Apricot is an old-timer not only of the southern edges, is happy to grow it in the northern regions of .This beautiful tree with sunny fruits is appreciated for its simple, though regular care in spring and autumn.
- Is it possible to plant apricot on cherry plum or plum?
- When can I vaccinate in the Moscow region and other regions?
- How to choose an
- how to graftwatering, feeding, pruning. But it all starts with the right fit.
Proper planting is a guarantee of future harvests.
An elevated site, protected from cold northern and westerly winds, with deep-lying groundwater is suitable for planting apricot trees. In the lowlands, where cold air, snow and moisture accumulate, apricot does not survive. The Siberian and Ural gardeners of need to be particularly attentive to the place of residence of the tree: in spring, when thaws alternate with frosts, there is a great danger of moisture accumulation at the trunk and freezing of the root collar.
Landing is carried out in the spring, before the buds swell. The landing pits are prepared in advance, better since the fall .Their size in all directions is about 70 - 80 cm. If you plan to plant several plants, you should leave about 4 - 5 meters between the pits.
At the bottom, claydite, sand-gravel or gravel, with a medium-sized fraction, is poured. Such a "pillow" is necessary to ensure good drainage.
Pour out 1.5 - 2 buckets with overdusted manure or humus. Then make mineral fertilizers - potash, phosphorus, nitrogen, can be in the complex. You can add 0.5 - 1 kg of wood ash and 1 kg of superphosphate. Here it is important not to overdo it: apricot will better tolerate a lack of fertilizer than its excess .On top of the fertilizer will certainly fill the ground to protect the young from burns.
For planting, seedlings are chosen - one-year-olds with a well-developed intact root system , spike( sprout from the rootstock), a few strong branches, evenly spaced, forming approximately 450 corners with a stem. They are characteristic only of wild apricots.
Next to a seedling a peg-support is dropped in a planting hole. Later, a planted branch is attached to it, so that the tree grows vertically, and an even trunk is formed.
A sapling is lowered into a hole, straightened roots and sprinkled with soil, gradually and gently priminaya soil. The root collar should be flush with the ground surface of the .After that, a circular groove is arranged on the edge of the pit and 15 to 20 liters of water are poured.
Immediately after planting, the shoot is cut to 40 cm above the ground .After 5-7 days, the twig is carefully tied to a support.
Schematically, apricot seasonal care is as follows :
- Spring - pruning, cleaning frost damage and planting with garden pitch, whitewashing the trunk and skeletal branches, feeding, watering.
- Summer - watering, protection from diseases and pests, in adult plants - a backup of the branches, weighted with a future crop.
- Autumn - re-treatment with lime of bole and skeleton-forming branches, top dressing, preparation for winter.
Apricot tree pruning is done in the spring with .Delete:
- short generative annual shoots ;
- branches growing outside or inside the crown ;
- is weak and thickens .
Thus, the crown is thinned, provide sufficient uniform illumination and stimulate the growth of fruit-bearing branches.
As a rule, forms a sparse-tiered crown with 7-8 branches of the first order .More rarely - in the form of a flattened bowl on top, such a crown contributes to the early harvest of healthy fruits. If planting is located against the wall, form fan crowns, cutting off the side shoots.
has 2-4 years old children have cut off excess and abnormally growing annual growth. In the following , for 2-3 years, shorten the branches by about a third and thin out to form a crown. Next, annually prunks 30% along the length of fruit-bearing branches .They remove old( no longer fruit-bearing), dried, crooked, broken, excessively thickening young shoots.
When slowing or stopping annual growth, anti-aging pruning is required.
Apricot is contraindicated stagnant water at the roots. This is fraught with their rotting and death of the tree. At the same time, the plant suffers during dry periods from lack of moisture in the soil and air. An adult plant should be watered at least 4 times per season, in the summer months - more often .
Before the beginning of flowering, it is plentifully spilled for the first time, stimulating abundant flowering. Re-watered after flowering, it has a beneficial effect on the appearance of a large number of ovaries and young shoots.
The third irrigation is necessary for the development and formation of large fruits , with high taste. Next, water if necessary, not allowing drying. But since August the tree begins to prepare for rest, the intensity of watering is reduced.
Autumn and pre-winter moisture apricot is not required and even is contraindicated .The exceptions are situations when the ground is dry and the groundwater level is significantly lower than the root system of the tree.
Preparing for winter
In traditional latitudes, the suburbs of the Moscow region apricot has established itself as a strong winterizer. However, fresh saplings and young trees, especially in the harsh edges, require insulation.
Annual plantings are insulated with branches, spruce branches, reeds, fixing everything on the frame. Sprouted trees spud, and trunks( booms) are wrapped with , for example, with sacking.
Protection against diseases and pests
Aphids, thorny caterpillars, black goldfish are the main "enemies" of this gardener.
- Against aphids use dandelion, ash and tobacco infusions. They are sprayed on the affected and nearby trees. If the aphids are small, it can be destroyed mechanically, with abundant reproduction of the aphids, it is better to remove the leaves and burn them.
- The butterfly caterpillars are also mechanically fought.
- The larva of black goldfish , which has settled in the root system, is capable of destroying an adult plant. Prevention of the appearance of the pest is the autumn processing of the branches, trunk and the trunk circle with Bordeaux liquid.
apricots, as well as other fruit trees are susceptible to viral, fungal and bacterial diseases :
- Viral diseases of apricot - ring "pox" viral wilt, mosaic apricot.
- Fungal - cytosporosis, gray fruit rot, rust.
Pathogens are carried on the hands of a gardener or with garden tools. Therefore, , the main task of the prevention of is the use of extremely clean tools for various jobs related to vaccinations, trimmings, and treatments. Tools need to be washed and decontaminated.
Why plant apricot?
Fruit trees are propagated using grafts in order to obtain seedlings with improved varietal qualities.
Southern species, such as apricots, are grafted to those that are adapted to the harsh conditions, to increase the resilience of southerners to the colder climate.
Is it possible to plant apricot on cherry plum or plum?
For the rootstock, you need to choose a healthy strong tree from the age of 3-6 years old , with an trunk 3-9 cm in diameter .Apricot is more appropriate to plant on the stone fruit stock.
- Popularly use cherry plum .The graft easily takes root, and cherry plum sweetness is transmitted to the fruits.
- A successful stock is considered to be plum. The cuttings “do not conflict” and quickly grow together, the tree grows hardy, and there is no growth on the inoculation site.
- On the turn, and better on the shredder , graft apricot grafts close to the root collar - to reduce the number of root shoots.
- Peach is also used for grafting, but the survival rate is worse than that of plum and cherry plum, and this option is suitable only for the southern regions.
- The is rarely grafted on cherries, because subsequently weak, fragile branches have to be strengthened.
But the is the best apricot for the apricot cutting is another apricot.
When can I vaccinate in the Moscow region and other regions?
Apricot can be planted from spring to autumn. It is important that the weather is dry and warm and the sun is hiding behind the clouds.
Spring vaccinations give the best result. During active sap flow, the cuttings easily grow together and have time to grow stronger over the summer.
Vaccination in the warm summer is also a good time for .There is plenty of time for accretion, especially under long favorable conditions.
In the autumn, during the warm season of , you can try to plant a cutting. But there is a great risk of frost before the graft grows together with the stock and grows stronger. Such cuttings die.
How to choose the right stock
The basis for grafting and the future of the tree - this is a stock. From it, the plant inherits fertility, resistance to difficult environmental conditions, longevity.
bark. Therefore, for an apricot cutting, it is important to choose stock:
- compatible with a scion resistant to cold;
- undemanding to soil moisture conditions;
- adapted to local climatic features;
- with a powerful developed root system,
- not weakened and not infected by pests or microorganisms, only a healthy plant.
There are cultural, wild, low and strong-growing, vegetative and seed rootstocks.
For the rootstock, choose a specially grown tree, wild growth, broken tree or just an unsuccessful variety / specimen.
. Methods for grafting
. The main methods for grafting apricot are:
- for bark;
- in a side cut;
- in split;
- improved coupling.
How to graft apricot
correctly The shoots for the scion are cut at the end of the fall. Do not use thin, sick, weak branches. Wrapped in film, left for the winter in the snow or stored in the basement in a cold and damp environment. - sawdust, shavings, sand, peat, rags. Before vaccination soaked.
An exceptionally clean, decontaminated sharp instrument is used at all stages.
Cut through the tree, make a small shallow split in the center. The scion is tightly fixed into it. This method is used if the graft is significantly thinner than the stock.
Cupulation For stocking, a stock and a graft of equal diameter are suitable. Cuts of the cuttings are tightly interconnected and secured .This vaccine looks like a single stem.
for the bark For grafting, the bark is incised and spread apart slightly( like a clasp). A graft is inserted into the incision, the bark is “closed” and is wound tightly with .
Growing and feeding rules for the tree
As we said above, you need to take care of apricots. Like other plants, fruit apricot needs top dressing with the main mineral fertilizers - phosphate, nitrogen, potash.
- Under the young trees in the spring make 50-70g of ammonium nitrate, in the fall - a bucket of humus, compost or manure, about 140g of superphosphate 35g of potassium chloride.
- Apricots 4-5 years old “feed” double servings of fertilizers.
- At 6-8 years , the rate is still slightly increased, and 10-year-old trees need 8-9 buckets of organic matter, 250 g of potash, 900 g of phosphate and 400 g of nitrogen fertilizers.
An early-autumn spraying of the crown with a weak solution of nitrogen fertilizer will improve flowering next spring and increase the number of ovaries.
. When apricots are budding. Apricots require a special approach. In the spring, they need to be fed with microelements: spray with iron-containing fertilizers, solutions of manganese sulphate and boric acid.
Apricot requires the attention of a gardener. But it pays for the care of abundant crops, which can please as early as the fifth year of the tree .And every summer smells juicy sunny yellow apricot happiness.