Currant pruning is an agrotechnical technique that is necessary for the proper development of a fruit shrub.
Understanding the goals, rules and subtleties of currant pruning, even novice gardeners will regularly receive good yields.
Table of Contents
- Goals for pruning a bush
- Do I need to prune in the spring?
- Can I trim branches in the summer?
- Cutting in the fall - what is needed?
- In Winter
- Technology and Scheme
- Why do circumcision before planting?
- Red and white
- When do the rejuvenation of old shrubs
- Why do circumcision before planting?
- Unusual ways to trim
- simple - novice gardeners
- Michurinskaya - for a good harvest
- stam forms: how to form currants on fashion? AS D Как Как под Как Как Как Как Как AS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS AS _ AS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Technique pruning, depending on the task will vary.
Pruning currants carried out in order to:
The main formation of the bush falls on the first years of currant life. From trimming at a young age will depend on its proper development and growth.
- to form the correct shape of the bush;
- clean shrubs from damaged and diseased branches;
- to power each branch to create the best conditions;
- rejuvenate the old bush.
Sanitary pruning - removal of branches damaged by infections and pests, will improve the health of currants and increase yields.
The rejuvenating pruning procedure allows you to save an adult plant, to increase its productivity.
Mistakes made with any type of pruning can lead to diseases of a different nature, one-sided development of the bush and poor fruiting.
During the year allocate several periods for trimming currants .The procedure can be performed in spring, summer, autumn and even in winter.
The timing of pruning should be based not on the convenience of the gardener, but on the period of vegetative development of the plant.
Do I need to prune in the spring?
In early spring, fruit bushes are at rest. Vegetation has not yet begun, there is no active sap flow in the tissues. This is the best time to trim a bush in spring.Weather conditions also affect timing. By spring pruning currants should begin as soon as a stable positive temperature. It is important to pay attention to meteorological forecasts. If frost is expected, pruning should be postponed.
The gardener has little time for the spring procedure .As soon as the buds begin to bloom en masse, the spring pruning period is over.
If you do not follow this rule:
- slices will liberally secrete juice, which will not allow wounds to heal quickly;
- increases the risk of infection with fungal and bacterial infections;
- bush will be sick for a long time, instead of increasing the leaf mass and forming fruit inflorescences.
In the spring, any type of pruning can be done. Opportunities limit different climatic zones.
sanitary pruning should be carried out in any type of climate. All broken off and cracked branches are cut off. Partially removed shoots that are damaged by frost, sun, disease.
Forming and rejuvenating pruning are carried out in this period only in the northern regions. In all the others - these procedures are best postponed to fall.
Advantages of spring pruning:
- the strength of the plant is directed to more promising branches, the yield increases, the size of the berries increases;
- lighting is evenly distributed over the vegetative mass, the ripening of the berries in the hands takes place almost simultaneously;
- prevents bush disease;
- stimulates the growth of shoots that will bear fruit next year.
Spring pruning allows you to increase the yield of the current season and lay the foundation for next year.
How to prune berry bushes in spring correctly:
Can I prune branches in summer?
At the very beginning of summer, especially if the spring was long and cold , you can re-sanitary pruning currant bushes. At this time, all the damaged branches are clearly visible.
In the spring, with dormant buds, it is not always possible to determine which escape survived the winter well and which did not.
In the summer, you need to cut out dried shoots, as well as do nip green growth. On the branches that were left without tops, side shoots will begin to develop.Pinching allows you to increase the number of flower buds. Reception is applied on blackcurrant, on red and white is carried out seldom.
Some gardeners in the summer spend thinning and forming currants. Such pruning is applied as soon as all the berries are picked in August.
Pruning of the bush after harvesting:
- removal of branches older than five years;
- pruning of deformed, underdeveloped shoots;
- destruction of sick and weak branches.
These actions do not have a unique assessment of .On the one hand, the illumination and ventilation of fruit branches are improved.
There is a place for the free development of annual shoots. Young growth in a timely manner protected from infections and pests.
On the other hand, the load on the hive increases. Pruning stimulates the formation of young shoots of , at the same time when currants spend all their energy on the maturation of wood and preparation for winter.
Juice movement during this period is still active, wounds can stay wet for a long time. This is the gateway for infections of a different nature.
Shoots that only begin to grow during this period will hardly have time to mature before the onset of cold weather. Damage in winter is inevitable.
Cutting in the fall - what is needed?
In the fall, is set to begin pruning after the currants shed the .The plant is preparing for winter, the movement of juices slows down. The selection of drops of juice on the cut suggests that autumn pruning start early.The pruning should be completed two to three weeks before the cold. During this time, the wounds will have time to heal.
In areas with a harsh climate, it is recommended to prune shrubs in spring. Autumn frosts can spoil the results of work: the tips of the branches will freeze, in the spring they will have to be removed.
The advantages of autumn pruning:
- a longer period of work;
- preparing the plant for the winter;
- help young shoots in nutrition and active development;
- stimulus for the formation of a large number of replacement shoots next spring;
- bushes get rid of diseases and pests;
- created the conditions for good fruiting in the next year.
For the autumn period, is held in the central regions by forming and rejuvenating pruning .At the same time, branches damaged during summer work with bushes are cut off.
Pruning of black currant bushes in autumn:
Some gardeners do winter pruning work from November to mid-February .This is possible under the condition of year-round access to the site. Sections are carried out on frozen branches.During this period, the shrub is not threatened with infection and infection by pests. An important condition - the currant bush should be strong and healthy.
It is impossible to say for sure when it is better to cut currants, in spring or autumn. Unlike the gooseberry, whose buds begin to bloom early, and complicate the spring pruning, currants later enter the growing season.
If it is impossible to get to the site while the snow is lying, all trimming work with gooseberries has to be done in the fall. Currants gives you the opportunity to find time for pruning in each season.
The should be used for cutting currants annually. The main work is convenient to do in the fall. In the spring it will be necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, which will correct the consequences of hibernating the hive.
Technology and scheme
Depending on the purpose and type of currant , different technology of currant cutting is used.
Why do circumcision before planting?
Before cutting currants before planting, it is necessary to study the sapling technique.
The annual currant bush has 2–4 ramifications. When planting, each branch should be cut off strongly : two to three buds are left on the shoot. It is desirable to cut branches on the outer bud, then next year a wide bush will be formed.At the age of two and three years, the fruit shrub forms from 5 to 7 branches. Of these, only 3-5 of the strongest and most promising are left. To promote branching, the tops of the remaining shoots are cut into a pair of buds.
By the fourth year of life, the fruit shrub will be fully formed. In the future, to maintain the form, he will need only supporting pruning.
Red and White
In the first year of life, white and red currants leave three to four buds on each shoot. This allows you to increase the number of increments in the next season.
In the second year, leaves 3-4 strong branches, the rest are removed. You should pay attention to the uniform distribution of branches relative to each other.
In the future, pruning is carried out in such a way, so that two – three branches of each age of remain on the bush. Pruning seedlings before planting should be carried out in accordance with the age of the plant.
When to rejuvenate old shrubs
.Work better in the fall.With regular renewal of the bush, it is able to bear fruit for more than 20 years and bring good yields. When rejuvenating pruning, old branches are cut out, flower buds are stimulated.
There are four ways to currant pruning: on the ring, on the kidney, with translation and nip.
Trimming on the ring is used when the branches are completely removed. In the procedure of rejuvenation in this way old, thick branches are cut. The escape is cut off at the base. Large wounds from such a cut should be treated with antimicrobial agents and covered with garden pitch.
Pruning an into a kidney allows not only shortening shoots, but also controlling the development of branching. The method is used for partial pruning. By trimming the kidney, facing the center of the bush, you can stimulate its density.
A slice made on the outer bud, on the contrary, will form shoots from the center. The second option improves the access of light to each kidney and provides currant airing.
. With a pinch, stimulates the growth of new shoots, regulate the amount of harvest.
One of the main methods of the anti-aging procedure for the red and white species is the currant pruning with the transfer to the strong branching .This is necessary on the old, but still fertile branches. Also, the method is used if part of the branch is damaged.
Find strong side layering, with good fruiting potential. The entire branch after branching is removed. This method can be used for partial rejuvenation of the bush.
If the shrub is heavily running , rejuvenating pruning should not be done at once. Loss of a large percentage of the vegetative mass of the old bush can not survive.
Large unproductive branches should be cut in stages at intervals of one year.
Pruning an old and neglected currant bush:
Unusual ways of pruning
The simplest - for beginning gardeners
This method does not require the gardener to determine the age of the branches. Any branch, the growth of which at the end of the season has not reached 15 cm, must be removed.
If the bush is heavily thickened, this method removes unnecessary annual branches.
Michurinskaya - for a good crop
Some gardeners adhere to the principles of trimming “according to Michurin” , especially when growing berries for sale. This method is used on large plantations of skoroplodny varieties of black currant.
- all bushes grow and bear fruit without pruning for the first five years;
- cuts half of the bushes in the planting at the age of 5 - 6 years under the root and feeds well;
- in a year from the grown shoots leave about 20, the rest are removed;
- a year later, the process is repeated with the remaining 50% bushes;
- after mowing the bushes uprooted completely in two or three years, their place is taken by young plants.
This is an intensive growing technology that allows to get a third more crop.
varieties Stamp shapes: how to shape currants in fashion?
A passion for garden design reflected in fruit bushes. Currant is no exception: comes into fashion its standard forms .
Not all varieties of currants are suitable for creating a trunk. The main criterion in the selection of varieties - the minimum formation of shoots from the bottom of the bush.
Shtambu formation technology step by step:
Currant life in this form is 12-15 years. The plant looks very impressive, especially if the red currant is subjected to shaping. It forms longer brush berries.
- immediately after landing, a stem is formed, side branches are cut at a height of 20-40 cm from the ground;
- leaves two to three apical buds on the central shoot;
- in the process of development of the crown, a small tree is formed by summer nip;
- in the first year, the shoots pinch, leaving two to three lower buds;
- in the second year you need to cut that part of each branch that is longer than 10 cm;
- further annually cut the branches at a distance of 20 cm from the stem;
- shtamb regularly cleaned.
How to produce autumn pruning
correctly In order for pruning to be successful, the correct sequence of works is necessary.
In the autumn pruning scheme, two blocks can be distinguished. The first and third are carried out for all types of currants, the second - varies depending on the type of shrub.
Step One: Sanitary
Before cutting any currants, you need to clean the bush:
- get rid of all broken and dry branches;
- cut shoots whose wood did not have time to mature: if such shoots are not removed, in winter they will be damaged by frost;
- cut off all deformed shoots;
- remove branches that are intertwined with each other or grow to the center of the bush;
- destroy diseased branches: shoots infected with infection or pests should be burned;
- if any branch has grown far from the center or lies on the ground, it should also be removed.
Step Two: Rejuvenating
When cleaning is completed, they switch to removing old black currant branches. When pruning, it should be remembered that has the greatest yield of shoots at the age of two and three years , the bulk of the berries are formed on the central buds.
Proceeding from this:
- on black currants should be cut branches older than 5 years;
- if the bush is well formed and has more than 8 biennial shoots, it is possible to prune branches older than three years;
- at one-year shoots cut one third of the length.
Removal of old low-yield branches contributes to the better development of fruitful ones. Partial pruning promotes branching and an increase in flowering buds next season.In areas with abrupt temperature changes, it is better to transfer the partial pruning of branches to spring. At risk of frostbite tops, it is more profitable to leave them untouched for the winter.
Red and White
Red and white currants have a longer fruiting period. At the age of five to eight years, the yield of branches is high. Flower buds are massively formed on the tops of these types of currants.
Based on this:
- should be cut at ground level, all branches older than 8 years;
- on a well-formed bush leave no more than 12 shoots;
- tops removed only if there is damage.
Stage Three: Supporting
At the end, if the bush is still thickened, you can cut off extra branches. Trying to lighten the bush, you should remove extra branches from the center of .
If there are enough fruitful branches, the shoots grown in the current year can be cut.
How to care after
Pruning for currants is stressful for the plant. Especially for adult bushes, in which the regeneration process is weaker. After pruning currant needs feeding.Depending on how long pruning takes place, bushes need different nutrients.
After spring pruning, shrubs should be fertilized in a complex. Mineral supplements should contain trace elements of phosphorus, potassium, in equal quantities.
The proportion of nitrogen in the spring feeding increased. Experienced gardeners prepare fertilizers themselves using superphosphate, potassium chloride, ammophoska, urea.
In the fall, a lot of nitrogen does not need currants, more phosphorus and potassium are needed for better maturation of the wood.
In addition to mineral substances, currants need organic .Black currant reacts especially well to bio-fertilizers. When using manure, it is necessary that it be rotted.
Organika will fruitfully serve fruit bushes if it is not just put in the root zone, but embedded in the soil. Cover the ground. In the decomposition of manure and humus emit a lot of nitrogen, so they should be made in the spring.
Properly chosen fertilizer promotes rapid healing of wounds from pruning.
Proper pruning is an understanding of the nature of the plant and help in its development. A thorough approach to pruning is a guarantee of a healthy, high-quality and big harvest.