment.
Separation of household and industrial sewage systems necessarily provided outgoing industrial wastewater requiring treatment, and treatment with subsequent water recycling organization.
Ventilated risers: calculation and installation
It is necessary to provide for a vented riser pipes being connected to the sewer lines to points located on the upper horizon. Ventilated sewer risers should be displayed to the outside passes through the roof of the building.
On buildings with flat and pitched roofs not operated Fan tube setRaising above the roof level of not less than 200 mm. Thus vented riser pipe exit point to be removed from adjacent windows by a distance of at least 4 m.
In the foreground is out air ventilation system, and a little further there are two outlet risers ventilated sewers
On exploited yield ventilated roofs riser must rise above the roof to not less than 3 m and include at least 4 individual risers. Each individual riser is allowed to raise operated below the roof, but in this case it is necessary to introduce a reverse ventilation valve, air-permeable only inside the tube.
The valve should be set at a level of sanitary devices, located at the highest horizon sewer system.
Estimated number of risers ventilated (ventilation rate) is determined by the formula:
N = kW / Q,
- N - the number of risers;
- k - ventilation rate in the riser, liters / day (norm to calculate 80-100);
- W - the volume of the sewage network, m3;
- Q - daily amount of dirty air outlet from the riser, m3 (For calculation 320).
The minimum possible penetration of sewer pipes should be determined taking into account the existing permanent and temporary loads. If there is a risk of damage to pipelines from mechanical loads, they should be protected.
In areas where there is a risk of lowering the ambient temperature to negative values to be applied insulation.
Laying sewer pipes in the system made a standard without calculation, is allowed slope calculated by the formula:
1 / D,
Where D - the diameter of the tubes used.
For networks in residential (home) Improvement depth Bookmarks sewer pipes should be at least 100 mm from the top of the pipe before the floor level. Unauthorized modifications on the slope areas of branch horizontal piping.
Inside buildings require the installation of plumbing fixtures (sinks receivers). The number of such devices is determined by architectural stroitelnymproektom object. All sanitary devices required to equip the water seal (siphon) - devices that block out the gas medium inside the sewerage facilities.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Experience everything the water supply and sewerage systems in a private home:
During the construction or repair of water and sewerage systems should be guided by rules, regulations, standards. Compliance with technical advice, following the standards and regulations - is the key to building effective and long-lasting communications.
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