Cauliflower, in spite of the fact that it can not be seen at every dacha, deserves special attention. This vegetable contains many vitamins and trace elements that are beneficial to humans. Their number, for example, includes vitamins of groups B, C, also iron, potassium, magnesium. Due to the many positive characteristics, our article will be devoted to the proper cultivation of cauliflower.
Popular cauliflower varieties: description of
Before proceeding with the story of the most popular varieties, we note that the appearance of cauliflower differs from the ordinary one in that it has white inflorescences. They then eat.
To date, cauliflower varieties are plentiful. The main difference between them is ripening.
Usually distinguish the following varieties of cauliflower:
- early ripe;
- late ripening.
Let us consider the most popular varieties of cauliflower.
Early ripening cauliflower varieties
Early ripening varieties are distinguished by a short growing season. Approximately 100 days are needed from germination to harvest. The heads of these varieties are dense, the leaves are short. Here are a few examples:
- "Dachnitsa" - has a white flattened shape. Fruit weight is about 1 kg. You can freeze, and also apply fresh;
- Cauliflower variety, the photo of the bark presented below, is called "Amphora".This variety is distinguished by the unusual shape of the head - it resembles a shell. The weight of the head can reach 2 kg. The use is universal;
- "Snowdrift" - has a round head. Its weight is not so big - about 1 kg. Good for freezing.
Mid-season varieties of cauliflower
Maturing period for middle-season cauliflower varieties is about 110-120 days. The leaves are larger, the heads of cabbages reach an impressive mass. Here are some popular varieties from this series:
- Moscow Canning - grows well in Siberia. The heads are large, weighing about 1.5 kg.;
- "Patriotic" - cabbages grow small - about 700-800 grams. Vegetation period varies from 100 to 120 days;
- "Yako" is a high-yielding variety. Head weight is 650-800 g.ripens very quickly: an average of 60 days from planting to harvest.
Late-ripened cauliflower varieties
These varieties have the longest growing season - it can reach 200 days. Fruits are quite dense, medium or small size. Usually these varieties are grown in the south of Russia.
- “Adler winter” is a late ripe variety. Heads can grow up to 1.8 kg. Preferred to be consumed fresh;
- "Sochi" - heads grow small. Their weight is about 0.5 kg. As a rule, this variety is grown in the Krasnodar Territory.
How to grow cauliflower seedlings?
To grow cauliflower seedlings at home, you need to know some of the nuances and rules. This, for example, is about the time of sowing, the frequency of watering, picking( transplanting), and preparing the soil. We will tell about each process in more detail.
The timing of sowing cauliflower seeds directly depends on the growing season of the selected variety. Seeds of early ripe varieties are sown in the first decade of March( 5-10 numbers), mid-season and late ripening seeds - in the second decade of March( 10-20 numbers) or in open ground in early April under a covering material or film.
Preparation of soil for seedlings
An important stage is the preparation of soil for seedlings. Properly selected land allows, to some extent, reduce the time of seed germination. So, what is needed: peat, turf land and river sand. All ingredients are mixed at the rate of 1: 1: 1.
It is important not to overdo the watering of cauliflower seedlings. If the soil is too wet, the seedlings may rot, and with a lack of moisture will slowly develop. The best option is to water the cabbage seedlings in small portions as the ground dries( usually 2-3 times a week).
IMPORTANT: At the initial stage, when cabbage seeds are only sown, watering of seedlings is done only when the first shoots appear( usually it takes 10-15 days).
Pickling seedlings of cauliflower
Pickup is the process of transplanting seedlings into a larger container. This is done to ensure that the roots of the plants become the strongest and take root more quickly when they are planted into the ground. Cauliflower seedling spikes at 14 days of age.
Growing cauliflower in open ground
Cauliflower can be planted in open ground in April. So that the seedlings that have not yet become frozen do not freeze, they should cover it with polyethylene. Covering material can also be used for this purpose.
Planted cauliflower usually in the hole. The optimal landing pattern is 50:50, i.e.and between the holes, and between the rows should be about the same distance. In order for the cabbage to take root well in the new place, it needs to be shaded for 2-3 days( pull some piece of rag over it).Meanwhile, experienced gardeners, in order to exclude the loss of seedlings, advise planting cabbage in cloudy weather.
IMPORTANT: Planted seedlings when there are about 5 true leaves on a plant( this takes about 45-50 days).If the planting is done earlier, then the cabbage can die, and if later - the leaf rosette grows weak, the head will be small.
When to feed cauliflower?
After planting the seedlings in the ground, caring for cauliflower is reduced to the timely introduction of additional dressings - this is necessary for the growth of a powerful leaf outlet. If it( the socket) is poor, you can not wait for a good harvest. As a rule, make three dressings:
- The first one is made 10 days after transplanting into the ground. For this, ammonium nitrate is used( 20 g per 10 liters of water).
- After 14 days make the second feeding. This time, in addition to ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and superphosphate are used.
- The third dressing falls on the period of tying the heads. In this case, full mineral fertilizer is applied to the soil.
How often to water the cauliflower?
When growing cauliflower in the open field, do not forget about systematic watering. If it is not provided with a sufficient amount of moisture, the cabbages will grow small, and in some cases they may not even start at all.
Harvesting and storing the crop
The ripening period of cauliflower directly depends on the selected variety: early ones can be obtained in the middle or end of June. However, the main collection of cauliflower still falls on July. During harvest, the cabbage is cut with a sharp knife, while grabbing a couple of leaves. If the fruits are torn overripe, they quickly deteriorate.
In time, cut fruits can be stored for up to two months at a temperature of 0 - +1 degrees.
Cauliflower is used for canning and for freezing. For these purposes, you must choose a dense white fruit.
Growing cauliflower is not that difficult. The main thing is not to forget to water and periodically feed the plant. You should also pay special attention to the choice of varieties. For example, in the conditions of Siberia, gardeners usually acquire precocious varieties of cabbage.