By installing a heat accumulator for heating boilers, the owners significantly increase the efficiency of the entire heating system. systems, optimize the total cost of maintaining the property and significantly save on the purchase of the necessary fuel.
The boiler can be serviced at a convenient time of day, without feeling at the same time reducing the level of comfort in residential premises.
The content of the article:
- What is a heat accumulator
- Features of internal and external devices
- The principle of the heat-saving product
- Varieties of heat storage models
- How does a hollow unit
- Heat accumulator with one or two coils
- Internal boiler module
- Scope of the heataccumulator
- Thermal battery in the solar system
- Buffer tank for solid fuel boiler
- Electrical system tank
- Do-it-yourself energy store
- How to insulate the unit
- The rate of consumption of the accumulated resource
- Rules of safe operation
- Useful video on the topic
What is a heat accumulator
The heat accumulator is a buffer tank designed to accumulate excess heat generated during the operation of the boiler. The saved resource is then used in the heating system in the period between the planned loadings of the main fuel resource.
Connecting a properly selected battery allows you to reduce the cost of purchasing fuel (in some cases up to 50%) and gives you the opportunity to switch to one load per day instead of two.
If you equip the equipment with intelligent controllers and temperature sensors, and the supply of heat from the storage tank to the heating the system to automate, the heat transfer will increase significantly, and the number of portions of fuel loaded into the combustion chamber of the heating unit is noticeably will decrease.
Features of internal and external devices
The heat accumulator is a tank in the form of a vertical cylinder made of black or stainless steel sheet of high strength. On the inner surface of the device has a layer of bakelite lacquer. It protects the buffer capacity from the aggressive influence of technical hot water, weak solutions of salts and concentrated acids. Powder paint that is resistant to high thermal loads is applied to the outside of the unit.
External heat insulation is made of re-foamed polyurethane foam. The thickness of the protective layer is about 10 cm. The material has a specific complex weaving and internal polyvinyl chloride coating. This configuration does not allow particles of dirt and small debris to accumulate between the fibers, provides a high level of water resistance and increases the overall durability of the insulator.
The surface of the protective layer is covered with a good quality leatherette case. Due to these conditions, the water in the buffer tank cools down much more slowly, and the level of total heat loss of the entire system is significantly reduced.
The principle of the heat-saving product
The heat accumulator operates according to the simplest scheme. From above the pipe is supplied to the unit from a gas, solid fuel or electric boiler. On it hot water comes to an accumulative tank. Cooling down in the process, it goes down to the location of the circular pump and with its help is fed back into the main passage to return to the boiler for the next heating.
The boiler of any type, regardless of the type of fuel resource, operates in steps, periodically switching on and off to achieve the optimum temperature of the heating element.
When the work is stopped, the coolant enters the tank, and in the system it is replaced by a hot liquid, which is not cooled due to the presence of the heat accumulator. As a result, even after turning off the boiler and switching it to passive mode until the next fuel charge, the batteries remain hot for a while, and warm water flows from the tap.
Varieties of heat storage models
All buffer tanks perform almost the same function, but have some structural features. Manufacturers produce storage units of three types:
- hollow (not having internal heat exchangers);
- with one or two coilsproviding more efficient operation of equipment;
- with built-in boiler tanks small diameter, designed for the correct operation of the individual hot water supply complex of a private house.
The heat accumulator is connected to the heating boiler and the communication wiring of the domestic heating system by means of threaded holes located in the outer casing of the unit.
How does a hollow unit
The device, which has neither a coil, nor a built-in boiler inside, is one of the simplest types of equipment and is cheaper than its more “clever” analogues. Connects to one or more (depending on the needs of the owners) sources energy supply through central communications, and then through the pipes 1 ½ is divorced to points of consumption.
It is planned to install an additional heating element that functions on electrical energy. The unit provides high-quality heating of residential real estate, minimizes the risk of overheating of the coolant and makes the operation of the system completely safe for the consumer.
Heat accumulator with one or two coils
A heat accumulator equipped with one or two heat exchangers (coils) is a progressive version of a wide range of equipment. The upper coil in the design is responsible for the selection of thermal energy, and the lower one performs intensive heating of the buffer tank itself.
The presence of heat exchange units in the unit allows you to get around the clock hot water for domestic use, to warm the tank from solar collector, to warm up the house lanes and to make the most efficient use of useful heat in any other convenient purposes.
Internal boiler module
The heataccumulator with a built-in boiler is a progressive unit, not only accumulating excess heat generated by the boiler, but also ensuring the supply of hot water to the faucet domestic purposes. The internal boiler tank is made of stainless steel and is equipped with a magnesium anode. It reduces the level of water hardness and prevents the formation of scale on the walls.
The unit of this type is connected to various energy sources and works correctly with both open and closed systems. Controls the temperature level of the current coolant and protects the heating complex from overheating of the boiler. Optimizes fuel consumption and reduces the number and frequency of downloads. It is combined with solar collectors of any models and can function as a substitute for the hydraulic switch.
Scope of the heataccumulator
The heat accumulator collects and accumulates the energy developed by the heating system, and then helps use it as efficiently as possible for efficient heating and provision of residential premises hot water.
It works with different types of equipment, but is most often used in conjunction with solar collectors, solid fuel and electric boilers.
Thermal battery in the solar system
The solar collector is a modern type of equipment that allows the use of free solar energy for everyday household needs. But without a heat accumulator, the equipment is not able to fully function, since solar energy does not flow evenly. This is due to the change of time of day, weather conditions and seasonality.
If the heating and water supply system is powered only by a single source of energy (the sun), in some moments, tenants may have serious problems with the supply of the resource and getting the usual elements comfort.
A heat accumulator will help to avoid these unpleasant moments and make the most efficient use of clear, sunny days to accumulate energy. For operation in a solar system, it uses the high heat capacity of water, 1 liter of which, cooling only a degree, allocates heat potential for heating 1 cubic meter of air by 4 degrees.
In the period of peak solar activity, when the collector collects the maximum amount of light and the energy production significantly exceeds the consumption, the heat accumulator accumulates surpluses and supplies them to the heating system when the resource flow from the outside decreases or even stops, for example, at night Times of Day.
Buffer tank for solid fuel boiler
Cyclicity is a characteristic feature of the solid fuel boiler. At the first stage, firewood is loaded into the furnace and warming up occurs for some time. Maximum power and highest temperatures are observed at the peak of the burning of the bookmark.
Then the heat emission gradually decreases, and when the firewood finally burns down, the process of generating useful heating energy stops. According to this principle, all boilers are functioning, including long burning devices.
There is no possibility to precisely adjust the unit to generate heat energy with reference to the level of consumption required at any given moment. This function is available only in more advanced equipment, for example, in modern gas or electric heating boilers.
Therefore, directly at the time of ignition and at the time of reaching the actual power, and then in the process of cooling and the forced passive state of the equipment of thermal energy for full heating and heating of hot water can just not enough.
But during peak operation and the active phase of fuel combustion, the amount of energy released will be excessive and most of it, literally, “will fly into the pipe”. As a result, the resource will be spent inefficiently, and the owners will have to constantly load new portions of fuel into the boiler.
The installation of the heat accumulator, which at the time of increased activity will accumulate heat in the tank, solves this problem. Then, when the wood is burned out and the boiler goes into passive standby mode, the buffer will transfer the collected energy. heat carrier that warms up and begins to circulate through the system, heating the room to bypass the cooled device.
Electrical system tank
Electric heating equipment is a rather expensive option, but it is also sometimes installed, and, as a rule, in combination with a solid fuel boiler. This is usually done where other sources of heat are unavailable for objective reasons. Of course, with this method of heating electricity bills are seriously increased and home comfort costs the owners a lot of money.
In order to reduce the cost of electricity, it is advisable to use the equipment to maximize during the period of preferential tariffing, that is, at night and on weekends. But such an operating mode is possible only if there is a capacious buffer tank where it will accumulate. energy generated during the grace period, which can then be spent on heating and hot water supply to residential premises.
Do-it-yourself energy store
The simplest model of a heat accumulator can be made by hand from a finished steel barrel. If you don’t have one, you will need to purchase several sheets of stainless steel with a thickness of at least 2 mm and weld a suitable container in the shape of a vertical cylindrical tank.
To heat the water in the buffer, you will need to take a copper tube with a diameter of 2-3 centimeters and a length of 8 to 15 m (depending on the size of the tank). It will have to be bent into a spiral and placed inside the tank.
The battery in this model will make the upper part of the barrel. From there, you need to withdraw the outlet for hot water, and the bottom to do the same to enter the cold. Equip each tap with a tap to control the flow of fluid into the storage zone.
In the next step, it is necessary to check the capacity for tightness by filling it with water or lubricating the welds with kerosene. If there is no leakage, you can proceed to the creation of a thermal insulation layer that allows the liquid inside the tank to remain hot as long as possible.
How to insulate the unit
To begin with, the external surface of the container must be carefully cleaned and degreased, and then primed and painted with heat-resistant powder paint, thus protecting against corrosion. Then wrap the tank with insulation or rolled basalt wool 6-8 mm thick and secure it with cords or regular tape. If desired, cover the surface with sheet metal or “wrap up” the tank in foil film.
In the outer layer, cut holes for the branch pipes and connect the tank to the boiler and the heating system. Buffer tank must be equipped with a thermometer, internal pressure sensors and explosive valve. These elements allow you to control the potential overheating of the barrel and occasionally relieve excess pressure.
The rate of consumption of the accumulated resource
It is impossible to accurately answer the question of how quickly the accumulated heat accumulates in the battery.
How long the heating system will work on the resource collected in the buffer tank depends directly on such items as:
- the actual volume of storage capacity;
- the level of heat loss in a heated room;
- air temperature in the street and the current season;
- set values of temperature sensors;
- useful area of the house, which must be heated and supplied with hot water.
Heating of a private house in the passive state of the heating system can be carried out from several hours to several days. At this time, the boiler will “relax” from the load and its working life will be enough for more time.
Rules of safe operation
To thermal batteries, made in the home with their own hands, impose special safety requirements.
- Hot elements of the tank should not be fitted or otherwise in contact with flammable and explosive materials and substances. Ignoring this item may provoke the ignition of individual objects and a fire in the boiler room.
- A closed heating system involves a constant high pressure of the coolant circulating inside. To ensure this item, the design of the tank must be completely sealed. Additionally, its body can be reinforced with ribs, and the lid on the tank should be equipped with durable rubber pads that are resistant to intense operating loads and elevated temperatures.
- If an additional heating element is present in the construction, it is necessary to insulate its contacts very carefully, and the tank must be grounded. In this way, it is possible to avoid electric shock and short circuit, which can disable the system.
If these rules are observed, the operation of the heat accumulator made with its own hands will be completely safe and will not give the owners any problems and troubles.
Useful video on the topic
How to correctly calculate the capacity of the heat accumulator for a domestic heating boiler operating on solid fuel. All the nuances and details of the necessary calculations.
How to make a high-capacity heat accumulator with a convenient and practical removable cover with your own hands. Step by step instructions with explanations.
Why is it advantageous to use heat accumulators in a domestic heating system? A good example of cost savings with a significant increase in the level of comfort in a residential area.
Installing a heat accumulator for a domestic heating system is very profitable and economically viable. The presence of this unit reduces the labor costs for the kindling of the boiler and allows you to bookmark a heating resource not twice a day, but only once.
Significantly reduced fuel consumption required for correct operation of heating equipment. Use of the heat produced is carried out optimally and is not wasted. The cost of heating and hot water is reduced, and living conditions become more convenient, comfortable and pleasant.