Effectiveness and efficiency - the key parameters when choosing a heating system. The price of energy is high enough to use their zealous owners of apartments and private houses are trying to reasonably. These two parameters are the basis of the development of innovative infrared heating systems.
The proposed article will help us to know by what principle works infrared heating system of a private house. We'll show you how and how to adjust the infrared heating. You will learn what equipment is necessary to achieve the intended purpose and how to fix it.
For you we have collected and systematized all the information about the kinds of infrared heating systems, and the criteria for their selection. For visual perception attached photo selections, informative charts and video presentations.
The content of the article:
- The operating principle of infrared heating
- Strengths and weaknesses of the system
Variety of infrared heaters
- №1 - panel heaters
- №2 - emitters film type
Classification according to the method an arrangement of elements
- Option # 1 - floor-standing heaters
- Option # 2 - wall and ceiling devices
- Manufacturers IR heaters
- The criteria for a proper choice of equipment
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of infrared heating
In nature, the infrared radiation is included in the spectral region of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the main "luminary" of our system - the sun. Thanks to them emitted an invisible wave spectrum on our planet and the ability to develop all living things.
scientists infrared radiationWhich is referred to as "heat", is divided into three components, highlighting the near, medium and long-range spectrum.
The most efficient heating and most safe for living organisms are electromagnetic oscillations, following immediately after the visibility of the red side of the middle of the spectrum.
Almost 50% of the solar spectrum occupied by the infrared rays - are closest to the radiation of the human body
length range of the radiation waves, referred to as "rays life" ranges from 8 to 14 microns. Several sources "crisp" interval number increased from 6 to 20 microns. However, even these differences in readings are not critical.
It was the long-range, close in value to the radiation of the human body, it is involved in the development of equipment and arrangement of heating infrared heaters.
The heating plate used in the arrangement of infrared heating, to release heat within the working range of 5-15 .mu.m
Infrared installation can be considered a kind of mini-sun. The only difference from the natural "light" that they will warm up the space continuously, regardless of weather conditions outside the room. Operate such installations in the home from the network 220.
Infrared rays pass through the air barrier, heated solid surfaces of objects in the room, and those already in the subsequent redirect the heat into space
PETN protruding main component device distributes light waves. Due to the reflector warms the object to which the device is sent in the process equipment.
The role of the "receiver" and then "emitters" of heat can perform any objects in the room: ceramic and stone objects, wooden and glass surfaces, living organisms.
Subjects receiving or transmitting its heat to the adjoining space. In the process, the surface of the interior equipment in the radiation zone warmer than the surrounding air by 7-10 degrees.
Heating infrared rays very well be combined with other conventional heating methods, thanks what with minimal effort easily organize any room "heat island" - high zone comfort.
As in everyday life and in an industrial scale, this type of heating which is used as an auxiliary or emergency heating. heat loss when used on the average does not exceed 10%.
Costs associated with the IR heating apparatus compensated for 2 - 3 years. Systems consume no more than 10 - 15 watts per square meter, do not require regular maintenance and repairs
Infrared heating film is placed under the finish on structures without "eats" useful space
infrared heating system arrange on the ceiling. Close the film plasterboard ceilings, decorative panels, rack systems, etc.
With the use of IR film constructing a floor heating system. Infrared heating works perfectly in tandem with floor ceramics, linoleum, laminate, carpet
IR systems are used in the regeneration of attics, thereby reducing the cost of organizing the insulation space defined by the slope of the roof
The film version is perfect for heating terraces, loggias, winter gardens, balconies. Hot items, not air, because possible to use outdoors
For infrared heating devices include infrared devices, which can serve as an additional and major equipment for the heating of a country house
IR film heaters and the temperature was raised to 5º to 20º C over 30 - 50 minutes from the beginning of work. Heated items and designs that are then transmitted heat to the environment
Infrared heating film placement on the ceiling
A variation film for IR heating
Mounting infrared system ceiling
Laying IR film under floor
Infrared film in arrangement attic
Infrared film on terraces and balconies
IR heaters in heating
Heating of industrial premises Infrared devices
Strengths and weaknesses of the system
The heating system based on infrared radiation as compared with convector heating techniques has a number of advantages:
- Wide range of applications. Infrared heating panels used for heating premises of all types. With their help raise the temperature in warehouses, livestock farms, and in the backroom in garages.
- The high heating rate. The feeling of thermal comfort from the moment the equipment comes in a few minutes. This is due to the fact that the air does not absorb the heat radiation and the energy consumed for its intended purpose with minimal losses. And even after the appliance is switched off for a while it will continue to radiate heat.
- Quiet operation. heaters work is not accompanied by any vibrations and noise, and are not allocated the combustion products in the heating process.
- health security of households. By their nature, infrared heat as close to the sun. It is the most comfortable for the individual. Used devices do not emit odors, do not emit toxins and harmful substances, being completely safe to human health.
Heaters of this type are not afraid of moisture. Thereby infrared devices It can be safely used for arrangement of "islands of heat" in the open air, using a heating gazebos and verandas.
Installing infrared heaters, you can significantly reduce teplozatraty and minimize the waste of the temperature distribution of the problem
Unlike the spiral heaters, infrared systems do not burn oxygen from the air and does not desiccate it. heat distribution in the room is uniform without accumulation in the upper half, closer to the ceiling of the room.
And in the process of warming are not involved convection air currents, which are able to raise dust. This makes it possible to maintain a constant microclimate, providing conditions for a comfortable stay households.
Heaters are placed in the floor, ceiling or simply attached to the existing ceilings. They are often used in the regeneration of the "smart home" system.
Infrared panels and film coatings are renowned for compact, occupying a minimum of usable space in the room and at the same time giving the maximum heat
In favor of a modern system performs argument and the fact that in recent years more and more popular among the lovers of infrared saunas gain of spa treatments.
According to research by Japanese scientists, they are an excellent prevention of many diseases. Penetrating under the skin of a person, rays heat the blood vessels, thereby contributing to the rapid spread of heat throughout the body.
But infrared heating system is not without drawbacks. Among these should include:
- Infrared rays have a point effect. Therefore, within one large room in one place can be too warm in the other, opposite - cool.
- Since infrared rays do not heat the air, and objects in the process of heating the room, the interior of which constitute the equipment items may appear subtle smell of plastic.
- Aesthetically, not always such overhead heaters can fit well into the overall interior design.
pretty energy-efficient infrared heating fully can not be considered cost-effective. Firstly, on the equipment itself initially have to invest a considerable sum.
Secondly, to use it to achieve efficient energy consumption have to spend to comply with a number of key requirements. For example: in the building insulation, construction reduces heat loss reflecting screens.
Consume such devices depending on the capacity of from about 50 to 200 watts per square meter per hour
But if all the necessary conditions for the installation efficiency of the system is able to reach the mark of 95%. And to maintain a comfortable climate enough to film coating it took 50% of the surface of the walls or floor.
Variety of infrared heaters
Modern industry for infrared heating system produces two types of heaters: film-panel embodiment and execution.
The principle of operation of both device types is identical: it is based on an emitter and a reflector which focuses the infrared rays in the desired direction
Differences between the film and panel radiators only in design features. When constructing ceiling Infrared heating film is used as emitters and panel.
But for floor heating use only equipment film type.
№1 - panel heaters
Flat panel heaters are good because they allow you to save an area of the living space at a constant height of the room. This is very useful in the regeneration of areas with low walls and sloping ceilings.
In operation, the IR panels, only 10% of the energy goes into heating the air, the main portion of the heat 90% subjects aimed at
Structurally, such devices include the following main elements:
- TEN - heating element;
- panelReceiving heat from the heating element and transferring energy to the heated object;
- insulationLocated on the back side, preventing the loss of heat;
- plate - reflecting the electromagnetic wave from the rear of the instrument;
- with cable gland housing, Terminal block, etc.
The material for the manufacture of PETN can act ceramics, quartz or tungsten. The material used largely determines the capacity and efficiency of the equipment as a whole. Above the heater is covered with a decorative covering, and which serves as a transmitter of infrared waves.
Depending on how the panel assembly are integrated and mounted. The first is a plasterboard construction with thermal insulation applied to them and built graphite thread.
Housing hinged panels made of heat-resistant plastic or glass, and the heating element cover the screen of ceramic or anodized aluminum.
Infra panels installed under the window instead of the usual batteries, or simply hung on the wall or ceiling using brackets
Such heaters for sale are presented in the form of traditional panels and more refined models, decorated with a stone or natural wood. Fine design products able to perform a worthy complement to the interior.
№2 - emitters film type
Film heaters are often used to organize zonal heating when necessary. For example, the regeneration of the loggia, the regeneration of the working area, or the creation of corners to relax on the veranda.
Coatings of this type can be placed on the floor or on the ceiling to the walls. The only exceptions are the ceilings made of fabric or PVC webs. For suspended ceilings manufacturers offer infrared heaters, cassette-type.
Such heating systems are film mats, which are sealed in series connected heating elements
The main system material - a thin film deposited on a thin thermoplastic layer of graphite or carbon filaments laid in parallel, which when heated produce heat flux.
Film coatings consist of interchangeable modules, whereby in the case of disabling it is not difficult to replace a single new site, without compromising the integrity of the system.
to give film heating systems more presentable kind of some craftsmen equipped with their decor. To do this over the coated first constructing a frame made of plasterboard, on top of which is applied a decorative finish. The only condition - that it does not contain metal.
More and more fans among connoisseurs of quality and beauty are film heaters, pictures, which successfully combine functionality and aesthetics
In advanced versions of IR film heating system are mounted beneath a layer of decorative trim. Decorative design film heaters are among low-power devices and therefore are mainly used for local heating of the room areas.
Classification according to the method an arrangement of elements
Infrared heating devices on the market in a wide range. In the method of heating elements arrangement can be divided into three groups: floor, wall and ceiling.
Option # 1 - floor-standing heaters
Flooring materials are modular, inside which are laid flat heating elements. The coating is produced in roll form. For installation it is cut into pieces of the required size.
Strip roll material is placed on the floor so that the radiators are not under heavy furniture; this will prevent the reduction of heat transfer and drying of wood elements Headset
The insulating material and infrared film stack directly onto the prepared base floor. In the process of stacking panels overlap avoid placement and try to maintain a distance from the walls 10-15 cm.
On top floor of infrared bands can be laid:
- ceramic tiles.
The most successful combination is obtained when used as flooring tiles. Slightly inferior in this respect laminate. A greatest shielding IR radiation creates a carpet and linoleum.
Membrane systems are installed not only on the floor, but also on the ceiling under the hinged design and stingrays mansard roof. Installation and connection is made in a similar way:
Film heating system are arranged on the floor, walls, ceiling. Actions for their installation on any building structure similar to
The film strips are placed on top of the building construction insulation layer. With live bands is connected connectors for connecting wires
Sequentially interconnected and connected to the power cable on top of the vapor barrier strip is closed
The power cable is connected to the set in a convenient location control unit, followed by the installation GVLV, plywood, OSB, and performed subsequent finishing
Preparation of IR film for laying on the ceiling
The process of construction of a film heating
Preparing the heating system for finishing
Connection to a control unit
By the heating infrared systems include not only the film versions, but Rod carboxylic floors. With their installation regulations introduce popular article our website.
Option # 2 - wall and ceiling devices
Compared with floor heating systems, the choice of ceiling and wall units is wider. In addition to the traditional panels of execution there are also built-in models and design of ceiling emitters.
They can be mounted in suspended ceilings. On sale they are presented in different sizes and colors.
Plates are placed in such a way that the rays emanating from them were directed to the furniture, and she is already having absorbed the heat began to perform thermal energy source
Ceiling model of infrared emitters placed at a height of 3 meters and above. With this arrangement heat is directed downward and the ceiling diverges little in hand.
Rushing down, first of all rays heated flooring. Due to this, at the foot level temperature is always a few degrees higher than in the area of the head. To prevent heat leakage of outside panel is placed in front of the door and window openings.
Infrared emitters execution wall arranged so as to be above or below the human head level
Among the wall radiators separately is to provide a baseboard system. They are long, narrow design. The system sets the perimeter of the room, by placing instead of conventional wooden or plastic moldings.
When choosing the placement of panels must be avoided recreation areas where the probability of a direct impact on households. For example: on the sofa or the bed level.
Otherwise, aimed at a right angle rays will overheat and overdry the skin, causing the residents and guests of discomfort at home. coating Zona directed emitters is one of the main characteristics and typically contains in the product data sheet.
Wall IR heaters are used infrequently. Telogo and circulation of cold air from below upwards, because reasonable to prefer a ceiling or floor variants
Manufacturers IR heaters
Production of infrared equipment is engaged in a variety of companies around the world. the most popular among foreign manufacturers are:
- «STIEBEL ELTRON» - German company, which manufactures products of traditionally high quality;
- «FENIX TRADING» - Czech company pays close attention to the energy efficiency of products produced;
- «AIR COMFORT» - the Italian company relies on the creation of a safe new generation of heating systems;
- «FRICO» - Swedish manufacturer guarantees the quality of the Scandinavian and makes high demands on the design of products.
Domestic producers are represented by such brands as "Bilyuks", "Peony", "Ecoline", "Almak". According to the qualitative characteristics of the product of these brands are not much inferior to foreign analogues.
The cost of domestic IR sample equipment at 30% below the imported counterparts, so it can afford to install a wide range of buyers
But it is worth noting that not all of them are domestic devices for infrared heating are supplied with brackets. Moreover, judging by the reviews, the work of domestic appliances is often accompanied by a slight crackle, which can be annoying especially at night.
Precautions should also refer to the Chinese-made products. Some companies on the products put the sign "CE"Denoting"china Export». Visually, this abbreviation looks like a sign of conformity to the European requirements "CE"Denoting"Conformite Europeenne».
The only difference is that in the second case, the density of the font a little wider and the letters are a little further apart. Therefore, in addition to studying the markings required by the appropriate certificates.
The criteria for a proper choice of equipment
The main thing should be guided in the selection of heating elements - their constructive solution and operating parameters. To calculate the optimum performance, use the classical formula, based on that for heating 10 square meters will require an average 1,2kVt.
There are commercially available and mobile unitsWhich is convenient to use for temporary heating, placing in the right place at the premises and, if necessary, introducing the site. They work on electricity and on gas.
Such a portable infrared heater capable of efficiently heat a zone with a radius of 2.5 meters, filled spaces room comfort and warmth
If we compare the models of floor and ceiling type, the difference between them is insignificant, as in any the case in the first place will warm the floor and the lower part of the walls and the warm air will still rise up. For this reason, refer only to the extent to which it will be convenient to place the equipment on the ceiling or the floor.
Are easy to use models with built-in temperature sensor: with decreasing temperature in the room below set level equipment is automatically turned on, and when the set value - disabled.
Preference is also necessary to give devices whose design makes it possible to adjust the inclination of the direction of radiation.
When selecting products look for the presence of the thermostat, with the help of which it is convenient to set a certain mode, thus saving power consumption
In general, the choice of heating elements need to be guided by the parameters of the product, the materials of which built the house, the presence of another type of heating system, and, of course, its financial opportunities.
But do not be tempted to products with unreasonably low price. In an effort to reduce the production cost, some manufacturers are doing it at the expense of quality, saving contacts, and using low-quality wires.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. An illustrative example of operation of the heating system:
Video # 2. Infrared heating film: the pros and cons:
Video # 3. Overview of ceramic heating panels:
Infrared system - safety of the new generation of heating technology, which is the correct approach can be cost-effective and rational plan. And, as in a zone, and as the main heating private houses.
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