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Not only ordinary shrubs and trees are planted in the gardens, but also exotic, which include the Japanese quince. Another name is Chaenomeles. The home of the plant is Japan. It is also found in China and Korea, though only a wild species. Also, the tree is planted in the gardens of Ukraine and Russia. Quince prefers to grow on plains, mountain slopes( up to 1.4 km above sea level), forest edges, glades and clearings. It can be found in the marshland, along the reservoirs.
Japanese Quince: photo and description of shrub
The plant is a low tree or deciduous shrub, reaching a height of three meters and living about 60-80 years. Distinctive features of quince are:
- Branches. Being felted and colored with a green-gray tint, after a while, as they grow, they become black-brown. At the same time their hairiness is lost. Black color of the kidneys. The bark is thin, scaly, colored in dark gray or reddish brown. On the branches on the petioles are shiny, 5-cm-egg-shaped leaves with a blunt-toothed edge.
- The flowers have petals of an obovate, orange-red color, the diameter of which reaches 4 cm.
- The fruit is a false apple, resembles a pear or an apple about 4 cm in circumference, covered with slightly pubescent skin. As for the pulp, it is firm, sweet-tart, astringent.
Quince fruits contain a wealth of beneficial components. So, vitamin C in them is about 100-150 mg, except for it, vitamins E, B1, PP, A, B2, K, B6, various organic acids( citric, malic, tartronic), fatty acids, proteins, sugar, fructose, tannins are found.substances, ethyl esters, antioxidants, glucose, pectins, mineral components, such as calcium, boron, iron, phosphorus, copper, zinc, pectins, silicon.
Quince seeds contain: amygdalin glycoside, starch, myristic and isoleic acid glycerides, mucus, tannins, including tannin.
Growing and care
Problems in the cultivation of quince is not observed. For proper development and good growth you need to comply with all requirements.
Where to place
Quince shrubs like good lighting, so you need to choose the lighted areas on your site. In principle, the plant grows well in the shade, but you will not see any fruit from it.
Be especially careful when planting and caring for Japanese quince in the Moscow region. Of all the existing varieties, many winter well without insulation. But with very cold winters annual plants can freeze slightly. Trees are recommended to be planted in areas where there is usually a lot of snow. And if the harsh winters are a regularity, the bushes cover with a spruce branches for the winter.
Chaenomeles feels great on any soil. Favorite are raw clay and poor sand. But they need to be fertilized with humus and moistened. Saline and limestone soils are categorically unacceptable.
Sand, leaf soil and peat are mixed in a ratio of 1: 2: 2 for planting. Additionally, fertilizers are added to the well: superphosphate( 0.2 kg), 1-2 buckets of humus( 1-2 buckets), potassium nitrate( 0.3 kg), ash( 0.5 kg).
Quince shrubs planted 3-5 copies in one group. Adult plants are located at least one meter apart from each other, so that the plants develop well.
Young animals are best transported into the ground at a permanent place with the arrival of spring, when the earth thaws. Possible planting Japanese quince in the fall in the period of strong leaf fall. But this is fraught with the fact that the plant does not have enough time to take root before the frost and it will die.
Position the tree so that the root of the neck is flush with the soil. If the plant is already adult, 3-5 years old, they need to dig a hole 0.5-0.8 m deep and 0.5 m wide.
Japanese quince can be propagated in several ways.
The core is removed from the ripened fruit, and the seeds are pulled out. They need to be sown immediately in the ground in the fall. Seed germination is excellent.
If sowing is not done before winter, the seeds are sent to a stratification: they are kept for 3–3 months in wet sand at + 3 + 5ºС.When they hatch, the seeds are planted in the ground.
In early June, early in the morning, when it is not very hot and dry, cut the green cuttings so that they have 2 knots. It would be best if you cut the stalk with a “heel” up to 1 cm. Place the cuttings in growth stimulants( for example, 0.01% solution of indolylbutyric acid) for a day. You can use the "root".The prepared material is planted in the substrate( peat and sand, 1: 3) according to the scheme 7 * 5 cm positioned obliquely.
Quince gives a large number of root layers. To get them, you need to dig a plant and separate delenki 0.5 cm thick and 10-15 cm high. At the same time, see that the root system is well developed.
With one bush, you can "get" no more than 6 delenok.
The resulting processes are planted vertically and take care of them, maintaining substrate moisture and watering. After spend mulching chips, humus, shavings.
Diseases and pests
For the Japanese quince, the main problem is the plant louse, with the appearance of which the plant may die. As soon as you notice the first signs of these insects, you should immediately carry out the treatment with insecticidal preparations.
With the onset of cool and wet weather, accompanied by high humidity, trees can undergo various diseases of fungal origin. For example, it may be:
- chalcosporosis, which is detected by the appearance of brown spots, fading with time;
- foliage spotting and necrosis resulting in shrinkage and foliage deformity;
- ramulariasis, the signal of which is the formation of brown spots on the leaves.
You can cope with problems by treating the plant with a soap-copper solution and a foundation of 0.2%.If you are afraid to use chemicals or simply do not recognize them, you can use onion extract( 0.15 kg of onion peel pour 10 liters of water and insist for 24 hours), which should be sprayed several times with bushes with a frequency of 5 days.
Quince is considered a medicinal plant, and not only fruits, but also leaves and seeds are used.
Novice gardeners care about the question of when to collect the fruits of the Japanese quince. Fruits are harvested in the fall before the first frost. Then each fruit is well wrapped in paper, placed in a ventilated box and stored in a cool place( 6-10 ° C), devoid of light. Even unripe fruits can be stored in this state until February. If the "apples" are small, they can be placed in a plastic bag and put in the refrigerator. There they can be stored up to 3 months.
Quince foliage is harvested when the plant is still flowering. It is laid out on a baking sheet and dried in the shade or dryer at a temperature of 40 degrees, shifted to tightly closed containers and used for its intended purpose.
If you need to collect the seeds, they are pulled out of the ripe fruit, dried at 40-50 ° C.Then they are placed in containers with well-closed lids and stored for not more than a year.
With proper planting and care for Japanese quince( henomeles), the shrub will not only please with beautiful flowering, and later a good harvest, but also support your health.