The advantages of warm floors are obvious. The modern floor heating system evenly distributes heat throughout the room, quickly heats a large area, and provides a comfortable temperature in the house.
To decide on what kind of warm floor to choose, you need to get acquainted with the characteristics and features of all types of this equipment and find out what manufacturers offer today.
The content of the article:
- Installation of floor heating systems
- Advantages of floor heating system
- Features water structure
Electrical system characteristics
- Electric cable floor
- Infrared warm floor
- Key points of the choice of heating design
- Top Equipment Manufacturers
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Installation of floor heating systems
The system warm floor - this is not a modern invention. For the first time, visitors of ancient Roman and Turkish baths experienced it many thousands of years ago. The heat source at that time was heated air passing through the channels made in the stone floor.
Such a system was used until the beginning of the 20th century, when the first pumps appeared, and the air was replaced with heated water. From the middle of the last century, cable structures were used. But the most widespread warm floor received about fifteen years ago.
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Outdoor types of heating contribute to the formation of the most comfortable temperature background in the room. At the level of the feet of a person warmer than at the level of his head
According to the method of obtaining and transferring heat, all existing floor heating systems are divided into water and electrical varieties.
Water floors are simpler and cheaper both in installation and in operation. However, over time, they can leak
By technical nature, water floors are common heating circuits, in which the function of radiators is performed by a pipe system
Electric underfloor heating will never leak. However, as with any electrical equipment, it is likely that there will be a short circuit.
To simplify and speed up the process of installing an electrical floor system, it is better to purchase mats, the cable in them is already fixed with the necessary step for normal operation.
Compared with all types of electric floors, the most simple to install and relatively inexpensive to use infrared version of a heated floor
Due to the possibility of leakage and solid weight of the floors filled in the screed, water species are not used in the arrangement of apartments. Electrical systems have no limitations.
Advantages of underfloor heating
Water option warm floor
Pros and cons of water circuits
The principle of the water floor
Laying cable heating floor
Electric mats for underfloor heating
Electric infrared floor
Specific use of the floor
Modern warm floor - is built-in underfloor heating. It is a kind of layer cake, which is filled with a system of cables or pipes with heat insulation, steam and waterproofing layers.
The cake is laid mainly on a concrete base. On top of the structure is mounted leveling layer and front floor covering.
The heat-insulated floor keeps within on any basis. The heating elements are located on the heat insulation layer and are fixed on top with a cement screed
Most often laid floor heating under ceramic tiles in bathrooms, shower rooms, kitchens where it serves for additional heating. It is also installed under the laminate and linoleum, less often under the carpet. The equipment is often used as the only heating system replacing traditional radiators.
There are two main types of warm floors: water and electric. In the first case, water pipes are used for heating, through which hot water circulates in a constant mode. In electric floors, the surface is heated using an electric cable, infrared film or carbon rods.
The diagram shows different types of warm floors. When choosing a particular system, you must proceed from the parameters of the room in which it will be installed (+)
In each system, you can find both positive and negative points. The choice of design depends on the place of installation, the individual characteristics and size of the room, the type of facial flooring, the material capabilities of the owners and other factors.
Advantages of floor heating system
Underfloor heating is a worthy alternative. radiator heating system. The main disadvantages of radiators are the over-drying of air and the creation of convective currents of warm air moving from floor to ceiling and back in the room.
Such a circulation does not allow the whole room to warm up evenly, because the heat goes to the ceiling, and the floor is not quite comfortable temperature.
Modern floor systems are completely devoid of these shortcomings, they distribute heat throughout the room evenly with a minimum temperature difference on the ceiling and floor of the room. At the same time, the warmest air remains at the bottom, while the colder air rises.
The efficiency of heat transfer is not to a small extent dependent on the type of flooring used. So, it is not recommended to install underfloor heating under the carpet, in particular under the carpet, as well as floors made of natural wood, which have a low thermal conductivity.
The distribution pattern of the warm air flow with radiator and floor heating clearly demonstrates the efficiency of the floor heating system.
Another undoubted advantage of floor heating system is the ability to adjust the temperature. It can be increased or reduced to the required performance by just turning the thermostat knob.
This allows not only to create the most comfortable indoor environment, but also to significantly save energy consumption. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of underfloor heating are listed below.
Features water structure
Water floor heating is a pipeline system, laid between the floor and the front floor covering. Heating of the room is due to the warm water that flows through the pipes. Liquid is supplied either directly from the central heating system or from an electric or gas heating boiler.
For pipeline installation, polymer pipes are used, which are connected to the collector. The layout of their installation depends on the size and individual characteristics of the room.
The effectiveness of the water floor is most evident when used in cottages with a large area. The water system can significantly reduce energy costs.
Savings are achieved due to the low temperature of the coolant, which does not exceed 50 degrees. If a gas or solid fuel fired boiler is used to heat water, the costs will be even lower. But this is not its only advantage.
Among other advantages of water floors are:
- compatible with different types of flooring, with the exception of wood;
- can be installed in very wet areas;
- are non-volatile, can function both from electricity, and from gas or solid fuel boilers.
Water floors are mainly installed in private households and very rarely in high-rise buildings. This is a simple explanation. On water floor a very thick layer of concrete mortar is applied, which exerts pressure on interfloor overlappings (up to 200 kg / 1 m 2). As a result, the load increases significantly, which is extremely dangerous.
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Due to the solid mass of the pipeline with water and the screed fixing it, in most cases water floor heating systems are laid on a concrete base.
However, it is allowed to install water systems on wooden floors. The pipes according to this scheme are fixed to the subfloor between the lags.
In order to avoid heat loss, water circuits are placed on the insulating substrate. It is most convenient to use polymer type with guide bosses.
The pipes of the water floor system are connected to a manifold assembly equipped with one or several circulation pumps, a safety valve and an air vent.
Laying pipes on concrete floor
Heat Insulation System with Bosses
Collector knot of a water floor
The disadvantages of water floor heating are also available:
- complexity in the design and high cost of installation work;
- Difficult temperature adjustment when connected to central heating;
- long warm-up time (up to 4 hours).
In addition, as a result of operation, pipes can be damaged and leak. If this unpleasant event occurs, water will flow directly to the neighbors, and it will be necessary to completely dismantle the entire floor covering.
Therefore, the use of water system in high-rise buildings is prohibited by technical parameters. To install it requires permission from the management company.
Electrical system characteristics
Electric underfloor heating is universal. They can be installed both in private and in multi-storey buildings without any coordination. Their installation is simple and is much faster than water. Electric floors easy to adjust, you can set the desired temperature with an accuracy of one degree.
The main types of modern electric heating genital systems with different types of heating elements, presented on the Russian market (+)
There are two types of warm floors, for the functioning of which requires electricity. It is convection and infrared. Their main difference lies in the principle of heating. In the first heating element acts heating cable, which is available either in coils or in thermomat.
Although infrared floors belong to electrical systems, they are a separate group. The heating elements in them are thermal film or special carbon rods.
Electric cable floor
Warm cable floor appeared one of the first, but today it is also relevant, as before. It is distinguished by a simple design, low cost of materials and installation, it can be laid in any premises as the main or additional heating. The life of the system reaches twenty years.
The heating cable is laid between the concrete base and the floor covering on the thermal insulation layer. Its main function is to convert electrical energy into heat, due to which the surface is heated (+)
However, despite the relatively low cost of laying, electrical cable systems require considerable financial costs for their maintenance. Calculation and installation of the cable require special care. Incorrect miscalculations and inaccurate installation can lead to electrical injuries, which is especially dangerous in wet areas.
It should be noted also such a minus as the presence of electromagnetic radiation, which is created indoors by using a heating cable.
More modern and improved electric flooring - thermomats, which are a fiberglass mesh, which is attached to the heating cable. The cost of the material is more expensive than the price of the heating cable in the bay, but due to the exact calculation of the required quantity and ease of installation, the total price of the floor is not much higher than the previous version.
The standard width of the mats is 0.5 m, length - from 20 to 24 m. One roll is enough to cover the floor area up to 12 m 2. Depending on the model and manufacturer, the output power ranges from 100 to 200 W / m 2
Laying mats is not particularly difficult, even a non-professional can handle it. If necessary, the grid can be easily cut into pieces of the desired size and give it any shape. Mats do not require the imposition of a thick layer of screed, and during installation under the tile they can be laid directly under the tile adhesive.
Infrared warm floor
Infrared systems are the most perfect type of warm floors. They appeared relatively recently, but have become quite popular. They use innovative technology.
Heat transfer infrared floors up to 97%, they are safe for humans, do not create electromagnetic radiation. It eliminates the failure of the entire system, since it uses a parallel connection of blocks.
The principle of operation of the floor heating system is as follows: the electric current passes through the built-in heating elements, which causes infrared radiation that transmits energy. Infrared floor is represented by two types: heating film and carbon rods.
In the film floor, the heating element is carbon or bimetallic fiber, enclosed in two layers of a polymer film, which has good dielectric properties. Laying the roll is made by the dry method without a screed, the warm floor of the film type is usually laid under the laminate, linoleum and parquet
Film infrared floor is sold in rolls 500, 800 and 1000 mm wide. The film is allowed to cut in strictly defined places, indicated by a line.
The most advanced floor heating system is an infrared floor with carbon rods. The core floor has a self-regulating ability, which eliminates the overheating of the system.
Thanks to this, it can be installed under a wide variety of floor coverings. It can be placed in rooms with a very high level of humidity. Innovative material has a high cost, but requires minimal cost during operation.
Rolls of carbon rods have a standard width of 83 cm, heating rods are located at a distance of 9 or 10 cm from each other. The roll length does not exceed 20 m. The product can be cut between the conductive rods
Key points of the choice of heating design
To decide on the choice of floor heating system and understand what kind of floor heating is best suited for laying in a particular case, you must consider the following factors:
- The area and height of the floor in the room where the structure will be installed.
- For what purpose is it supposed to use the floor heating system: will it be the only or additional source of heating?
For heating a country house the best option are water heated floors. You can install them both at the construction stage and in the finished house. The complexity of the installation will pay off with low energy costs during operation of the system.
Water floor economical option for private housing. It allows you to organize an effective independent heating system at home without the use of electricity
However, here it is necessary to take into account such factors as climate, temperature indicators of the area, the degree of insulation of the house. Warm floors of water type can be used as the main heating equipment only in well-warmed buildings. In other cases, it is better to use them as an additional method of heating separate rooms of the house.
For arranging additional floor heating in the apartment, it is better to stop on cable or film electrical construction. Infrared floor is well suited as the sole source of heat for any room.
However, it is necessary to take into account that electric, especially cable floor, consumes a lot of electricity during operation, therefore, it is necessary to pre-calculate how beneficial its installation will be.
An equally important parameter for determining the type of floor heating is the situation in the room itself. All systems, except the core, can not withstand overheating.
Furniture and heavy household appliances create pressure on the structure and increase the temperature in the system. Therefore, warm floor should be installed in places free from heavy objects.
When designing the floor, it is necessary to bypass the areas where the furniture will stand, otherwise the system may fail.
It should be noted that all floor heating structures in varying degrees affect the height of the ceilings. The thickest layer of the screed is required when arranging water floors - up to 15 cm, cable floor reduces the ceiling height by an average of 5 cm. In film infrared floors, this figure is minimized, since they are the only ones that fit without a screed.
Such a characteristic as maintainability of the system is the same for all warm floors. All of them in case of breakage require complete dismantling of the flooring. It is also difficult to determine the place where the damaged area is located, since screed does not allow access to system components. The exception is made by dry-mounted film floors.
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Electric heating systems are laid on concrete subfloor. Old screed before repairing the system
The installation of the heating floor system on a freshly screed is permissible after its primary hardening, i.e. after at least 14 days from the date of its filling
Electrical systems underfloor heating after the device is poured cement-sand screed. The function of a screed for a porcelain stoneware floor or a coating of ceramic tiles will be successfully completed by a layer of tile glue.
Infrared heating system does not require pouring a tie over it. Laminate and floor tiles can be laid directly on the film, linoleum and carpet require plywood backing devices
Laying the heating cable on the coupler
Fresh screed system
Electric under floor heating
Infrared laminate flooring
If you focus on the speed of work, then the top three will be thermomats, infrared film and pivotal floors. Installation of these systems is carried out in one day. However, the floor can only be connected after the screed has completely dried.
The electrical design can be connected after seven days, and for core floors, manufacturers set a limit of 28 days. It also has the best performance film floor, which can be used within a day after installation.
In addition to these indicators, there are still a lot of factors that need to be taken into account when choosing a heated floor: compatibility with finishing flooring, installation site, cost of materials, efficiency in use.
Top Equipment Manufacturers
An essential criterion for choosing a floor heating system is its manufacturer. It is not easy to decide which company to choose a warm floor, since there are many worthy models of both domestic and foreign companies on the Russian market. Let's get acquainted with the best of them.
The recognized leader in the production of warm floors is considered to be the Finnish company Devi. Electric floor systems made with impeccable Scandinavian quality are also notable for their affordable price. They are supplied with a thermostat with an intelligent timer, so the system works with significant savings.
The product range is represented by two varieties: heating cables and electric mats, for which the manufacturer provides a twenty-year warranty.
Not less high-quality and reliable products produces Finnish manufacturer Ensto. The electric cable floor and Ensto thermomats performed well under the most adverse conditions. Among the range of the company you can find models of different price ranges, the cost of which depends on the power of the equipment.
Warm floors of the Finnish company are suitable for dry and wet rooms, as well as unheated buildings. They can be installed under tiles, in places with poor thermal insulation, and even in stone floors.
The products of the British company Energy are very popular among Russian consumers. The model range includes six models of heating mats with single and twin cables. Innovative development of the manufacturer was water floors, which are a system of pipes with built-in electric heating.
Energy thermomats have a reduced capacity, which allows them to be laid under tile and wooden floors, as well as used to heat the soil in greenhouses
Underfloor heating, manufactured under the brand Rehau, made with this German quality. The company specializes in the production of water floors and electric heating mats with twin cable. The manufacturer offers a complete set of necessary equipment and consumables for the installation of the system.
Rehau thermomats are equipped with a durable Kevlar braided cable and double degree of protection, which makes it resistant to any temperature changes and deformation
The list of foreign manufacturers will be incomplete, if not to mention the South Korean company Unimat, which has conquered buyers all over the world with its infrared thermomat. Along with high indicators of quality, efficiency and reliability, the warm floor of this brand has a democratic cost and a long service life.
Infrared floor with carbon rods Unimat can be laid in any room, including baths, saunas and even outside
Among the domestic manufacturers of warm floor systems can distinguish the plant "Special systems and technologies ”, which produce heating floors under two brands:“ Teplolux ”and“ National comfort".
The company's products are exported to forty countries, which speaks for itself. Heat-insulated floors differ in reliability, high workmanship and inexpensive cost.
Under the brand "Teplolux" produced an incredibly wide range of products: twin-core pipe, heating mats, warm water floor, suitable for a variety of operating conditions.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. About the features of different electric floor systems can be found in the following video:
Video # 2. How is the installation of a water floor, narrates the video:
Video # 3. How to choose an infrared film floor look in the video:
Heated floor will help to create a comfortable atmosphere in the house, but only when the system is properly selected, the correct calculation is made and the equipment is installed professionally. Therefore, you should not rely on your sometimes superficial knowledge, it is better to consult with a professional and entrust all works to specialists.
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