Electrical panel - a dedicated amount of space for installation of switchgear and control lighting devices and equipment, protected according to the standards body.
Unlike electrical panels of cabinets
Electrical panels are used only in the circuits up to 1 kV. Above - used wardrobes. Categories called complete distribution device and the right to include equipment for voltage up to 10 kV. Cases made from 2 mm thick steel, and the profile serving as a frame. Execution is the internal, external and retractable. Wardrobe differs from shield universally accessible, in favor of the wall plane.
The shield is usually built. Demonstrates the front panel with a degree of protection to IP. On the other hand assumes a wall. The housing enclosure is made of sheet steel. On the front panel, in both cases there are windows for the recording of controls. Shield control and protection equipment operating personnel (machines), is placed within the operator's visibility. Body of the enclosure and shield vanish and grounded in accordance with current regulations.
How to install the electrical panel
Project documentation is made specialized organization. step is not considered essential for a single apartment. But it is better to know what is possible to find drawings included. The design of the project documentation contains several kinds of electrical circuits. Not all touch panels:
- Block diagrams (designated E1) in the common parts will send information about the functional units. It rectangles united lines and arrows.
- Basic circuits (denoted by E3) little concern mounting boards contain a detailed list of system elements, but dislike. When wiring electricians document will help you to place equipment on the hull. Is included here a list of elements of the electrical panel are marked with the first letter u - shield. A second complementary information about the appointment. Serial number often put in the first place, or otherwise stated.
- Scheme compounds (denoted E4) shows a close-up of the system connectors. It is necessary for the proper termination of wires to pads, plugs, sockets and other connectors. Documentation required when joining the different parts of the system. These schemes are easily recognized by the distinctive two-column table: Pin and pin number. They give the right idea of what and where to solder. The connectors are designated schematically, double-checked.
- The order of placing the instrument panel center explained circuit arrangement (E7). A similar document is issued for the premises with the designation of places of installation of electrical equipment. The diagrams marking boards contain the letter S. Shape, despite the simplified, just untrue. Allowed to carry out projections (including the perspective view), offering installers to properly understand how to put the equipment.
- Connection Scheme (denoted S5). It shows exclusively connectors, input devices and so forth. Products are drawn schematically and tables permitted to bring an accurate drawing of the housing showing the location of the connecting elements (designed to exactly match the reality). There are marked external (coming from outside), cables, pipes, channels for cables, other third-party equipment, are for explaining labels; specified address, allowing for switching communications unambiguously. One gets the overall picture of the object.
Working with shield
location to the electrical circuits have been little to do. Indicate where and what to drill, where to hit the hole as pave the cable harness. In addition to these stand out:
- Functional circuit (A2). From structurally different presence information, telling about the principle of operation. It includes in addition to rectangles detailed information about a particular area of the circuit. Shield mounting information is usually not required, but the internal wiring is able to provide all possible assistance in the assembly and commissioning of the system.
- General scheme (E6). Advantageously, the cable connections are shown. Components of the equipment are shown by rectangles. Given the most detailed labeling of wires, fuses, etc. transport elements.
- Incorporated circuit (E0). If the product is available in several versions (types) shall be allowed to put all the information on the general drawing. This is a combined scheme.
Schemes: electrician inside shield
All documents marking is given according to the notation concept. Electric boards and cabinets is assigned to the reference designator (U and u, the number is before or after the alphabetic part). On the wiring diagram shall be entitled (but not obliged) to denote the DIN-rail, is provided with a separate location (P1, P2, and ave.) for installation of modules (automatic machines, fuses, counters, switches, etc.), the clips of the installation rails. Room gets every time, without gaps. Markings on the scheme are carried out in accordance with the factory - extracted from the catalogs of manufacturers. When replaced by another old marks taken in brackets, a new put together.
On the wiring diagram board indicated very approximately, unless otherwise required by the conditions of work. In this scheme the compounds is performed as in the electric circuit diagram. The capacitors present in the form of two parallel lines, inductors - number of arcs, keys, transistors, diodes, fuses, keys, lamps, connectors, contacts - according to GOST 2.755 and regulations. size of the rectangle includes all the content clips are indicated by circles.
The device gets its own number, enclosed together with the characteristic symbol in a circle, separated by a horizontal line. The exception are considered power connectors. The number is not assigned, unless otherwise required by wiring addressing rules. Sometimes shield accumulated mass of subscribers, therefore it is necessary to simplify the life of the installer. To this end, according to the accepted agreement subscriber address is placed on the left, across the dash - the destination number of the contact. Clarification: Address stands inside the circle, at the top, under it - the designation (typical character), if required (otherwise the circle bottom left empty).
Sometimes specified destination, located in the adjacent panel. Often done for outgoing lines, the border node housing. The contour of the mounting plate is indicated dot-dash line. Housing is not considered a mandatory part of the scheme in principle. If there is indicated by the solid line in the drawing. If inside compartments, each marked by dash-dot lines schematically (and sometimes double). In the upper left corner of the drives are put numbers (connectors). Other information is valid.
For switching various boards applied project document E5. Prescribed destination (eg Shield 7SCH panel such and such) or are contacts of the respective tables and incoming circuits. Sometimes, there are explanatory inscription: Shield Fire Protection. External bus marked with verbal prompts, sometimes affixed color. For example, three phases are marked: F - yellow, G - green, R - red. The cables are marked with the letters according to the direction:
- N - low-voltage (up to 1000), in particular boards does not occur;
- in - high-voltage (1000V), in boards do not occur;
- to - control;
- etc. - scheduling;
- e - shielded;
- to - light.
variety of shields
electric power distribution elements are called complex devices. This includes panels, are on a par with the receptacle cabinets for other devices:
- Cable-distributive devices placed at the entrance to the building. They consist of circuit breakers, switches and fuses, Automatic reserve. At the entrance to the premises referred to in this iron: shields. Although it is often inside a closet full. Sometimes boards are a two-way service.
- Shields storey residential buildings. Contain metering equipment, protection switching. Industrial plates are distinguished by the presence of three-phase circuits. A voltage is able to vary 380/220 V. In industry, the price depends on the operating mode, the frequency of use of equipment, and other specific factors. Normalized operating temperature, in contrast to the entrance hall is half-open.
The apparatus for electrical switchboard
Under the apartment shields sell snap-on DIN-rail. Strips in different amounts of the housing. Closing on the key structures of science called wardrobes. True shield has a front panel, snap-mounted on the frame, is embedded in flush with the wall. The differences between the two classes of equipment visible only during the construction phase.
Inside the shield stands a typical set of equipment:
- The ground bus can be omitted, if provided in the plan of the house. If you want to ensure proper operation of the differential circuit breakers, it is permissible to have a neutral here. This will allow the unit to catch the leakage current. Breeding circuit around the apartment is not necessary, only in areas protected by differential automata: kitchen, bathroom, toilet, balcony. Earthing is a metal block, which infest the appropriate wires from the apartment (which is allowed for two cores per terminal if not enough space). Product worth mere pennies.
- circuit breakers are divided into branches lighting, air conditioning equipment and sockets. Each room is desirable three machine. On the balcony, bathroom and kitchen, and is allowed to have one, but - a differential. The cross sections of copper conductors are chosen according to the recommendations A. Zemskova (seasoned and proven Muscovites builder): coverage - 1.5 mm²; outlet, air conditioning and balconies - 2.5 mm²; electric oven - 4 mm²; electric cooktop or water heater - 6 sq.mm. Consistent with this selected thresholds breakers 10, 16, 20 and 32 A.
- Each machine comprises a fuse, but sometimes the device is offline. Detail the issue understands reviews breaker and electric machine. Fuse selected from the above considerations.
Automatic not disconnected when the current reaches the operating value. This is just a threshold, above which begins tracking. For example, in the video A. Zemskov shows that foreign standards off with a delay:
- Exceeding 13% - more than an hour.
- Exceeding 45% - less than an hour.
This ensures transparency and start collecting asynchronous motors, ignition burners electric stove. But! Not only for the most sensitive class of machines that Russian consumers are not recommended to put in its own electrical panel. Sensitive electronics fit in, in other cases - S. On the screen are clearly visible tripping and non-tripping currents. Their values are different, and a wide corridor. Inside it off is delayed, the less it is, the closer the upper limit. Speed was entirely determined by the bimetal switch, which is part of the machine.