The last decades were marked by an unprecedented growth of viral, bacterial, fungal diseases of all cultivated plants, without exception. Bacterial, viral diseases are practically not amenable to treatment, no matter what actions gardeners would take. Fungal diseases, gray rot, other types of rot, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, fusarium, closures, root rot, various leaf spots, etc., with correct application, fungicides successfully - contact, systemic. Fungicides - what is it, what are they? All fungicides are subdivided into drugs of contact and systemic action.
- Fungicides of contact action
- Fungicides of systemic action
- Chemical groups of systemic plant protection products( analogs are shown in parentheses)
- Basic rules for using
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Fungicides of contact action
contact remedies use remedies use remedies use remedies apply contact preparations., sulfur, mancozeb, Bordeaux liquid, others are not capable of treating already diseased plants, but reliably protect them from infection. To them, plants do not produce resistance - this is their main advantage. But the term of the protective action they do not exceed 10-12 days before the first heavy rain, after which the treatment is repeated. The multiplicity of treatments for fungicides of contact action is the largest: from 3 to 6 treatments per season. These drugs almost do not penetrate into the plant, protect only those places where they are located directly. Therefore, when working with contact fungicides, try to carefully sprinkle not only the surface of the leaves, but their lower side too, since many types of fungi begin to germinate from the lower side of the leaves.
Systemic protection of plants means the ability of the active substance to be redistributed from the place of application to other places, plant parts not only on the surface, but inside the plant. These drugs protect plants from fungi not only from the outside, but also from the inside. Systemic fungicides can have a therapeutic effect, but in the early stages of infection. Within 2-6 hours after treatment, any precipitation( or watering) is not able to reduce the effectiveness of such drugs. And the term of the protective action remains with them for 2-3 weeks. However, pathogenic fungi very quickly develop resistance to systemic fungicides. To slow down this process, international experts on plant protection products recommend using them no more than twice per season on one crop. And if additional treatments are required, then you need to use drugs or contact action, or systemic fungicide, but a completely different chemical group.содерж to content ↑
Chemical groups of systemic plant protection products( analogues are shown in brackets)
- Azols( triazoles) - Vectra( Granite), Scor( Bogard, Dividend), Topaz, Tilt( Bumper), Folikur, Alto, Baytan, Bayleton, Sportak, Imp.
- Strobirulina - But, Strobe, Amistar.
- Benzimidazoles - Fundazole( Benomyl), Derozal( Kolfugo-Super), Tekto( Titusim),
- Phenylamides - Apron.
- Anilidopyrimidines - Chorus.
- Pyrimidinylcarbinols - Rubigan.
- Dithianols - Delan.
- Phosphonates - Allette( Alufit).
- Phthalamide - Merpan, Folpan.
Like insects, the resistance of fungi on plants is produced directly to all fungicides of the same chemical group.
The best plant protection options are:
- alternating contact and systemic fungicides;
- alternating 2-3 systemic preparations, but from different chemical groups.
Mixed fungicides consisting of 2-3 active ingredients have been produced for many years, and they are:
- at the same time contact and system actions( Kurzat R. Odram, Acrobat MC, Ridomil Gold MC, Sandofan M8, Tattu, Oksihom, Pilon, Artemi S, Poliram DF, Arcerid, Aviksil, others).They are used according to the type of contact preparations up to 4 times per season with the concentration of the working solution usually not lower than 0.3-0.4%( 30-40 g per 10 l of water).Please note that a lower concentration of solutions leads to poor results. So this is exactly the case when you will not spoil the “porridge with butter”. .. Prepare solutions of fungicides of this group, adhering to the recommendations of the instructions, but it is better to even make them more concentrated than what is written.
- only of systemic action may belong to the same chemical group or to completely different. This is done only in order to expand the spectrum of action on harmful fungi. Such fungicides include Mikal, Archer, Ryder, Alto-Super, Falcon, Thanos, and others. They are used no more than twice per season.
Basic rules for using
- preparations Spray only in cloudy, calm weather, and also early in the morning - at dawn or in the evening - at sunset. Precipitates deposited within 4-6 hours after treatment reduce the effectiveness of many fungicides.
- Rubber gloves are a must.all plant protection products penetrate the skin reasonably well and are absorbed by sweat into the blood. It is enough to wear a light respirator or a bandage on the face.
- Try to spray the plants themselves with the fungicides, not the soil. High-quality pneumatic sprayer will help save money, time, save your health. So do not save on the purchase of a sprayer.
- It is forbidden to treat all green or other crops that use green stalks or leaves as food, as well as radishes, radishes, daikon, strawberries, currants, gooseberries, cherries, cherries( the last four can be processed only before flowering),since all these cultures very well absorb poisonous compounds, they do not have time to free themselves from them before they are eaten, even if the waiting times are observed.
- The working solution is prepared immediately before use; it can be stored for no more than a day.
- Prevent any fungicides from entering water bodies, as this will lead to the death of all life in them. Poisons are destroyed faster in the surface layer of the earth, which is not intended for use as vegetable gardens, hay fields, pastures, and children’s playgrounds. The sun, soil microorganisms - the main destroyers, neutralizers of any toxic compounds.
- Store fungicides in a dry, dark, preferably non-frozen room, away from food. All packages must be sealed, since the air moisture changes the physical properties of the preparations. The shelf life of biological products is 1-2.5 years, chemical - 10 or more years, regardless of the shelf life indicated on the packaging label.