LED lamp

LED bulb - a device that generates light using semiconductor components. Emission occurs in the region of p-n-transition, review the subject is very different from conventional transistors. Distinguish many species, there are a host of features. Let us consider the concept - LED lamp.

LED lamp device

How to make LED

The phenomenon of electroluminescence first spotted in 1907 by Henry Joseph Round, work for the company Laboratory Marconi. When studying silicon carbide crystal composition (amplitude) detector pioneer radio observed luminescence. The instrument was used to separate the useful signal from the envelope wave. If you look at the picture on Wikipedia striking similarity with LED. Virtually unchanged it becomes a miniature copy of the crystal detector. But functions are now performs other - emits light.

As with any semiconductor device capable of rectifying the current, but is considered the main advantage of the ability emit photons at the transition to the sharing of two electrons materials to specific energy levels. The crystalline effect detector considered rather side, in the LED lamp becomes basic working mechanism. The frequency should correspond to the visible, otherwise the effect will be noticeable. Other ranges are often used:

  1. Sources of ultraviolet spectrum of light used in tanning salons, to identify and detect counterfeit bills.
  2. Infrared lasers are used in communication and control panels for cosmetic and other operations.
The semiconductor light-emitting diode

The semiconductor light-emitting diode

Such radiation can not be seen. Only smoke coming over the skin defect in the process of removing from the surface, pink lighting, no more. Working light, carrying a narrow spectral range, tremendous energy, invisible to the eye. Any semiconductor LED (see. photo) contains a part of the that uniquely distinguish the device from the other:

  1. Transparent flask, often in the form of bullets. Usually made of plastic.
  2. Inside it is easy to see the electrodes in the form of the bridge over the precipice. As in the crystal detector. Lit central part where the two materials are joined with different types of conductivity.
  3. The anode forms a leg longer, where needed apply a positive potential from a DC source, e.g., batteries. Be careful during the test, the LED is easy to break through the reverse voltage. He begins to glow long before reaching the nominal value. We recommend using the battery at 3 V.

Inside distinguish between the electrodes a thin thread. Light appears in the center, where the hair comes to the cathode. Extremely simple device allows you to stamp hundreds of semiconductor devices on Aliekspress ten infrared LEDs costs 50 rubles cheaper. In the Russian shops these devices are expensive.

LED lamps are not constructed from individual elements, and dies. This tiny bright areas, giving a light output in lumens hundreds. A couple of these is the basis for the LED lamp. Matrix is ​​powered by a relatively low voltage socket is located inside the driver (a small pulse power supply). Although there are commercially available and LED arrays for voltage of 220 V. As a rule, the individual semiconductor elements recruited consecutively present at least two branches, each running on its own half-wave sine wave power.

LED illumination

LED illumination

The LED illumination is formed by passing a direct current. You can not apply a significant reverse voltage, the element is relatively easy to burn.

Cap LED Lamps

Bulbs are the lamps in household chandeliers are made and under standard cartridge E27. found:

  1. With E14. Thread diameter 14 mm, smaller than the standard. The difference - in the amount of the cap.
  2. GU3 two-pin 12 is used to supply voltage V or 220 V.
  3. The socket G9 distance between the pins is 9 mm. Such bulbs typically operate at a voltage of 220 V AC.

This is not an exhaustive list. Today, most places in the house LED lamps with E27 base. The obvious solution, carving Edison 27 mm was considered standard by default even in the USSR. As a result, for the installation is not required to purchase exotic cartridges. LED lamp is not always screwed without effort - just import standards differ from domestic ones. Edison thread nominally the same diameter (e.g., 27 mm), but different cutting length.

In this connection socket LED bulb does not get to the cartridge contacts. Small difficulty, readers are encouraged to do the following operations:

  • Cut down the power through the circuit breaker or other means.
  • Cartridge release. Remove the threaded portion (see. Photo).


  • The center pin chuck screwdriver bend upward horns side slightly shifted to each other.

After operation done normally pulls cap. You can not try to screw the LED bulb with the power. In this case, the thin metal cap is easily torn, which makes the further operation problematic. cartridge contacts easier to configure using a halogen (bit) energy-saving light bulbs (see. Photo). Such cap is easily rotated with extra effort. But you can not abuse it, inside of the contacts on the board driver has two outputs, with excessive diligence easy to tear. When the cartridge is set, it becomes possible to easily use the LED lamp.

Energy saving light bulb

Energy saving light bulb

Contacts often acidifying should then rub them fine sandpaper or needle files. If necessary, replace the entire cartridge or electric part.

Thread and Edison bulb

Edison thread is described by the international IEC 60061-1 standard and is named in honor of the creator. The scientist considered the inventor of the filament light bulbs. Patents granted in 1909 under the brand GE company Mazda (not to be confused with Japanese cars). In the US, the brand has existed until 1945, named in honor of the Iranian deity of Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda, whose name in the free interpretation in Russian translated as Wisdom Light. After World War II the relevance light bulbs began to fall, but the patent was updated several times by companies, and the latter has expired only in 2000.

Edison thread designed on the basis of metal-sided spiral quickly replaced other types of sockets for incandescent lamps. The designation of the letter E indicates the right inventor (Edison), figure denotes the diameter in millimeters slicing. This is different from the designation of the flasks, which usually appear eighths of an inch. A number of the thread diameter LED lamps long, often used three positions:

  1. E10.
  2. E14.
  3. E27.

And the first, mainly for non-standard voltage of 24 V. When buying exotics like products on the 12, always specify, using direct or alternating current. It is not so obvious as it seems at first glance. Inside the cap LED lamp driver is located in the device task is the conversion of the input voltage to the desired format. It is clear that the power supply to the 220 does not always work correctly with the 24 V. And vice versa.

However, there are commercially available transducers with 220 variables 24 and blocks the DC power. Then the genus voltage is different. In the first case it is a variable, and the second constant. Moreover, both products are found under the standard DIN-rail distribution board. It turns out, and appearance, and the procedure for the same price, it is easy to confuse. But back to the cap of LED lamps.

In addition to these there are mogul and Goliath. This giant diameter pedestals 39 (120, American variant) and 40 (230, European kind) mm, and the lamps are more commonly used for street lighting. Recall that the LEDs can save up to 10 times the consumption of the economic benefits of using the equipment is difficult to underestimate.

Massive plinth need an extremely powerful lamp to dissipate large amounts of heat and not melt. The day will come, when less massive equipment will be used in street lights. And it will happen because of LED lamps. In addition to the above known other denominations Edison thread:

  • 5 mm.
  • 11 and 12 (often used to create billboards, window dressing) mm. The first size is typical for Europe, one for the US.
  • 17 mm is frequently used for table lamps with an operating voltage of 120 V.
  • 26 (120) and 27 (230) mm are often used abroad as a cap for lamps for household and general-purpose.
  • Thread 29 mm often used in light bulbs for special purposes. For example, ultraviolet flaw detectors.

It should be noted that the thread E26 and E27 as well as E39 and E40 often interchangeable. The difference is so small that it manages to screw the foreign lamp. We must be careful, because different operating voltage. As a result, the product is able to simply fail.

Most traditional LED bulb, pear-shaped, mostly matte. Often manufacturers in this regard go to the trick. Produce incandescent light bulb with a matte bulb. As a result, difficult to understand that for the product actually buy. Here in the first place there is the energy efficiency of LED lamps.

Labeling of energy efficiency bulbs

Labeling of energy efficiency bulbs

Energy efficiency of LED lamps

Energy efficiency of LED lamps provide a device popular in the world. According to the color scale of the EU labeling is easy to determine whether the seller is not trying to foist a conventional filament bulb under the mat. Labeling rules described number 874/2012 of 12 July 2012 in support of the Directive 2010/30 / EU. Every reader will find the document on the network, we are only a couple of pictures we present. It can be seen that the level of energy efficiency is affixed colored arrow so that the LED models - not lower than A.

Thus, the bulb filament is distinguished by low specifications. Mainly energy lying in the area D. And the price in both families is almost the same. Be careful!

The color temperature of LED lamps

LED lamps have a great advantage, emit in a very narrow range of the spectrum. All the energy is converted into visible photons eye. This saves energy, eliminates heat at the base. As a result, it becomes possible to use cheap chandeliers, it is not possible with conventional incandescent bulbs. LED remains relatively cool even after long hours of operation.

But the color temperature refers to another area. It shows what part of the visible spectrum is radiation. Warm tones closer to red and the yellow, are appropriate in the bedroom. For working cabinet preferable to use cold colors with a high color temperature of 5000 K and above. Find easy option in the specifications.

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