The process of growing cabbage seedlings is almost identical for all varieties of cabbage. This article will consider an example of growing cabbage seedlings.
In terms of ripening and in time, it can be divided into:
- Early ripening( sown in the first half of March);
- Mid-ripening( sown from March 15 to April 15);
- Late-ripening( sown in the first half of April).
How to sow cabbage seedlings?
For planting cabbage seeds, a soil mixture is recommended for seedlings, which consists of one part of sod land and two parts of humus. It is recommended to add ashes to this mixture, based on 1 kg of the mixture, 1 tablespoon of ash. This enriches the soil with additional trace elements and prevents the emergence of certain diseases of seedlings.
Sowing cabbage for seedlings must begin with seed preparation. Before starting the sowing process, the seeds must be processed by applying conventional methods of seed preparation before sowing.
Before sowing, seeds are carefully selected. Cabbage seeds poured 3% solution of salt for 5 minutes. The sprouted seeds merge with the water, and the remaining ones are thoroughly washed and dried. Seeds of large and medium fraction are selected for sowing.
Planting cabbage seedlings to produce decontaminated seeds. From pathogens of the seeds can be disinfected using a solution of potassium permanganate, then wash them with water. But this treatment gives a small percentage of probability. Greater effect can be achieved with heat treatment. To do this, the seeds are placed in a gauze bag and dipped in hot water for 20 minutes. The water temperature should be in the range of 48-50 ° C, sinceat lower temperatures, the desired effect will be lost, and at higher temperatures, the seeds may lose their germination.
There is another way to disinfect seeds: they are kept in garlic solution( 30 g of crushed garlic dissolves in 0.5 glass of water) for one hour. After that, the seeds must be washed with clean water and dried thoroughly.
The packaging of seeds may indicate that they have already been processed. In this case, it is necessary to conduct only heat treatment, which is necessary to increase the resistance of seeds to fungal diseases.
Planted seeds in boxes 20 * 30 * 7.In the soil, grooves are squeezed at a distance of 3 cm from each other to a depth of 0.7 cm. Seeds are sown in these grooves. After sowing, the soil surface is flattened and covered with film. The first shoots appear on the fourth day after sowing. Boxes with seedlings are recommended to put in the most lighted areas.
The main methods of growing seedlings
There are two generally accepted methods of growing seedlings of cabbage:
- The first way is .As soon as shoots appear, the seedlings are discharged( extra shoots are removed).The distance between the remaining seedlings is 1.5 cm. A week later, the remaining sprouts are transplanted( dive) into cassettes( wooden or plastic) with cells measuring 3 to 3 cm. When diving, the plant must be dredged into the ground to the seed leaves. After 2-3 weeks, the seedlings from the cassettes are transplanted into cups, the size of which is 6 * 6 cm. The sprouts are removed from the cassettes with a lump of earth, after which they are placed in cups before the cotyledon leaves and sprinkled with soil. The last step will be transplanting seedlings directly into the ground.
- The second way is .Cabbage seedlings from the boxes are transplanted immediately into cups, bypassing the transplanting stage in the cassettes. The size of cups for early ripe seedlings is 5 * 5 cm, and for late ripening - 8 * 8 cm. When transplanting, the main root must be cut to 1/3 of the length. This is necessary so that the root system is better branched. Sprouts in cups are deepened to the cotyledon leaves with the help of peaks.
Growing seedlings of early cabbage
For growing seedlings of early cabbage, you must follow some rules.
Seedlings should be fed in three stages:
- After 7 days from the moment of picking into the cassettes. Based on 1 liter of water, 2 grams of ammonium nitrate, 4 grams of superphosphate, 1 gram of potash fertilizers dissolve.
- Two weeks after the first feeding. The dosage of the components is doubled.
- Two days before planting seedlings in a permanent ground. At this point, the seedlings already have a developed root system and 6-8 true leaves.2 grams of ammonium nitrate, 4 grams of superphosphate, 6-8 grams of potash fertilizers dissolve in 1 liter of water.
Watering seedlings is carried out in moderation. It is strictly forbidden to allow excessive soil moisture.
To obtain healthy sprouts of cabbage, it is necessary to provide it with a 14-16 hour light regime. Depending on how much power the lamps of artificial illumination have, they are located from the seedling at a distance of 10 to 50 cm( as the plants grow, the distance must be adjusted).The recommended time to turn on lamps of artificial lighting is from 8 am to 11 pm.
For a friendly germination of seedlings and plant development, you must follow the following thermal regime:
- Before the first shoots - 18-20 ° C;
- Sprouted seeds - sunny day 15-17 ° C, cloudy day 13-15 ° C, at night 7-10 ° C;
Care for cabbage seedlings at home is almost the same as standard activities. Before the seedlings are planted in a permanent ground, it must be tempered two weeks before the intended transplant. In the first stages, the plants are gradually taught to cold air, for which they open the vents.
At the second stage, the plants are carried out to the balcony for 2-3 hours in the daytime, but protecting seedlings from direct sunlight. Gradually, time increases, and protection from the sun's rays is removed. When hardening is carried out, seedlings are practically not watered. At the last stage of hardening, if the night temperature exceeds the mark of 2-3 ° C, the seedlings for the night are left in the fresh air, previously covered with a film stretched over the frame.
Planting seedlings in permanent ground
Planting seedlings in permanent ground is carried out:
- For early ripening varieties - late April-early May;
- For mid-season varieties - end of May - beginning of June;
- For late varieties - mid-May.
It should be remembered that cabbage is very susceptible to cold, therefore it is recommended to cover it at night. After disembarking, the first days of the seedlings must be protected from direct sunlight.