Farmers annually face the problem of disposing of manure. Nowhere leave a lot of money that is required for the organization of its removal and disposal. But there is a way to not only save money, but also made to serve their own benefit, this natural product.
Zealous masters have long been used in practice, Environmental Technology, which allows to obtain biogas from manure and use the result as a fuel.
Therefore, in this article we will focus on the technology of biogas, as we will explain how to build a bioenergy plant.
The content of the article:
- Pros biotechnology
- The mechanism of formation of the organic raw material gas
- Calculations efficiency of biogas
- Options settings for biofuel
Especially biogas system
- installation Principle of operation
- Conditions of effective operation of the bioreactor
- Determining the required volume
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Technology biofuel from a variety of natural sources is not new. Research in this area began in the late 18th century and successfully developed in the 19th century. In the Soviet Union the first biopower plant was established in the forties of the last century.
Biotechnology have long been used in many countries, but that today they are of particular importance. Due to environmental degradation in the world and high energy costs, many directs their gaze toward alternative energy and heat source.
Technology for processing manure into biogas reduces the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere of methane and receive the additional source of thermal energy
Of course, the manure is a valuable fertilizer, and if any two cows on the farm, and the problems with its use does not occur. Another thing, when it comes to farms with large and medium-sized livestock, where a year are produced tons of fetid and rotting biological material.
To manure turned into high-quality fertilizer, need space to a certain temperature, and this extra expense. Therefore, many farmers are stockpiling it, where necessary, and then taken to the field.
Depending on the volume of raw materials, resulting in a day, you should choose the installation dimensions and the degree of automation
Failure to observe the conditions of storage of manure volatilized to 40% nitrogen and most of the phosphorus, which considerably impairs its quality indicators. Furthermore, the atmosphere is released methane gas, having a negative impact on the environment of the planet.
Modern biotechnology can not only neutralize the harmful effects of methane on environmental environment, but also to make it serve the good of man, thus removing considerable economic benefits. As a result, manure produced biogasFrom which you can then get thousands of kilowatts of power and the production of waste is a very valuable anaerobic manure.
Organization of biogas systems economically feasible for farmers. If the raw materials are given only two cows, it is better to use as fertilizer
Obtained by processing manure gas provide heat and energy. Purification can be provided in the plate and the boiler, pumped into an electric cylinder used
Structurally, the simplest processing plant is easy to build with his own hands. Its main body - a bioreactor, which should be well insulated and hydro-
For those who wish to reduce the time of system construction, suitable plastic container prefabricated. With its use are similar to the principles of construction and insulation
Farms - the main suppliers of raw materials for the production of biogas
Preparation and use of gaseous biofuel
Construction of the processing plant with their own hands
The finished plastic container in apparatus bioreactor
The mechanism of formation of the organic raw material gas
Biogas - a volatile substance without color and of any odor, which contains 70% methane. On the quality indicators it is close to the traditional type of fuel - natural gas. It has good calorific value, 1m3 biogas allocates as much heat as obtained from the combustion of coal and a half kilograms.
The formation of biogas anaerobic bacteria, we are obliged to work actively on the decomposition of organic raw materials, which are used as manure of farm animals, bird droppings, any waste plants.
The independent production of biogas can be used chicken manure and waste products of small and large livestock. The feedstock may be applied in pure form and in the form of a mixture with the inclusion of herbs, leaves, old paper
To activate the process necessary to create favorable conditions for the life of bacteria. They should be similar to those in which the microorganisms develop naturally in the tank - in the stomach of animals, wherein no heat and oxygen.
Actually, it has two main conditions that promote miraculous transformation of rotting manure mass in an environmentally friendly fuel and valuable fertilizer.
Biogas needs a sealed reactor, without access to air, where the process of manure fermentation and decomposition will occur on its components:
- methane (70%);
- carbon dioxide (About 30%);
- other gaseous substances (1-2%).
The resulting gases rise upwardly container, where they then deflate and settles down residual product - high quality organic fertilizer, preserved as a result of processing all the valuable substances present in the manure - nitrogen and phosphorus, and has lost a significant part of the pathogenic microorganisms.
Reactor to produce biogas must be completely hermetic structure in which oxygen is absent, otherwise manure decomposition process will be very slow
The second important condition for the efficient decomposition of manure and biogas - to observe the temperature. The bacteria involved in the process, are activated at a temperature of 30 degrees.
Moreover, two types of bacteria found in manure:
- mesophilic. Their life activity occurs at a temperature of 30 - 40 degrees;
- thermophilic. For their reproduction is necessary to observe the temperature regime +50 (+60) degrees.
raw materials processed in time units of the first type depends on the composition of the mixture and ranges from 12 to 30 days. Thus 1 liter of useful reactor area gives 2L biofuels. When using plants of the second type while making the final product is reduced to three days, and the amount of biogas is increased to 4.5 liters.
The efficiency of thermophilic plants visible to the naked eye, however, and the price of their services is very high, so before you choose one or another method for producing biogas is necessary to very carefully all count
Despite the fact that the efficiency of thermophilic plants is ten times higher, they are used much less frequently, since the maintenance of high temperatures in the reactor due to the high costs.
Maintenance and upkeep of the mesophilic type of installation is cheaper, so most farmers to produce biogas is used them.
Biogas energy potential of slightly inferior to the usual criteria of gas fuel. However, in its composition have evaporation of sulfuric acid, the presence of which should be considered when selecting materials to install facilities
Calculations efficiency of biogas
Enjoy the benefits of the use of alternative biofuels help to simple calculations. One cow weighing 500 kg a day produces approximately 35-40 kg of manure. This amount will be enough for about 1.5 m3 biogas, from which in turn can develop a 3 kW / h of electricity.
Using data from the table, it is easy to calculate how many meters3 Biogas can be obtained at the output according to the available in farm livestock
can be used as one type of organic raw materials for biodiesel, and a mixture of components having 85-90% moisture. It is important that they do not contain any foreign chemical impurities that adversely affect the recycling process.
The easiest recipe mixture invented in 2000 a Russian man of the Lipetsk region, who built himself a simple biogas plants. He mixed 1500 kg of cow manure with 3500 kg of waste of different plants, water is added (approximately 65% of the weight of all ingredients), and the mixture was warmed to 35 degrees.
Two weeks later, a free fuel ready. This small plant produces 40 m3 of gas per day, which is enough to heat the home and hozpostroek within six months.
Options settings for biofuel
After the calculations necessary to determine how to make the installation to get the biogas in accordance with the needs of their farms. If a small number of cattle, the simplest version of the suit, which is easy to make improvised their own hands.
Large farms, which have a constant source of large quantities of raw materials, it is advisable to build an industrial automated biogas system. In this case, it is unlikely to succeed to do without the involvement of specialists who will develop the project and assemble the installation at the professional level.
The diagram clearly shows how the industrial automated system for obtaining biogas. Construction of such a scale can be organized to multiple farms, located nearby
Today, there are dozens of companies that can offer a variety of options: from ready-made solutions to the development of individual projects. To reduce the cost of construction can cooperate with neighboring farms (if any nearby) and build one at all biogas plants.
It should be noted that for the construction of even a small installation is necessary to issue the relevant documents, to make a flow chart plan placement and ventilation equipment (if the equipment is installed in the room), go through approval procedures with the SES, Fire and Gas inspection.
Mini-plant for the production of gas to cover the needs of a small private sector can do own, focusing on the structure and specificity of the device installations produced in industrial scale.
Construction of installations for processing of manure and organic matter into biogas plant are not complicated. Released the original industry is quite suitable as a template for the construction of its own mini-plant
Independent craftsmen who decide to do their own construction of the installation, it is necessary to stock up on water tank, water or plastic sewer pipes, Elbows, and seals the balloon to store resultant installation gas.
The main element of the future installation - a plastic tank with a tightly fitting lid. In the photo capacity of 700 liters, it is necessary to prepare for work: to mark and draw a pipe inlets
Require PVC pipe for insertion into a container, the adapter as a funnel, plastic corners, a hose for supplying water to capacious, adhesive fitting for attaching it to the cover and the valve overlap
Outline the holes easier to outline, using a pipe that will wind up in it. The opening should be cut with the maximum precision
The neatly cut holes infest pipe. They should not be damaged by burrs, get in the cutting process. The junction is filled with adhesive and sealant
The pipe, intended for loading raw material for processing is set so that there is between the bottom of the container 2 and its lower edge - 5 cm
Adapter as a funnel for loading raw materials used, since being built unit designed for processing food residues. To download manure funnel and pipe needs more
Similarly, the formed hole and is set horizontal outlet pipe. Wound in a tank equipped with a pipe edge area
The cover is cut a hole into which installed hose supplying water required for processing
Step 1: Homemade mini-factory for the production of biogas
Step 2: Fittings for portable installation
Step 3: Formation of openings for input plastic pipes
Step 4: Set the PVC pipe in the hole cut in the tank
Step 5: Rules of installation of the pipe loading of raw materials
Step 6: Installing the adapter as a funnel on the tube
Step 7: Installing and fixing exhaust pipe installation
Step 8: Securing the hose to the water inlet in the cover
Especially biogas system
Complete biogas plant is a complex system consisting of:
- Bioreactor, where the process of decomposition of manure flows;
- Automated feeding system of organic waste;
- Devices for mixing of biomass;
- Equipment for maintaining optimum temperature;
- Gas tank - tank for storing the gas;
- Receiver exhaust of solid waste.
All of the above elements are installed in industrial plants operating in automatic mode. Household reactors usually have a more simplified construction.
In the diagram shows the main components of the automated system of biogas. The volume of the reactor depends on the daily intake of organic materials. For full operation of the reactor installation must be filled to two thirds of
installation Principle of operation
The main element of the system is a bioreactor. There are several variants of its performance, the main thing - to ensure design integrity and prevent ingress of oxygen. It can be formed as a metal container of different shapes (usually cylindrical) situated on the surface. Often used for this purpose 50 vat empty fuel tank.
You can buy ready-made containers collapsible design. Their advantage - the ability to quickly disassemble and, if necessary - transport to another location. Industrial surface installation it is advisable to apply on large farms, where there is a constant flow of large amounts of organic material.
For small farmsteads more suitable option underground tank placement. Of underground bunker is constructed of brick or concrete. It is possible to bury finished container, for example, metal barrels, stainless steel or PVC. Perhaps their surface occupancy on the street or in a designated place with good ventilation.
For the manufacture of biogas production can be purchased ready-made containers of PVC and install them in a room equipped with a ventilation system
Irrespective of where and how the reactor is located, it is provided with a charging bin manure. Before you download the raw material, it must be pre-training: it is crushed into fractions of not more than 0.7 mm and diluted with water. Ideally, the substrate humidity should be about 90%.
Automated installation of the industrial type equipped with a raw material supply system, consisting of a receiver, in which a mixture of is brought to the desired humidification water supply conduit and pump device for pumping the mass into bioreactor.
In domestic installations to prepare separate containers used substrate, wherein the waste crushed and mixed with water. Then the mass is loaded into the receiving compartment. In reactors arranged underground, for receiving the output hopper substrate outwardly, a mixture prepared by gravity through conduit enters chamber for fermentation.
If the reactor is placed on the ground or in a room, the inlet pipe having a receiving device may be located at the lower side of the container. It is also possible to bring the pipe into an upper part and at its neck wear funnel. In this case, the biomass will have to be pumped.
The bioreactor is also necessary to provide an outlet, which make it practically at the bottom of the container on the opposite side from the input hopper. In underground rooms outlet pipe installed obliquely upwards and leads to a waste receptacle, shaped like a rectangular box. Its upper edge has to be below the inlet level.
Input and output pipes are arranged obliquely upward on the opposite sides of the container, wherein the compensating container which receives the waste to be below the hopper
The process proceeds as follows: input hopper receives a new batch of substrate, which flows into the reactor, while the same amount of the waste mass through the pipe lying in the waste receptacle from where it subsequently scooped, and is used as a high quality biofertilizers.
Storage of biogas is carried out in the gas holder. Most often it is right on the roof of the reactor and is shaped like a dome or cone. It is made from corrugated iron, and then to prevent corrosion processes, painted with several layers of oil paint.
In industrial plants, designed to obtain a large amount of gas gasholder often performed as a stand alone tank connected to the reactor conduit.
Gas resulting from fermentation, is not suitable for use because it contains a large amount of water vapor, and as such it will not burn. In order to clean it from the water fraction, the gas is passed through a water trap. For this purpose from the gasholder output pipe through which biogas is fed into the vessel with water, and from there it is a plastic or metal pipe is supplied to consumers.
Installation diagram, located under the ground. Inlet and outlet should be located on opposite sides of the container. Above the reactor is the water trap through which to drain the produced gas is passed
In some cases, the storage of gas used special bags, gas tanks, made of PVC. The bags are placed next to install and are gradually filled with gas. As filling elastic material swells and increases the volume of the bags, while allowing the necessary temporarily to store more of the final product.
Conditions of effective operation of the bioreactor
For efficient operation of the plant and intensive isolation necessary biogas fermentation uniform organic substrate. The mixture should be in constant motion. Otherwise crust formed thereon, the decomposition process is slowed down, in the gas result is less than originally calculated.
To provide active mixing of biomass in the upper or side portion of a typical reactor set submersible agitators or inclined type, equipped with an electric drive. In installations artisanal type stirring is carried out mechanically by a device resembling a household mixer. They can be operated manually or electrically provide.
When the vertical reactor mixer handle arrangement displayed in the upper part of the apparatus. If the container is mounted horizontally, the screw is also situated in a horizontal plane, and the handle is on the side of the bioreactor
One of the most important conditions for biogas production is to maintain the reactor temperature required. Heating can be accomplished in several ways. In fixed installations automated heating systems are used, which are included in the work when the temperature falls below a predetermined level, and turned off when the desired temperature set mode.
For heating, you can use gas-fired boilers, To carry out direct heating by electric radiators, or embed in the base of the vessel heating element.
To reduce heat losses, it is advisable to construct the reactor around a small frame with fiber glass insulation or hide installation. It has good heat insulating properties polystyrene and its other varieties.
To equip biomass heating system can be made from a brownie heating pipe, which is fed from the reactor
Determining the required volume
The reactor volume is determined based on the daily amount of manure produced in the household. It is also necessary to take into account the type of material, temperature and fermentation time. To plant was operated full, the container is filled to 85-90% of the volume, at least 10% should remain free for the gas outlet.
The decomposition process of organic matter in the mesophilic apparatus at an average temperature of 35 degrees lasting 12 days, after which fermented residues are removed, and the reactor is filled with a new portion substrate. As before sending to the reactor waste is diluted with water to 90%, the amount of liquid also must be considered when determining the daily load.
Based on the above parameters, reactor volume will be equal to the daily quantity of the prepared substrate (Manure with water) multiplied by 12 (the time required for decomposition of biomass) and increased to 10% (free volume capacity).
Now let's talk about the easy installation that allows them to biogas at home at the lowest cost. Consider the construction of the underground system. To make it you need to dig a hole, its foundation and the walls are filled with reinforced lightweight aggregate.
On opposite sides of the camera are displayed inlet and outlet openings, which are mounted inclined pipe for supplying the substrate and pumping the waste mass.
Outlet pipe diameter of about 7 cm should be substantially near the bottom of the hopper, the other its end is mounted in the compensating capacity of rectangular shape, which will be pumped waste. Conduit for supplying the substrate is approximately at a distance of 50 cm from the bottom and has a diameter of 25-35 cm. The upper part of the tube enters the compartment for receiving the raw materials.
The reactor must be completely sealed. To prevent air entrapment, the container must be covered with a bituminous waterproofing layer
The upper part of the hopper - gasholder having a dome or a cone shape. It is made of sheet metal or corrugated iron. You can also complete the masonry structure, which is then obbivat steel mesh and plastered. Top gasholder need to make an airtight hatch withdraw gas pipe extending through the water seal valve and set the gas pressure is released.
For the mixing of the substrate can be equipped with the installation of the drainage system, acting on the principle of bubbling. For this purpose, inside the structure vertically fasten the plastic pipe to the top edge above the substrate layer. Do them a plurality of openings. The pressurized gas will sink down and lifting up the gas bubbles will mix the biomass located in the vessel.
If you do not wish to engage in the construction of a concrete bunker, you can buy ready-made PVC container. To keep warm it is necessary to impose a layer of insulation around - polystyrene foam. The bottom of the well is filled with reinforced concrete bed 10 cm. Reservoirs of polyvinyl chloride may be used if the reactor does not exceed the volume of 3 m3.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How to make the most simple installation of conventional drums, you know, if you watch the video:
How is the construction of an underground reactor, you can see in the video:
As loading occurs in manure underground installation shown in the following video:
Installation of biogas from manure will significantly save on heat payment and electricity, and put to good use the organic material which exists in each in excess farm. Before you begin construction, you need to calculate everything carefully and prepare.
The simplest reactor can be done in a few days with his own hands, using the means at hand. If a farm is large, it is best to buy ready-made installation or refer to specialists.
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