At a time when homes can not be connected to the centralized communication systems, the best choice will be a device of their own water sources.
Making them quite possibly spent gidroburenie well with your hands, which will significantly reduce costs and at the same time get a reliable water intake structures.
The content of the article:
- The distinguishing features of the method
- Advantages and features of the method
- The equipment required for work
- Step by step analysis of the works
- Determining the occurrence of aquifers
- Workplace Preparation
- MBU drilling wells
- Filter installation and equipping wells
- The final stages of drilling
- Useful videos on the topic
The distinguishing features of the method
Using well as an autonomous source of drinking water is quite old and proven method. Along with the traditional, often expensive technologies gidrobureniya method can deservedly be called an economical and versatile.
This fairly simple way to break through the well has some details, if ignored, can negate all your efforts. Its essence lies in a comprehensive approach.
It combines two basic processes - is the direct destruction of rock drilling tool and the drilled outwardly elution fragments soil working fluid. That is, the rock drill is affected and the water pressure.
Required for immersion into the ground load gives weight to the drill string and the special drilling rig, the washing liquid is pumped into the wellbore formed body.
The wash solution is a mixture of minute particles of clay and water. And shuts it in a slightly thicker consistency than pure water. From the pit mud motor pump collects and directs a pressurized wellbore.
The water in the scheme gidrobureniya performs multiple functions:
- washes cuttings particles destroyed soil;
- It brings together over the surface of the blade;
- It cools the working surfaces of the drilling tool;
- when moving grinds the inner surface of the well;
- strengthens not fixed cased borehole wall, reducing the risk of collapse and filling blade stem.
With the increasing penetration drillstring rods - AIV pipe segments length 1.2 - 1.5 m, Ø 50 - 80 mm. Number of extended rods depends on the depth of the water carrier. It is possible to determine in advance during farrowing neighbors for water mark of mirrors in their wells or wells.
Presumably the depth of future wells is divided by the length of a rod, in order to calculate how many pieces it is necessary to prepare for work. At both ends of each rod must be made thread for screwing work string. One side it is necessary to equip the coupling, which is desirable to be welded to the bar, not to unscrew the barrel.
In practice gidroburenie in its pure form is rarely used, because they need a large water pressure. It is also difficult to drill thick clay layers. Often produce gidroburenie with borer. This method is somewhat similar to the rotary drilling, but without the rotor. For better alignment hole and easy to overcome the dense areas using a petal or tapered drill.
Gidroburenie not suitable for penetration on rock and semi soils. If the sedimentary rocks in the drilling region presented with gravel, pebbles, sand with large boulders inclusion, by this method, too, will have to give. Wash and pick up from the well with water uvesistyk stones and pieces of heavy rock is technically impossible.
Advantages and features of the method
gidrobureniya technology for water among the people has gained popularity only recently, so it makes a lot of misunderstandings. First, is the mistaken notion that the method is suitable only for small holes. This is not true.
If desired and appropriate technical security gidrobureniem can hit well over 250 meters. But the most common depth of domestic wells is 15-35 meters.
Opinion about the great value of the method is also not confirmed by the calculations. Good speed of work reduces the financial costs. For obvious advantages of the method also include:
- compact equipment;
- the possibility of drilling in the very limited area;
- minimum of technical operations;
- high speed, up to 10 meters per day;
- security for the landscape and the ecological balance;
- the possibility of their own performance;
- minimum cost.
Perhaps the most significant advantage gidrobureniya still is the ability to drill on a landscaped area with no significant aesthetic trouble.
Benefits gidrobureniya are also very obvious when you compare it with the technology of dry drilling, where the need to constantly get out of the barrel to clean the working tool and download it again. Most of all, this technology is adapted to work with melkooblomochnymi sedimentary soils, which are difficult to extract from the well without the bailer. A drilling fluid avoids zhelonirovaniya.
Of course, for a good result of the enterprise it is necessary to acquire the appropriate means of mechanization, because one homemade brown, even at shallow depths, can not do.
The equipment required for work
Standard type of work on gidrobureniyu performed by small installations. To own site - it's a great solution and the best way to get water on their own. Supplying hydraulic fluid into the wellbore must be a considerable pressure, and this requires a pump or motor pump for contaminated liquids.
Sometimes, to increase the breakdown strength in the working solution is added to a fraction or coarse sand. For crushing large pebbles, which can occur in sand layers handy cone and incisal bit.
The most in demand from the consumer for the purposes of gidrobureniya special compact installation MBU. This unit with a height of 3 m and 1 m in diameter in the composition of this modular construction are included.:
- dismountable metallic frame type;
- tools for drilling;
- engine, transmitting force to the drill bit;
- swivel circuit portion for slidably mounting parts;
- motor pump for providing water pressure in the system;
- Prospecting or spade drill;
- drill rods to form the column;
- hoses for supplying water from pumps to swivel;
- Control block.
Among the required equipment is also desirable to have a converter. He needed to process power supply was stable. Even necessarily need a winch for raising / lowering of casing pipes and typesetting. When selecting pumps is better to stay on a more powerful machine, as it implies a large load. For gidrobureniya need also a plumbing tools, like tongs, hand clamp, plug interchange.
Gidrobureniya process from the beginning to the end of work includes a constant cycle working fluid. Using the pump, the aqueous suspension with blurred soil exits the borehole enters directly into the pit and after precipitation the slurry is fed back into the well.
Furthermore such an order is possible to perform gidroburenie shallow water wells without using a pit. Such a method does not require a recess for settling the working solution, saves time, and allows the drill hole even basements and garages.
For gidrobureniya selected motor pump capable of pumping highly contaminated water. Desirably buy unit with a head of 26 m, a pressure of 2.6 atm and a capacity of 20 m3 / h. More powerful pump ensures fast, trouble-free drilling of wells and better rinsing. For high-quality drilling it is important that from the well was always a good flow of water.
Step by step analysis of the works
gidrobureniya technology is very specific, therefore requires the proper observance of milestones. It is necessary to prepare the drilling equipment, to prepare a solution for cleaning, to prepare the casing. Followed by assembly of the installation and start of drilling.
The casing is incremented as it passes wellbore to strengthen the walls. Casing is needed, so that the trunk is not showered loose sand, overlying did not get close to the trunk of a pebble, not a "bulged" swollen water loam or sandy loam.
Drilling is terminated when a water-bearing layer. All processes gidrobureniya are some nuances which knowledge comes only with practical experience.
Determining the occurrence of aquifers
For the success of the event is of great importance at least approximate determination of the depth in the area of the aquifer. If a survey of the neighbors to get this information is not possible, you can recognize them in the local drilling or construction organization, to carry out work near the planned site for drilling.
Typically, the first water-saturated layers are placed on the first 1.5 - 6 m borehole. The people like water-saturated layers called the vadose.
Perched does not apply to the horizons drinking categories produces water with the specifications of conventional pollution and domestic waste water spilled on the ground oils, fluids containing products oil refining.
If you are interested in more clean water, drilling will have up to 15 - 25 m. At this depth, the chances of getting a reviver drinking status equal to about 70%, if the top of overlapping watertight loam or sandy loam horizon. The underlying aquifers with a depth of 25-50 m or more to ensure the presence of 90% drinking water quality.
Gidrobureniem easily get the well of 10-30 m and more. In this case we have a simple drilling process and easy installation of casing. Experts recommend doing exploratory drilling drill 100 mm.
At positive results of 10 m can be simply left in the trunk of a drill string with a perforated launch bar as a filter. If water was deeper borehole drilled drill 200 mm, and it is put in the casing with a submersible pump 116-125.
Typically, the aquifers are composed of sand medium size and large, gravel or detrital deposits. This sedimentary rocks, parts of which are not related to each other. In incoherent rocks highest quality of filtration. Among these, water is free to move and seeps into the underlying layers.
The natural occurrence unconnected clastic soils are usually alternate with clayey sediments: sandy loam and loam. Fine particles of argillaceous rocks cemented, which hinders the free passage of water therethrough. They do not pass and do not absorb water and form a kind of platform - water pressure for water accumulation.
Passing thick clay layers, the drill has been slower speeds sands and other clastic rocks. Resting on the clay water repellent layer underlying aquifer, drilling slows down somewhat.
If the injected water if extrudes from the barrel making in an amount greater than distilled pump means opened aquifer. Drilling should stop and wait for the time to ensure the suspension to soak into the ground.
You can focus on the pit beacons. While the drilling did not reveal the aquifer, the water in the pit will be held at the same level. If deepened generation layer in underground water, the amount of water in the pit will increase.
Proper preparation drilling location relieve of hitches in the process and will promote good result because breaks in the method of feed solution is extremely undesirable.
Equally important is the presence of a sufficient amount of water. In order to guarantee the right amount of water at gidroburenii must rely on m3 and 15 respectively to prepare the desired reservoir. It is possible to prepare additional capacity of about 2 cubic meters or dig a hole 5 cubic meters and more, a clay treating solution wall.
When the supply of water is prepared, made the installation of small-sized drilling rig MBU. It sets the unit according to the instructions. The assembly takes about an hour and is not a technical difficulty.
The main condition for a competent installation - strictly horizontal placement of the device. If there is even the slightest misalignment drilling rig you can not later install the casing. At a distance of 1.5-2 m from the construction pits dug process for filling and storing the drilling fluid.
Pits are depressions in ground type trays. They connect the overflow channel - the trench in a tray or trough. In these baths is the washing solution before injection barrel to the same merges with the blade.
The optimal size of the pits is considered embodiment 1x1x1 meters. In one pit will collect liquid from the well to precipitation of solids. Fracture through the trough in the second pit spaced water through the pump is pumped back to the plant.
The first pit functions as a clarifier and may be smaller. The process must be periodically cleaned of deposited cuttings at the bottom fractions. The second pit is considered the primary. It is located near a motor pump (pump). Inlet hose pumps lowered in the main sump. The hose from the outlet goes to the rig.
Pumped in the drill string a drill water off, which considerably increases the service life of the tool. During drilling, the water is not heated is circulated in a circle. After the end of the drilling water is simply pumped to do for her deepening.
If we must still leave the unit for a night of inactivity, the carriage with the working body of the hoist is raised to the upper level MCU and recorded. The next day, the pump starts running for half an hour / hour and run the drive. Then lowered and lifted winch column rods. When the carriage starts to move easily, it is possible again to begin drilling.
MBU drilling wells
After collection and preparation process rig MBU pits filled with working solution and begins drilling.
After immersing the starting rod into the soil to 95% of its length is made its connection with the next link in the drill string by screwing. The process takes place until then, until the water in the pit will not increase dramatically. The whole process can sometimes gidrobureniya lasts from 1 to 7 days, depending on the skill of the artist and the type of rocks, are represented in the area.
For drilling unconsolidated sands malovlazhnogo needs some margin of drilling mud, as these deposits quickly absorb water.
The clay component of the slurry prevents the infiltration of water. It clogs the pores in the walls of the well, it decreases the absorption of liquid sand. It is best to make a solution by mixing clay with a mixer in the pit with water. Before you start, be sure to check the serviceability of the winch and the pump, since the sinking of the sandy soil stops are made.
To prevent landslides wide well bore casing is lowered substantially simultaneously with the recess of the drill string. Desirably, the sands casing somewhat ahead of the drill. So it is necessary to block the constant flow of loose rock collapsed into the trunk side.
To apply the device casing pipe of a steel alloy or plastic. Today, plastic pipes gained great popularity in longevity mean resistance to deformation and corrosion. However, with this method of drilling casings often have to forcibly push the barrel. Therefore it is better to prefer a steel version with a thread for screwing on the next level.
In order to secure the casing in the wellbore better during the build-up once installed clamp. They are also used in the partial obsady is pulled out of the well, which is carried out to expose the filter bore.
In the absence of clamps can be used strong rope, placed on storm in a loop. Another cable before unscrewing the top edge of the drill is attached to a tree, stump or other massive object.
Simplest scheme gidrobureniya difficult to understand, let alone cope with its implementation. Motor-pump solution is fed into the hose connected to the drill string. For oral liquid inside the rods is moved to the drill, and further contributes to the destruction drill out the rock.
Blade capture liquid is directed into the first sump (filter). After shrinkage sediment on the bottom of the liquid sump overflows into the adjacent recess and is used for a new round.
Composition drill mixture must be adjusted depending on the rock traversed. Sand is used thick mud - it will strengthen the wall, not allowing them to break down. Clay soil, sandy loam to loam, can be drilled with clean water, and for the penetration of solid rock in the solution may be to add an abrasive shot or coarse sand.
MBU works well at a depth of 10-50 m. The well arranged, even up to 120 m In practice, this setup.
Filter installation and equipping wells
After opening the aquifer are drilled all the way into its underlying impermeable layer. It can be determined from a slowdown and difficulty immersion drillstring. Drill rods are extracted after thorough rinsing with clean water wells.
If carried out well drilling wide for subsequent installation of the submersible pump, it is necessary to take care of the filter device. For this purpose, the casing is inserted into another, but smaller diameter. The first link inner casing should be with longitudinal slots or drilled holes on the principle of chess.
To improve the quality of the water purification unit is supplemented with a filter mesh of fine steel or polypropylene coating.
When the filter sink to the bottom, the casing is slightly pulled out of the barrel so as to expose the filter openings. Excess pipe clip and equip headroom. And if it is formed around the barrel gap filled with rubble and cement mortar is poured, to fix the wellhead and prevent infiltration of flood water into an aquifer.
It is mounted so that it was over the water level more than 3 meters, but in any case it should not touch the bottom. After proper placement of the well pump is ready for use.
The final stages of drilling
When the well is ready, it is necessary to dismantle the drilling rig and put it into operation.
In narrow roadways drill string with a drill performs the function of the filter casing. it is not necessary to extract them from the trunk, because pumping water from the water intake point it will be performed by the same channels, which circulates drilling slurry.
gidrobureniya process differs available technology which does not require special theoretical knowledge. Compliance with the basic steps of the process in conjunction with high-quality equipment is required to give good results, and will delight you with a clean underground water.
Useful videos on the topic
Using MBU to drill water wells in sandy loam soil:
Conducting drilling on their own:
To avoid errors and small mistakes in gidroburenii possible without departing from the technological principles. To further reduce the financial costs at the unit gidroburenii private wells can not buy MBU, and take the unit to rent. Thus, with their hands in a very short time you will get your own free source of water for many years.