- №1. When without energy-saving lamps can not do?
- №2. Types of energy saving lamps
- No. 3. Fluorescent energy saving lamps
- №4. LED lamp
- №5. Lamp power and luminous flux
- №6. Colorful temperature
- №7. Color rendering index
- №8. Life time
- №9. Type of socle
- №10. Bulb shape and brightness control
It is difficult to imagine how a man and a half ago did without lighting lamps. After the appearance of this miracle of technology for a long time we were satisfied with ordinary incandescent lamps, but they, like candles and kerosene lamps, are already disappearing into oblivion. They are replaced by more economical lamps, which consume less electricity and serve for years. That's just how we, accustomed to focus only on the power of a conventional lamp and its cap, is correct Choose an energy-saving lamp for the house and apartment, because on the shelves of their stores is a huge quantity? We were helped to understand the real experts in this field, employees of the online store 220svet.ru, which already several years in a row help Russians to make life brighter and are engaged in the sale of various kinds of lamps and lamps.
The store delivers products to all regions of Russia, and for many years of work managed to establish cooperation with the largest manufacturers, therefore offers its customers competitive prices. The company sells a huge number of lamps of different types and capacities, with the entire range available on the page https://220svet.ru/catalog/lampochki/. In addition, the online store sells floor lamps, sconces, spots, chandeliers, table lamps and other lighting items, offering customers a guarantee for all products.
№1. When without energy-saving lamps can not do?
The whole world acknowledged that the future of energy-saving light bulbs, but still cheaply sold incandescent bulbs. So which lamps should I use? For fixtures that work at least 2-3 hours a day, it is better to take energy-saving lamps. In this case, the acquisition will pay off in a couple of years, and then complete savings will begin.
When it comes to a fixture that is turned on infrequently and for a few minutes a day (for example, in pantries, cellars and attics), then it will be more economical to use an incandescent lamp, at least while they are still are sold. By the way, the government has already limited the implementation of incandescent lamps with a power of more than 100 W and its next step is likely to be a ban on lamps with a power of more than 50 watts.
№2. Types of energy saving lamps
Energy-saving lamps include:
- fluorescent lamps;
- LED lamp.
Looking ahead, we note that LED lamps benefit from luminescent in all respects: they are more durable, completely harmless, do not flicker, their luminous flux does not decrease with time. Led LED lamps only in terms of prices, but in operation they are more economical.
Both versions of energy-saving lamps differ from incandescent lamps in that all electricity is converted in the visible light - "Ilyich's bulbs" also lose a significant part of the energy due to conversion of it into heat.
Sometimes energy-saving lamps include halogen, which is not entirely correct. They are 2-3 times durable than conventional incandescent lamps, but still significantly inferior to LED and luminescent analogues. A halogen lamp is actually the same incandescent lamp, only filled with bromine or iodine vapor (substances belonging to the halogen group). In a conventional lamp, the atoms of tungsten, from which the helix is made, begin to evaporate at high temperatures and settle on colder surfaces. This is the main reason for their low durability. If you add halogens to the flask, they will react with tungsten, and the resulting compounds then will break up into their original components: some of the tungsten will return to the spiral, and durability increases.
The service life of halogen lamps is 2-4 thousand hours, but when used together with the dimmer, the durability grows to 8-12 thousand hours. Such lamps have a high quality of color rendering, they are small, can be executed in interesting forms and do not require specific disposal. Not the longest service life and low efficiency still do not allow to classify halogen lamps as energy-efficient.
No. 3. Fluorescent energy saving lamps
Fluorescent lamps are 5-20 times more durable than incandescent lamps and use 75% less electricity to create the same luminous flux.Technology of obtaining visible lighthere fundamentally different. In fluorescent lamps, an electric discharge passes through vapors of mercury and inert gases, causing ultraviolet glow. It passes through a layer of phosphor, deposited on the inner surface of the lamp bulb, forms visible light.
Those lamps that are used in everyday life, it is more correct to callcompact fluorescent lamps(CFL), since they also produce non-compact ones that have very long bulbs and are used in large rooms. CFLs, as a rule, have a flask in the form of a twisted spiral and traditional screw caps, so that such lamps can easily be replaced by conventional incandescent lamps.
Advantages of fluorescent lamps:
- high in comparison with incandescent light bulbs. From CLL with a power of 20 W you can get as much light as from a "Ilyich bulb" with a power of 100 W;
- The service life, which on the average is 10 000 hours, but can be a little longer, however, for this It is necessary to observe optimum operating conditions, in particular to minimize the number of inclusions and shutdowns;
- small surface heating;
- a wide variety of shades of light, from warm white to cold white;
- the opportunity to get a pleasant diffused light.
Disadvantages of fluorescent lamps:
- the need for careful operation and proper disposal, since such lamps contain mercury, the amount of which can range from, mg to 1 g;
- sensitivity to voltage drops and frequent starts, from which the service life is reduced. Experts do not recommend the use of fluorescent lamps in public places and equip them with motion sensors. These lamps should not be switched off if you leave the room for a while. The optimum indicator for achieving maximum durability is 5 inclusions per day;
- The lamp needs some time to start shining to the maximum of its capabilities. At room temperature, this takes about 30-45 seconds;
- over time, the light flux of the lamp will decrease, which is associated with the degradation of the phosphor, so it is better to take a lamp with a small margin of power;
- unpleasant flicker;
- complex connection scheme;
- sensitivity to high temperatures, so it is better not to use such lamps in luminaires that limit the heat dissipation.
When fluorescent lamps are used outdoors at low temperatures, their luminous efficiency will be lower than stated. With dimmers, these lamps can not be used. On sale is very rare, but you can find lamps with adjustable brightness, but they cost several times more than usual and do not have a long service life.
№4. LED lamp
LED lamps are the top of the evolution of light bulbs. They lack the disadvantages typical of analogues, consume 6-10 times less electricity than incandescent lamps, and several times more durable than fluorescent lamps. In such lamps there are no tungsten spirals or harmful substances - the light source is an LED, a complex principle of luminescence that allows you to do without the use of hazardous and toxic compounds.
The LED lamp can be part of a single LED lamp or sold as a replaceable light bulb. The latter becomes the object of our attention.
BasicAdvantages of LED lamps:
- complete safety and environmental friendliness;
- economical energy consumption. The LED lamp is 2-3 times more economical than the luminescent lamp, and 6-10 times - than the incandescent lamp;
- long service life, from 20 000 to 50 000 hours or more. If we include this lamp every day for 6 hours, we get about 9 years of service (this is if we take a lamp with a resource of 20 thousand hours);
- absence of heating during operation;
- absence of unpleasant and harmful for eyes flickering;
- The LED lamp immediately shines at the maximum brightness - it will not be necessary to wait until it flares up;
- the durability of the LED lamp does not depend on the voltage drops and the number of inclusions;
- natural color rendition;
- high mechanical strength and small dimensions;
- simplicity of installation;
- on the LED lamps responsible manufacturers and sellers give a guarantee of 2-3 years, and sometimes more.
Mainflawsuch lamps - a high price. The opportunity to save money is a lamp of nameless Chinese producers, but it is better not to take them. Moreover, many Chinese and even some domestic manufacturers somewhat overstate the characteristics of their lamps - it is better to take the products of eminent European companies. LED lamps are sensitive to high temperatures, so in baths and saunas they can not be used.
№5. Lamp power and luminous flux
The usual incandescent lamps have been in circulation for so long that we are used to choosing, mainly, to look atpower as a key indicator. We all understand how a 40W or 60W lamp will shine. The power of energy-saving lamps is several times lower (4-25 W), so for many people buying a suitable lamp raises many questions. Manufacturers simplify this task for us andindicate on packages the equivalent of poweri.e. tell us how the economy bulb will shine, comparing it with the lamp's light flux glowing of a certain power (for example, on a fluorescent lamp it can be written "8 W corresponds 40 watts ").
The care of the producer is pleasant, but educated people should understand thatThe power and light output of a lamp are not the same, and everyone's familiar watts are a unit of power. The luminous flux is measured in lumens. To make it easier to understand: an incandescent lamp of 40 W gives a light flux of 470-500 lumens, 60 W - 700-850 lm, 75 W - 900-1200 lm. Now, when studying the packaging of an economical lamp, you can already roughly imagine how it will shine.
When choosing a lamp with the necessary brightness level, you can also start fromequivalent of power. Forfluorescent lampsyou can use the coefficient of 5: if it is indicated that the lamp has a power of 12 W, it means that it will shine like a 60 W incandescent lamp. ForLEDthis ratio is about 7-8: a 10-12 W lamp will shine like a 75 W incandescent lamp.
The dependence of the light flux on power makes it possible to judge the efficiency of a lamp and itsluminous efficiency, which is measured in lm / W. Filament lamps for each 1 W of electricity consumed give only 10-16 lumens of light ceiling, i.е. have a light output of 10-16 lm / W. Halogen lamps have a light output of 15-22 lm / W, luminescent - 40-80 lm / W, LED - 60-90 lm / W.
№6. Colorful temperature
A lamp with the same power can produce light of a different shade, warmer or cooler. The color temperature is measured in kelvin and must be indicated on the lamp package. On sale it is possible to find lamps withtemperature from 2700 K to 6500 K: the lower the figure, the warmer and yellow will be light.
When choosing, you can focus on such standards:
- for relaxation and relaxation in living areas it is recommended to use lamps of warm white light with temperature2700-3300 K. It is believed that lamps up to 3500 K are suitable for recreation, more - for work;
- lamps up to4200-4500 Kgive a natural white light, which can be used in the office, office, to illuminate the workplace, it is also suitable for bathrooms. In general, this option is more appropriate for public places;
- lamps with color temperature5000-6500 Khave a cold bluish glow, they are used to illuminate warehouses, salons, shops, hangars and office space. At home, such a light is inappropriate.
To use lamps with different color temperatures in one room is undesirable - this will cause discomfort, and if it is permanent, problems with vision may occur.
№7. Color rendering index
The light source is able to strongly influence the person's perception of flowers. We all know how the same shade can differ under different lighting conditions.The reference light is sunlight, its CRI color rendering index is equal to 100. For artificial light, this indicator is somewhat lower, but the closer it is to 100, the more correct and natural colors we will see. All modern energy saving lamps haveCRI 80 and more- this is normal color rendition.
Color rendering and color temperature in the marking are encryptedthree-digit code, for example, 830, where the first digit advises the color rendering index (in our case, the CRI 80 comes out), and the last two indicate a color temperature (3000 K).
№8. Life time
The manufacturer usually indicates the longevity in hours, but this parameter may not be entirely understandable to the average user - it is more convenient for us to count in years. On average, under normal operating conditions, the LED lamp will last 10-15 years, the luminescent lamp will last about 5 years. On the LED lamp manufacturers give a guarantee.
№9. Type of socle
The most popular is still consideredthe classical socle of Edison with a diameter of 27 mm, which is denoted byE27. Most household lamps are designed to install lamps with this base. It was a standard for incandescent lamps, and manufacturers of energy-saving lamps did everything for the convenience of the user and mass-produced lamps with a socle E27. In some sconces, desktop llamas and small lamps, lamps with a smaller base may be needed -E14. In large high-power fixtures, lamps with a plinthE40. If it is difficult to determine with which socle lamp is needed, you can go to the store with an old incandescent lamp.
In everyday life also used compact lamps withpin contacts. In them, the socle is marked with the letter G followed by a number that indicates the distance between the pins in mm, for example G10.
№10. Bulb shape and brightness control
If it is necessary that the lamp give not only light, but also perform a decorative function, then it is better to chooseLED lamp, which can be in the form ofcandle, balletc. Even more choices in this regard are provided by halogen lamps and incandescent lamps, but they can not be saved with them.Fluorescent lampsthey are only produced in the form of spirals and tubes.
If the shape of the bulb in energy-saving lamps, things are not so bad, then with the brightness adjustment everything is much worse. Find a sample that can be connected to the dimmer, of course, you can, but it will cost a lot, and all the options for adjusting the brightness of an economical lamp still does not sell. If you want to use a dimmer, it is better to take a halogen lamp.
For an energy-saving lamp to meet your expectations, buyproducts of well-known manufacturers(Philips, OSRAM, GE, Ecola) and ask about the warranty period. On a normal LED lamp, the warranty will be 2-3 years, not 6 months.