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Beijing cabbage is a cold-resistant, one-year-old vegetable. The vegetation period does not exceed 2 months, from sowing seeds to the formation of a full-fledged head of cabbage.
At achievement of commodity qualities, depending on a grade, can possess a cylindrical, short-oval, long-oval, dense or friable head of cabbage. The average leaf length is 25 cm, the structure and color of the leaf plates can also vary significantly - the color range is from rich green to light green, the structure is slightly swollen and wrinkled.
Beijing cabbage is grown on all types of protected and open ground as a sealer for tomatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, white cabbage or as an independent culture.
How to grow Chinese cabbage?
Long-time homeowners and beginners are often plagued by issues related to growing new, unusual crops and Chinese cabbage, in this regard, is no exception. Here are just some of them:
- How to grow Beijing cabbage in open ground?
- Can plants be fed during the growing season?
- Which seedlings or seeds are preferred?
- How and when to water?
Despite the seemingly unpretentiousness, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage has its own nuances and minor tricks, non-observance of which can significantly reduce the yield and nullify all the efforts of the gardeners.
Seedlings or seeds?
Which way, seedlings or seeds, to plant Beijing cabbage depends on individual conditions, i.e. where and how the plant will develop: in the greenhouse, on ridges, in open ground, what is the average day length, planting time( spring, end of summer).
Important! When planting and cultivating Peking cabbage in a hot and / or dry time, the plant goes sharply in color and heads of cabbage are not formed. In addition, the culture begins to actively produce arrows and with excessive light, including during the long white nights, which are characteristic of some northern regions, as well as Siberia.
Cultivation of Peking cabbage in Siberia and the Urals is quite possible, but it is necessary to adjust the lighting artificially, i.e.choose areas with shading or forcibly cover the planting from the light in the greenhouse.
- seeds - sown in March, early April, late July, as well as in the first decade of August. Sowing scheme 20 × 40 cm. For planting in other temporary periods, only universal varieties are suitable, mainly hybrids, such as “Chinese selective”, “Lyubasha”, “Naina F1”;
- seedlings - planting is done at the same time as the seeds, but since the plant has already passed the initial growth stage( root formation, the appearance of the first leaves), the crop can be harvested much earlier. Landing scheme 30 × 50 cm.
Important! You can not sow the seeds or plant seedlings of cabbage after collecting any cruciferous crops: radish, turnip, mustard, radish, as they affect common pests and diseases.
- Open ground:
- seeds - sowing is done after warming up the soil, as a rule, this occurs in early May. To obtain the autumn harvest, sowing campaign can be started in the second decade of July. Pre-soaking of seeds is not required. The sowing scheme for growing as a salad culture is 20 × 20 cm, if necessary for the formation of a head - 35 × 35 cm, 50 × 50 cmSeeding rate 4 g per each 10 m².The best results are obtained when sowing seeds on ridges with their penetration into the soil by 10–15 mm.
- seedlings - transplanting seedlings into the ground is carried out in early May. The planting pattern is 30 × 50 cm. When planting, care must be taken to ensure that the root system is not damaged in any way. To facilitate this process, agricultural technicians recommend growing Beijing cabbage seedlings in separate peat pots or containers, from which you can easily get the plant without deforming rootlump of earth.
Important! To obtain high yields, it is necessary to monitor the compliance of the selected variety with the time span of planting, i.e., early ones should be planted in spring, and later ones closer to autumn and not vice versa.
Care for Beijing cabbage
Care for Beijing cabbage, as well as for any vegetable crop, consists of watering, weeding and feeding plants.
- The optimal balance between air temperature and humidity regime is extremely important for obtaining good yields, this statement is especially true during the formation of the head and outlet.
- during the day from 15 to 19 ° C;
- at night not lower than 8 ° C.
- on an overcast day 70%;
- sunny day 80%;
- at night about 80%.
Soil moisture 65%.
If these requirements are not followed, the leaves are often affected by various diseases, such as gray, white and black rot, as a result of which the plant does not develop normally and the head does not form.
Important! Despite the fact that the culture needs well-moistened soil, it does not tolerate stagnant water.
- Nutrition - Peking cabbage prefers fertile soil, which contains a large amount of nitrogen and calcium. But even if the vegetable garden land is poor in organic matter and trace elements - it does not matter. The plant responds well to a variety of top dressing, both of natural origin( mullein), and on feeding with complex fertilizers.
- Autumn - 4.5 kg of manure, 1.5 dessert spoons of double superphosphate and 2.5 dessert are required for each m².spoons of potassium sulfate. In the absence of the last component, it can be replaced with ordinary wood ash at the rate of 1-liter jar per 1 m² of soil;
- before planting - make a solution prepared from bird droppings( water 10 liters and ½ kg manure) or from eggshell( 30 g. Crushed shell insist for 2 days in 5 liters of water).If for some reason fertilizers were not added to the soil in the fall, then before planting, during spring digging, you need to add potassium sulfate, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, each component is taken in the amount of 1 tbsp.lfor each m².
Important! Beijing cabbage has a high ability to accumulate nitrates, so fertilizer is not recommended during the vegetative period. All fertilizers must be applied before the plant is planted on the plot.
- Watering - it is necessary to water daily in dry weather, it is better to do it with a sprinkling method, in this case the plants get the necessary amount of moisture and at the same time there is no over-wetting of the soil.
Pests of Peking cabbage and methods of dealing with them
- cruciferous flea;
- cruciferous bug.
Considering that the culture has the ability to accumulate harmful substances in itself, it is not chemicals that are most suitable for pest control, but folk methods that, if used regularly, give excellent results.
- Planting crops between rows of tomato, onion or garlic significantly reduces the activity of the cruciferous flea. As a stronger means, it is recommended to spray the plants and the soil between the rows with a special solution. For its preparation, you need to take green potato and tomato tops( 200 g of each component), and 2 large heads of garlic. Grind all ingredients and leave for about a day. Peking cabbage photo, which is located below, is planted according to this principle - between two beds of onion.
- Careful and systematic removal of weeds, also prevents cruciferous plants from damaging plants.
- After the emergence of cabbage butterflies in the garden, it is necessary to inspect the lower surface of the leaves as often as possible.