Remains popular lamp DRL - representative of HID lighting fixtures, featuring a luminous flux of saturated and durability. Mercury-containing products are proven in the regeneration of artificial street lighting and industrial facilities.
However, a number of technical and operational nuances do not allow their use in everyday life and call into question the appropriateness of their use in other areas of life. All of the high-pressure gas discharge lighting devices you will learn from our article submission. Our tips will help you choose wisely devices.
The content of the article:
- Apparatus mercury lamp
- How it works: the essence of transients
- The specifics of the application: the pros and cons of lamps
- Selection criteria: assessment of technical indicators
- Which vendor to choose?
- A comparison with similar light bulbs DRL
- Requirements for the disposal of mercury devices
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Apparatus mercury lamp
DRL lamps are high-pressure discharge devices. Priority area of use - lighting of streets, businesses, garages and industrial plants. DRL are used where needed powerful light output and a color reproduction quality is not subject to special requirements.
The main functional parts:
- Flask. The outer shell of the device is made of heat resistant glass. Inside is a quartz burner, to which the conductors are summed. Coupling of electrodes with cathodes is due to the compounds of opposite polarities with a carbon resistor. The flask is exhausted of air and nitrogen is injected, the inner surface is coated with a phosphor.
- Cap. Is responsible for receiving electric power from the network by connecting the point and threaded contact with the cartridge mounted in the lamp.
- A quartz burner. Main functional element of a mercury lamp. Structurally, it is a quartz flask, in which both sides are placed electrodes: two main and two additional ignited.
flasks pressurized space filled with an inert gas, providing heat insulation between the interior environment and the burner. In addition, there is added just a drop of mercury. In cold mercury compound appears as a coating on the bulb or bulb has a form.
To understand the principle of a mercury-arc bulbs, it should be familiar with the device and the role of components
How it works: the essence of transients
The action of the arc mercury lamp is based on processes of electrical discharge in a gaseous medium flowing in a flask under high pressure. It generates a source of luminescence by type helix incandescent bulb. But it is not a red-hot tungsten filament, a cord of glowing mercury vapor, "stretched" between the electrodes.
Persistent illumination lamp XRD begins after 8-10 minutes after supplying energy. During this time, the current flowing in the illumination device, higher than the nominal value, and limited resistance ballasts.
start time depends on the ambient temperature - colder, the longer the "warming up" the lamp. After turning on the mercury upon heating evaporates slowly and gradually increases discharge between working electrodes.
When the mercury component completely enters into a gaseous form, and the pressure inside increases, the lamp will reach the maximum light output.
To a lamp supplied electricity between the ground and the ignition electrode is generated glow discharge. With the accumulation of charge carriers appears breakdown between two opposing main electrodes - there arc radiation
Volt arc in mercury vapor creates unacceptable color luminescence predominantly blue-green hues. Phosphor is responsible for converting UV light into the red tones. Combining colors gives white cold glow DRL bulbs.
The specifics of the application: the pros and cons of lamps
Illuminators type DRL mostly installed on poles for street lighting, driveways roads, parks, houses adjoining areas and non-residential buildings. This is due to technical and operational features of the lamp.
The main plus a mercury-arc devices - high power, which provides high-quality lighting large areas and large objects.
It is worth noting that the passport data of XRD of luminous flux are relevant for new lamps. After a quarter of the brightness deteriorates by 15% in a year - 30%
Among the additional advantages are:
- Durability. The average term of the work claimed by manufacturers - 12 thousand hours. At the same time, the more powerful lamp, so it will last longer.
- Operation at low temperatures. This decisive parameter when choosing a lighting device for the street. Discharge lamps hardy and maintain their performance at temperatures below zero.
- Good brightness and illumination angle. Light output XRD devices regardless of their thickness ranges between 45-60 lm / B. Due to the quartz burner flask and phosphor coating is achieved a uniform distribution of light with a wide angle of dispersion.
- Compactness. Lamps relatively small length of the product at 125 W for about 18 cm, the device 145 W - 41 cm. Diameter - 76 and 167 mm, respectively.
One of the features of the use of DRL lighting - the need to connect to the network through throttle. The role of the mediator - the current limit, supply the light bulb. If you connect the lighting unit in the throttle bypass, then because of the large electric current it will burn.
Schematically represented by a serial connection to connect fluorescent mercury lamp through a choke to the mains supply. In many modern fixtures DRL is already integrated ballast mechanism - such models are more expensive than conventional lamps
Several disadvantages limit the use of XRD lamps in everyday life.
- ignition duration. Reaching full illumination - up to 15 minutes. To heat the mercury takes time, which is very inconvenient in a home.
- Sensitivity quality electricity. By lowering the voltage by 20% or more of the nominal value, to include a mercury lamp does not work, and a luminous device goes off. By reducing the index by 10-15% - deteriorates the brightness of light at 25-30%.
- Noise at work. DRL-lamp emits a buzzing sound, not noticeable on the outside, but noticeable in the room.
- Ripple. Despite the use of stabilizer, light bulbs flicker - perform continuous operation in this light undesirably.
- Low color rendition. The parameter characterizes the reality perception of the surrounding colors. Recommended color rendering index for residential buildings - at least 80, optimum - 90-97. At XRD indicator lamps does not reach the value 50. In this light it is impossible to clearly distinguish between the shades and colors.
- Insecure application. In the process, it produces ozone, so the operation of indoor lamps require high-quality ventilation system organization.
Furthermore, the presence of mercury in the bulb itself poses a potential danger. Such bulbs after use can not simply be thrown away. In order not to pollute the environment, they are disposed of properly.
Another limitation of the use of gas discharge lamps in everyday life - the need to install them at a considerable height. Model 125W - suspension of 4 m, 250 W - 6 m, 400 W and more powerful - 8 m
Significant negative DRL lighting - the inability to re-enable the lamp to cool down completely. In operation of the device the gas pressure inside the glass bulb is greatly increased (up to 100 kPa). Until the lamp has cooled, pierce the spark gap voltage start-up impossible. Reclosing takes place in about a quarter of an hour.
Selection criteria: assessment of technical indicators
Defining the optimal variant of the fixture should take into account the following characteristics:
- shape / size of the cap;
- brightness of the light flux;
- the duration of the work.
Power. Selecting this option should be guided by the purpose and location of the luminaire. If the device is purchased to illuminate the road, it is necessary to consider the distance between the lights - the bigger it is, the performance should be the lamp.
Range DRL lighting power characteristics in the range 80-1000 Watts. This value is displayed on the marking lamps, e.g., XRD 250, 400 XRD etc.
Light flow. The main indicator light directed in different directions. The parameter is measured in lumens (lm). It is according to this criterion, and not power, it is necessary to compare the performance of different types of lamps.
Lamps with DRL lamp for dispensing the desired luminous flux consume more power than their analogs and LED illuminators HPS. Brightness LED-unit 100 corresponds to the index W mercury arc illumination counterpart 400 W
Significant savings on energy resources - a weighty argument in favor of LEDs. The high cost of LED-lamps pays for itself in the first year of operation.
Cap. DRL illuminators are available with the two most popular types of caps:
- E27 - helical shape, diameter - 27 mm. Therefore cap equipped with a mercury arc devices 80 watts and 125 watts.
- E40 - the largest size "E" category. Cap 40 mm is used in the lamps at 250 watts and above for illuminating large areas.
In addition to the type of twist in the cartridge should take into account the dimensions of the ceiling lamp.
The width and length of the discharge lamp depends on the power of the device. The higher performance DRL illuminator, so it is larger and heavier
The duration of the service. This parameter is largely determined by the quality of manufacturing, namely manufacturer responsibility. Better to choose a lamp with a maximum period of service. As a rule, high-performance devices operating life above.
For clarity, the general characteristics of different power lamps are shown in the summary table. All appliances operate on alternating current, the frequency standard - 50 Hz
Some of the information about the characteristics of the lamps embedded in the label. In domestic practice alphabetic abbreviation for the name of the illuminator, a digital - power. Production of mercury lamps is regulated by GOST 27682-88 and GOST 53074-2008.
Foreign products such as XRD according to the international system marked ILCOS QE. Some manufacturers stick to the pan-European and the German ZVEI LBS order designations.
Markers mercury lamps popular companies:
- HPL - Philips;
- HRL - Radium;
- MBF - General Electric;
- HQL - Osram;
- HSL and HSB - Sylvania.
Additional symbols according ILCOS: QB - model with integrated ballast, QG - spherical bulb, QR - lamp with reflecting inner layer.
Which vendor to choose?
It is recommended to choose the products of famous brands, from buying cheap, "anonymous" Chinese lamps is better to abstain.
Trust among consumers won the following manufacturers mercury devices:
- Osram (Germany);
- Philips (Netherlands);
- General Electric (USA / Hungary);
- Next (Poland);
- Evrosvet (Ukraine);
- Lisma (Russia);
- DeLux (China).
In the European market leaders in the production and sale of lighting products are considered to be two brand: Osram and Philips. Both companies have many years of experience - more than a century, and a wide range of well-developed sales network.
The operating parameters of lamps XRD leading producers meet the stated specifications, devices have a high efficiency - with a power of 250 W light flux reaches 12,500 lumens. Estimated cost - 8-10 USD
Plants of the American company General Electric and placed in Europe. The quality of the goods and the duration of service is not inferior to the previous brands, and the price is slightly lower. For DRL lamp 250 watt have to pay around USD 7
E.Next - Electrical Holding, where the main manufacturer of devices is a group of Polish companies Tarel. In the line of goods, numerous series of different lamps for the home, street and industrial lighting.
E.Next illuminators 250 watt than incandescent German and Dutch production of similar capacity, inferior competitors in color rendering (Ra = 40) and the duration of life (12,000 hours). Estimated price - $ 5
Mercury-arc lamps of the Russian, Ukrainian and Chinese production firm are in the same price category, the average cost of products 250 W - 3 cu The disadvantage is the limited lighting of their work - according to the passport data bulbs last for 5000 hours.
Before buying you should check the quality of the cap and "accuracy" thread - some users have reported difficulty screwing Lisma lamp into the socket
A comparison with similar light bulbs DRL
Discharge lamps often are compared between themselves and with more favorable LEDs. Closest analogues DRL - illuminators three types: the DRV, DRI and HPS. Let's try to identify the features and competitive advantages of the different light bulbs.
DRV. Mercury-tungsten arc lamp in design and principle of operation is very similar to DRL. Structurally within the bulb has mercury discharge burner and tungsten spiral. The last element limits the current to the burner, which means that additional ballast is needed.
The main differences are mercury-tungsten lamps of DRL:
- high consumption of electricity - the light output of the DRV 250 is not more than 5500 lumens;
- estimated time of work - 3000 hours;
- light within the first minute.
DRI. Mercury arc bulb with radiating additives halo indium, sodium, waist and so forth. Metal components increase the light output devices to 75-90 lm / W.
An additional plus metal halide mercury lamps - Improvement of color. DRI to work as DRL, require a connection via a throttle
HPS. Sodium arc lamps boast maximum luminous efficiency and prolonged operational period among bit illuminators. Performance sodium lamps with the passage of time has not reduced so much as DRL lights.
- maximum light output - 125 lm / W;
- performance - within 20 thousand hours;
- relative stability parameters;
- wide operating temperature range;
- output for maximum illumination for 5-7 minutes.
Cons sodium light sources: a large ripple, and low color rendering index, Ra = 25. The emission spectrum is dominated by reds and yellows.
Discharge lamps surely give way to LED options. LED-devices all the technical and operational parameters are superior to their predecessors.
The undeniable advantages of LEDs: environmental friendliness, minimum ripple, long life, a momentary switch, excellent, colors and contrast. In addition to excellent performance, Diode devices exhibit thermal and mechanical resistance.
Efficiency LED-lamps out of competition, efficiency reaches 95-98%. The main factor constraining several fixtures re - the high price of LED lamps
Requirements for the disposal of mercury devices
Thoughtlessly throw waste or defective light bulbs containing mercury can not. Devices with a damaged bulb is a serious threat to human health and the environment as a whole, because the need specific recycling.
The question of the unsafe disposal of waste procedure is relevant for business owners as well as for ordinary citizens. Recycling mercury lamps involved in the organization, received a license.
The company concludes with a firm service contract. At the request of the representative-utilizing the company goes to the object, collects garbage and lamps for subsequent decontamination and recycling. The approximate cost of services - 0.5 US dollars per one lighting fixture.
For the collection of mercury-containing light bulbs in the population organized a reception point. People living in small communities, can take hazardous waste for recycling through the "ekomobil"
If emissions mercury-containing lamps enterprises once controlled by supervisory authorities, compliance with the rules of utilization of the population - the personal responsibility of citizens.
Unfortunately, because of the low awareness, not every user of mercury lamps aware of the possible consequences of falling mercury vapor into the surrounding atmosphere.
All kinds of energy-saving lamps are described in detail in next article, Which examines the principles of action, and a comparison of devices, given the simplified economic evaluation.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The proposed video review describes the design XRD illuminator presents in detail the operating principle and basic operation marked nuances:
Discharge lamps DRL type still used in street lighting. The main argument in favor of mercury devices - powerful light output and reasonable price. However, they are gradually replacing more sophisticated lamp that boast good luminescence quality and safety of application together with high efficiency.
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