There is hardly a mature man who has not seen the packet switch in my life, even though not all know what it's called. A few decades ago such devices were installed at each entrance and in all apartments.
They were used as a contact-via which enables and disables the supply of electricity. Over time batchfile replaced by modern machines, but not everywhere.
The content of the article:
- What is a packet switch?
- Design features batchfile
- 5 indisputable advantages devices
- Basic types and kinds batchfile
More modern counterparts instrument
- Option # 1: residual current device
- Option # 2: Circuit Breaker
- Option # 3: Differential automatic
- Option # 4: contactor - type of electromagnetic relays
- Driving batchfile connection
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
What is a packet switch?
Batchfile - are devices that are designed for switching (ie on or off) of small load currents. They are connected to the mains DC and AC 440-660 V.
Apparatus is hardly convenient because it does not provide automatic de-energization in the event of overloads in their device.
Devices are indispensable in substations. Special personnel applying them to take account of the readings. Batchfile also set for the convenience of drivers of electric power units
In addition to the lack of protection and automation devices have one major drawback: they are quickly broken with frequent voltage drops. For this reason, they were used much less frequently.
Still too early to speak about the irrelevance batchfile as they are cheap and their switching resource satisfactory. Devices are still suitable for use in switchboards and control boards.
With batchfile problems arise because of the inability of Auto network if necessary. If the load is even slightly higher than the permissible, the device fails
At the entrances of apartment buildings are no longer put the packet switches. They have been replaced with modern two-pole machines, characterized by the best wear resistance, durability and greater throughput current capacity. The new unit is connected to the power supply of each individual apartment, not a door.
Design features batchfile
In batchfile structure includes the contact group and a switching mechanism. They are enclosed in a shell, wherein the movable contacts are also recorded on a square hub of electrically insulating material.
The apparatus is provided with fixed contacts, the terminals of which come out of the housing and at its resemble blades. Contacts are connected and disconnected by a spring. It is controlled by a circuit breaker.
the housing itself is modular: it consists of insulating washers that hold special pins. Terminals of the moving contacts is controlled by the handle, which activates the spring of the switching mechanism
Rotate the handle starts the spring of the switching mechanism. She turns a quarter turn curly puck and moving contacts. Proceedings washers limited focus located in the lid.
The movable contacts are attached to the plates, made of fiber. The material being heated, it releases gas which under pressure moves through the opening of the bag. Instead, gas enters into the housing unionized air and extinguishes the arc.
Disk-packet switch is turned off by turning the handle strictly at 90 degrees. Cutout can only be in two states, in contrast to the cam switch where switching contacts depends on the location of the handle
Due to the simplicity of design and ease of use batchfile widely used in the following areas:
- as input switches;
- Switch control circuits;
- as the distributors of electric current;
- for motor control.
There are many different types of models for use in different conditions: in dry and damp rooms, for installation in a cabinet and technological niches.
5 indisputable advantages devices
The popularity of packet switches for many decades due to the indisputable advantages of these devices:
- Compactness. Due to the small size of the device is easy to install and easy to operate.
- High speed blanking arcing. Packet switches are constructed rationally, so as the extinguishing of the electrical arc and the disconnection unit occurs almost immediately.
- Ease of maintenance. Batchfile not need any special care or maintenance. The main thing is that their time examined and replaced if necessary.
- Resistance to damage. Devices difficult to break. They do well with a mechanical loads, do not suffer from vibration.
- The wide range of applications. Packet switches are not afraid of high and low temperature (-40 to 70 degrees). Apparatus enclosed in a sealed housing resistant to dust and moisture.
batchfile operation time depends on the state of the locking washer protrusions.
If the main working part wears out, the device fails. It is because of this feature, the devices have a claim with respect to a short service life.
There are many types of packet one-, two-, three- and four-pole devices to disconnect the power supply. Their main technical characteristics are specified in the manufacturer labeling and due to the connection diagrams
Packet switches can not be repaired. If they break down, they have to be replaced. But for the life of the devices do not need to serve. Suffice it twice a year to clean them from dirt and check the functionality.
Basic types and kinds batchfile
Batchfile classified according to various criteria:
- at the place of connection of external electric cables to the panel (front, rear connection);
- on the degree of protection of internal structural members of the negative factors of the environment (open distinguish protected, sealed devices);
- construction characteristics of the switches (packet-cam, rotary).
Despite the wide variety of packet switches and switches they have common technical and operational characteristics, and similar disadvantages.
Thus, the resource of the spring mechanism 103 is designed for about a power outage. There is a wear-resistant models that perform 203-1000 outages. The main condition: frequency response mechanism should not exceed 50 for 1 hour.
Batchfile unprotected body is perfectly suited for installation in electrical switchboards. The main thing is that boards, niche or boxes located in dry areas and are securely closed from dust, moisture, splashing. If these conditions are not met, it is likely that the device quickly fail due to rust, dust, or damage to the contacts
Packet switching device off and closed by the housing, optionally mounted in niches and billboards. Their outer shell provides a good protection against dust and accidental damage. Manufacturers separately made sure that did not get to contact dirt particles, and it was impossible to touch live parts without disassembling the device
It is splash proof and devices in explosion-proof enclosures. External devices shell made of durable plastic and aluminum. Materials exceptionally durable, do not corrode. Shells designed so that inside the mechanism do not fall off water droplets and dust particles. Such devices can be installed in any environment, even outside the premises
Batchfile different mode of installation. They are divided into fixed and withdrawable with plug contacts. Choose a device depending on convenience and the specific operating conditions. The main thing is that the technical characteristics of the devices corresponds to the voltage in the network, the number of lines and poles, rated current
Open packet switch
Protected and unprotected batchfile
Batchfile in a sealed enclosure
Modern stationary packet switch
Product labeling can include alphanumeric symbols:
- "B" - the switch;
- "P" - switch;
- "P" - batch;
- "G" - sealed;
- figures 1-4 - number of poles;
- "N" - direction (2, 3, 4, and "R" - reverse).
The marking devices indicate the degree of protection, type of accommodation, especially installation, the nominal current. Sometimes you can find notes-reduction "of forces." And "square.".
They are used to denote the housing material (silumin, plastic). For example, the marking device GPPM-2-60 / H2 stands for the 2-pin 60-amp sealed packet switch in 2 directions.
More modern counterparts instrument
Old packet switches are almost always replaced by machines. This is logical, because the changed requirements for power consumption and durability of devices. It is now widely used RCD (residual current device), automatic vending machines and differential contactors.
Option # 1: residual current device
The device is designed to prevent current leakage. He responds to the differential current, which contributes to overheating of electric cables, which can cause a short circuit, a fire wire. Leakage may also constitute a risk of shock.
The device can not be considered wholly analogue batchfile but complete with automatic switch, it performs even more functions
RCD should be installed to avoid the risk of electric leakage, if it begins to pass devices consumers. The device acts as a leak detector, which simply turns off the electricity in case of emergency.
In itself breaker device It does not protect against overloads or short circuits. This is possible only if it is connected in conjunction with a circuit breaker.
Option # 2: Circuit Breaker
These devices have replaced the packet switch. They perform the same functions, but it is more convenient to operate, durable and wear-resistant.
The circuit-breakers can also be one-, two-, three-, chetyrohpolyusnymi. They differ in the type of drive (it can be manual, spring, motor), the type of interconnection and other technical and operational characteristics.
Selective circuit breaker does not need additional power to open or close contacts. The device is an electro-mechanical and is designed so that fulfills its functions well
Offer for sale breakers mark and classified in accordance with GOST 9098-78 and 14255. These documents set out the requirements for technical characteristics of devices.
Option # 3: Differential automatic
It is a combined machine that simultaneously performs the functions of two devices - the RCD and circuit breaker. differential automatic perfectly replaces batchfile for domestic networks and successfully applied in enterprises.
Differential automatic - the device "2 in 1": the circuit breaker and RCD placed in a common housing. He perfectly cope with the tasks of both units and at the same time is compact, easy to operate
The functional and structural differences diffavtomata and RCDs listed here, Be sure to familiarize yourself with very useful information.
Differential automatic prevents leakage, short-circuit, minimizing the risks of electric shock. The device structure includes thermal and electromagnetic trip units. The first prevents network congestion, and the second is needed to turn off the electric current when a short circuit.
Option # 4: contactor - type of electromagnetic relays
The device is required for the remote control mode on / off circuits. electromagnetic relays do not work under short circuit and are only designed for rated currents. This is their main difference from the circuit breakers.
Devices characterized by exceptional electrical and mechanical wear resistance. They are installed in the elevator mechanisms, vehicles used in enterprises
In modern homes are rarely installed legacy packet switches. Almost universally practiced installation Emergency circuit breakers or RCD connection in conjunction with a circuit breaker. But there are times when good old batchfile may be indispensable, for example, if you want to turn off the power supply during electrical work.
Driving batchfile connection
The compact packet switch can be installed in a cabinet. To do this, use a DIN-rail. If you selected an older model, you need to take into account that it is unlikely to be a latch and mounting screws required. When installing modern batchfile problems do not happen.
Two input terminals connected to the wires batchfile phase and zero, which run from the meter. And the output terminals are connected to machines in a cluster.
The diagram is shown visible phase and neutral wires. These terminals must be connected packet switch. By the same token connected machine, if it is put in place of the old batchfile
On the domestic circuits and wires zero phase marked in blue and red, respectively.
If the product is imported, the colors of the cables may be different, so be sure to read the technical documentation and manufacturer's recommendations. Do not experiment "blind".
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
We offer thematic 'video, which will help to understand the structure, purpose, principle of operation of packet switches of various types.
Design features of the Soviet packet switch:
Current models SA25 series:
How does the FDA batchfile February 10:
Videos for connecting the RCD and circuit breaker:
Although the popularity of packet switches is reduced every year, manufacturers continue to produce them. The new model is much easier and have fewer drawbacks than obsolete.
When selecting a suitable batchfile should pay attention to a few brands: Legrand (France), IEK (Russia), ABB (Sweden, Switzerland). This reliable brands and their products are of high quality.
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