- №1. Types of paints for facade work
- №2. Paints on synthetic resins
- Vinyl Paints
- Acrylic paints
- Silicone paints
- Acrylic-silicone paints
- Lime paint
- Cement Paint
- Silicate paint
- Polysilicate paints
Facade paint - this is both protection and decoration of the building. Everyone who is engaged in the construction or restoration of a house, sooner or later becomes a matter of choice facade paint, and then it is waiting for a big surprise in the form of a huge variety of its species, colors and manufacturers. Stained, as a rule, plaster facades, less often - brick, concrete and wooden, and in each of these cases you need a certain kind of paint. If you add that it is also necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the area where the house is located, as well as the name of the manufacturer, then the head can go around. Do not panic - calmly
№1. Types of paints for facade work
Common sense suggests that the paint for the facade should have such properties as:
- resistance to ultraviolet radiation;
- resistance to moisture;
- resistance to temperature changes;
- resistance to aggressive chemicals, especially if the house is located near a busy road or in an industrial zone;
- antiseptic properties;
- high decorative qualities.
Naturally, not every of the existing paints will withstand tense street conditions - specificThe operational qualities are determined by its composition, the most important role is played by the binder. After drying or evaporation of the solvent, the binder forms a film having protective characteristics and high adhesion to the substrate.
By the type of solvent, the paints are divided into two groups:
- on organic solvents, incl. on the basis of white spirit, form a dense weatherproof film, but somewhat toxic and fire-hazardous;
- water-solublecolors are more ecological, because instead of toxic organic water here is used.
Depending on the type of binder paint, there are:
- on synthetic resins (acrylic, silicone, vinyl);
- on the basis of mineral substances (cement, lime, liquid glass).
The number of binders is an indicator of the quality of the paint. In the cheapest materials binders are few, but instead the bulk is occupied by fillers, which do not affect the quality of the finished coating in any way. Check the amount of filler in the paint is not easy - this should notify the manufacturer, and the reliability of this information depends on the company name.
№2. Paints on synthetic resins
Acrylic, vinyl and silicone paints are usually performed on a water basis, and as a result, an environmentally friendly and completely non-toxic coating is obtained. Much rarer, but still available on sale, organ-soluble options.
As a binder, there is used polyvinyl acetate or copolymers of vinyl acetate. The main advantage -low price, but by the level of vapor permeability, resistance to moisture, resistance to chemical contamination and color resistance vinyl paints are inferior to acrylic, so in recent times, facade decoration.
Among the water-emulsionthe most popular. They are resistant to various atmospheric influences, moisture, ultraviolet, "breathe" and are distinguished by their durability at the level of 10-15 years or more. To othersadvantagesinclude the ability to dry quickly and a low price. Acrylic paints are alkali-resistant and have good adhesion to many substrates. Thanks to the tinting, you can get absolutely any color you want. The coating is suitable for painting concrete surfaces and facades made of cement-sand plaster, and preliminary priming is not required. For silicate and lime facades is not suitable.
Silicone paints are made on the basis of silicone resins and possess excellenthydrophobic properties, they do not soften under the influence of high temperatures, they have a neutral electric charge, so they almost do not attract dust and dirt, which provideslong preservation of the original appearance of the facade. Silicone paintsresistant to sunlight, mechanical action, durable, elastic, have a biological stability, and are resistant to fading and are available in a variety of color palettes. Silicone paints are suitable for almost all bases: concrete, cement-fiber boards, as well as cement, lime and cement-lime plasters. TOcons include only the cost.
It is not difficult to guess that such paints include acrylic and silicone resins, therefore, the coating has the advantages of the two paints described above. They are resistant to moisture, have high moisture permeability, are resistant to abrasion, almost do not get dirty.
Oil paints, produced on the basis of natural or artificial drying oil, have recently been less and less used for facade decoration, because they dry for a long time, have a specific smell and quickly fade. Nevertheless, due to the low price the coating is still used for painting wooden facades.
No. 3. Mineral paints for the facade
Mineral materials include calcareous, cement and silicate paints.
Calcareous paints are produced on the basis of hydrated lime. These can be ready-to-apply coatings or pastes, which are diluted with water and pigment directly at the construction site. Pigment must be necessarily resistant to alkaline environment, which significantly limits the possible color palette, but this is not the only oneflawlime paint for the facade. It has low resistance to moisture, low durability, is relatively dirty and can be washed off with heavy rain.
TOadvantagesmaterial is considered cheap, highvapor permeabilityand excellentantiseptic properties. Today the coating is used less and less, but in some cases it is irreplaceable. Lime paint is still used for the restoration of architectural monuments.
Cement paints are available in the form of powders, which are diluted in situ with water or special preparations. The basis of the paint is white or colored Portland cement, to which slaked lime (about 15%) is added to improve water-retaining capacity and hydrophobizing agents (about 1%) to improve resistance to atmospheric impacts. Such coatings possesshigh vapor permeability, are inexpensive, are exposed to sunlight, but are not very resistant to moisture and have the property of peeling off.
Silicate paints are made on the basis of potassium liquid glass with the addition of ethyl silicate. The composition is resistant to sunlight, temperature changes, aggressive atmospheric influences (acid rain), possessesbiological resistance, and due to the presence of hydrophobizators, moisture resistance is added to the advantages. The color palette of silicate paints is limited, they can not be used on top of acrylic and silicone paints, and work must be carried out in personal protective equipment.
Polysilicon paints are also calledsilicate-ash. In fact, it is a more perfect analog of silicate paint. The coating is resistant to moisture, vapor permeable, suitable for painting facades, plastered with cement and cement-lime compounds.
№4. Facade paint and base type
The manufacturer, as a rule, on the packaging indicates which type of surface the material is intended for. To simplify your choice, we bring the so-called.ideal base-paint pairs:
- for cement and cement-lime plasterssuitable vinyl, silicone, acrylic, acrylic-silicone, cement, lime, silicate and polysilicon paints. In general, almost everything;
- for silicate plasters, as well as for facades, previouslystained with silicate paints, suitable silicate, lime, cement and polysilicon paints, which can be applied even without a primer. If you slightly complicate the task and pre-primer the surface, you can also use vinyl, acrylic, acrylic-silicone and silicone paints;
- facades made with the help oflime plasters, andpainted with lime paints, can be finished with lime, silicate, cement and polysilicate paints. Also suitable are some silicone paints that have a high capacity to pass carbon dioxide;
- if for the decoration of the facade were usedorganic plasters, it is best to use silicone, acrylic and polysilicon paints;
- concrete basecan be painted with acrylic, silicone, silicate and polysilicate paints;
- brick facadesrarely painted, but if the need for this still arose, then you can use a number of suitable colors. ForceramicBricks are suitable for silicone, acrylic, acrylic-silicone paints, as well as silicate, cement and lime compounds. For paintingsilicate bricksit is possible to use polysilicon, cement and silicate compounds;
- formetalSuitable compositions having high corrosion resistance properties;
- for coloringwooden facadesit is better to take acrylic or alkyd enamel, primer on acrylic basis or colorless varnishes that will protect the tree and emphasize its natural beauty.
№5. On what properties of paint need to pay attention?
Despite the fact that the paints for the facade put forward requirements for resistance to moisture, solar rays, mold, fungus, abrasion and other factors, in different compositions these properties are expressed not the same. When choosing a facade paint, you need to pay attention to such properties:
- watertightness. One of the main requirements for facade paint is the ability to withstand the effects of atmospheric moisture and not absorb it. Otherwise, the finish layer will become dirty, get infected with a fungus, lose integrity and even fall off. The manufacturer must indicate on the packagingwater absorption coefficientw, which ideally should not be higher, 5 kg / (m² • h,). Sometimes the percentage is also given. The lower this indicator, the better;
- vapor permeabilitypaint indicates its ability to pass moisture leaving the house, and it is this indicator determines how healthy the microclimate in the room. If the walls of the house are made of a vapor-permeable material, and the paint has a low vapor permeability, the moisture will condense inside the wall, which will not lead to anything good. It is absolutely necessary to look for information and vapor permeability on the paint package. Define it in many ways. It can be specified asthe amount of water that passes through 1 m2 per daypainted surface. In vapor-permeable paints this value starts from 130 g / m2 per day. Sometimes the vapor permeability is indicated by the coefficient Sd, which meansthickness of the air layer with the same vapor permeability, like a layer of facade paint. The lower this index, the better, and ideally it should be at a level of 5, 1 m. Much less often, vapor permeability is determined throughdiffusion resistance coefficient, which in good "breathing" colors is approaching 1400-1500;
- resistance to ultravioletno indicators are not measured, but if the region is southern and sunny, it is better to take polysilicon, acrylic-silicone and acrylic paints - they are most resistant to sunlight and retain their initial color;
- abrasion resistance- an indicator that largely determines the longevity of the coating and the safety of its original appearance. During the operation, the facade will need to be washed, which will necessarily lead to abrasion. Moreover, some places of the facade, in particular near the front door, will be subjected to increased loads. That after a couple of years the paint does not fade and does not lose its color, pay attention tonumber of dry and wet cleaning cycles. The responsible producer always indicates this information on the package, but the indicator in 5000 cycles will be quite sufficient;
- the ability of the paint to get dirty and self-cleaning. It often happens that the painted facade is literally a couple of months after painting gets grayish shade, especially typical for areas near roads and industrial enterprises. Just note that there are no paints that do not get dirty at all, but there are compounds in which dirt does not absorbed, i.e. does not penetrate into its structure, and from the surface layer dust is easily washed off even during of rain. This is calledthe ability of the paint to self-purification. Hydrophobic properties begin to unfold in full scale 3-4 weeks after application of the paint. Silicone paints, as well as acrylic and silicate compounds, are the best in this respect. Do not forget about the trick: with a glossy surface, dirt is washed off much better, and on a dark background it is less noticeable;
- resistance to fungus. Houses built near water, in places with a high level of groundwater, as well as buildings located in a dense shadow, are most prone to mold development. The easiest way to avoid its appearance is to use lime paints that have excellent antiseptic properties, but this is far from a universal option, and even a wide palette of flowers they boast can not. Alternative to them - biosecurity compositions on acrylic basis. Another solution - the application of antiseptic primers on the base, after which you can use any paint;
- paint consumptionthe manufacturer must honestly indicate on the packaging. It is approximately 5-12 l / m2 and depends not only on the type of paint, but also on the features of the base, including. absorbent properties and surface type. Less is the consumption of paint when processing smooth surfaces. If the paint is applied in two layers, then the specified flow is multiplied by two and added another 10-15% of the stock;
- drying timefor different compositions is different, and on the packaging indicate the time through which it is possible to apply a second layer paint (this is about 2-5 hours) and the time after which the paint completely acquires all its operational quality.
№6. Textured paint for the facade
Textured facade paints differ from conventionalgranular consistency, thanks to which it is possible to form a relief surface. Similar compositions are also called structural and textural paints, but they always mean the same thing - acrylic paint, which includes granular granules. Less often, instead of acrylic, another base can be used.
Textured paint is applied to the facade with a thick enough layer, about 10 mm, so its consumption is higher than that of the compounds that form a smooth surface. This is more than offset by the ability of the composition to hide cracks and chips on the wall surface, so in the preliminary preparation and careful alignment, the need disappears. The resulting texture resembles a decorative plaster, but drawing largely depends not on the composition of the paint, but on the way it is applied and the tools used.
№7. Choose the color of the facade paint
To the house pleased only with one glance at it, you need to choose the right color of the facade paint. It is important that the shade is in harmony with the surrounding environment, neighboring buildings, the color of the roof, windows, doors and stairs. Manufacturers, as luck would have it, offer such a wide range of shades that it is very easy to get confused. When it seems that without the help of a professional can not do without, useSimple rules, which are used in their practice by specialists:
- It is best to use natural colors in decoration;
- the color of the facade must belighter than the color of the roof. Opposite combinations take place, but choosing the right combination is likely to require designer intervention;
- house with a bright roof is better to paint in light shades;
- in the decoration of the facade is better to use not one, but2-3 combined with each other shade. One can be the main one, and the second one will emphasize window and door openings, interesting architectural elements. Use more than three colors is not recommended;
- buildings locatedin warm regions, it is better to paint in light shades, so that in summer it is not so hot in the room;
- the color of paint is better to evaluate not on the catalog, not on the pages of the online store, and not even in the store, looking in a jar. To understand how the color will look in real conditions, it is better to go out with a jar of paint to the street, or even better - to put it on the most inconspicuous part of the facade in order to make the final decision;
- do not know which shade to stop, - choose pastel colors;
- The painted house should be in harmony with the surrounding landscape, and it concerns not only nature, but also existing buildings nearby, so even the color of the facade of neighboring houses will have to be taken into account, otherwise your home will fall out of the general context;
- for houses of complex configuration it is better not to use bright colors;
- for buildings located in the sun, fitmatte paints- glossy will give too much glare.
The assortment of different shades is large, and given the possibility of tinting some of the compositions, it is generally infinite.
№8. Manufacturers of facade paints
The quality of the paint and the compliance of its real properties with the claimed ones largely depends on the name of the manufacturer. On the shelves of shops you can find products of dozens of companies, both foreign and domestic.Some of the largest and most proven are such manufacturers:
- TikkurilaIs a large Finnish producer, who does not need special representation. The range includes paints designed for painting wooden and stone facades, metal surfaces, concrete bases. Silicone, silicate, lime and acrylic compositions are presented, the quality is exemplary;
- Dulux- one of the largest companies in the world for the production of paint and varnish coatings. The plants are located in 26 countries of the world. For external works, the paints are presented with a matte, glossy and textured surface. All compounds have antiseptic properties, a guarantee for them - 15 years;
- Dufa- a large German company, operating since 1955. Produces paints for any occasions, for any surfaces and conditions of use. For facades water-dispersion compositions are issued, there are especially strong and especially elastic compositions;
- Marshall- Turkish company, which today is part of the world's largest concern AkzoNobel. Products enjoyed in the domestic market are in great demand, there is a development of a network of points of sale. For the facade is produced only acrylic paint, which can be tinted in any shade;
- Caparoloffers almost the largest choice of facade paints. The range includes paints on a mineral and dispersion basis, paints for concrete, cement and lime plasters;
- "Eurolux"- a domestic manufacturer whose products are much cheaper than foreign analogues, but at the same time they are not as good at quality as they are. For facades there is acrylic and latex paint;
- "Optimist"- another domestic manufacturer, offering a decent range of facade paints, incl. silicone, acrylic and latex. Quality is not bad, the price is affordable;
- paintsOLIMPCJSC "Descartes". The products fully meet all international requirements and can compete with foreign analogues. For the facade is produced matte acrylic paint, which can be tinted in any color.
On facade paint it is better not to save - it depends not only on the appearance of the house, but also on its durability and strength in many respects.