Planting the cause-made services in search of the search work. In the Old World dahlias appeared in the XVIII century, where they began to successfully carry out their planting and care in the open field. Flowers immediately gave two names - Dahlia and Dahlia. The first name of the plant was in honor of the famous botanist from Sweden - A. Dahl, and the second - a scientist from St. Petersburg - IG Georgi.
Varieties of Flower
Dahlia is a gorgeous flower. In addition to the variety of forms, it differs in a variety of colors. To date, scientists have about 30 species and about 15,000 varieties of dahlia.
Botanist scientists divide the flower into the following groups:
- Cactus( needle).
- Mixed - other varieties that are not in previous groups.
Colorful, gorgeous dahlias of different colors( white, maroon, scarlet, pink, cream and many others) are the adornment of our summer gardens.
The breeders dream is blue dahlia. However, the efforts of botanists have not yet been crowned with success.
However, these delicate flowers do not tolerate the harsh Russian winters, so those who want to enjoy the beauty of their bright buds all summer must plant the tubers annually. So, in the suburbs to plant dahlias in open ground in mid-May. But in its homeland - in Latin America - this amazingly beautiful flower is a perennial.
Planting dahlias in open ground
The most convenient and effective method for growing dahlias is planting and caring in open ground.
The soil for flowers is harvested in advance. Prepare the soil for planting Dahlia should be before the onset of winter frost. In the autumn, the soil is dug up and fertilizer is added to it - either compost or humus, which is added to the soil at the rate of 4 kg per 1 m2.
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In spring, the soil is again enriched with a mixture of compost and ash, which are scattered over the entire area of the flower bed. Then the ground must be loosened with a rake. Fertilizer can also be added to harvested wells.
Spring dahlias are planted in spring in a soil with a loose structure. Gravel, river sand, crushed coal slag will help to increase its permeability and fertility. Such drainage will protect the crop from excess moisture, which causes deadly mold and decay.
Dahlia quickly depletes the soil, so planting them in one place two years in a row should not be.
It is desirable that the reaction of the soil was slightly acidic or neutral. Slaked lime is brought to the peroxidized earth, a little peat is added to the alkaline soil.
Tubers of dahlias intended for planting in open field - need special care. With the onset of April, transfer the root crops from the cellar to the greenhouse, remove the rotted areas. Put in boxes, half-fill with fresh turf soil, peat, sand, sawdust. The root neck is left open. Substrate periodically watered. In about ten days, eyes will appear. Remove the roots from the ground, shake, put on a hard surface.
A thin blade of the knife must be sterilized with a solution of manganese or calcined in a fire. Vertically cut the stem into four parts( quarters).Each delenka must have several root canals and at least one kidney of renewal, otherwise it will not be able to germinate. The cut is powdered with crushed activated carbon. Keep the tubers in the greenhouse until they are rooted.
Approximately 30 days before disembarking, planting material is removed from storage. Tubers are cleaned from damaged tissue, powdering the cut with activated carbon. It is possible to process the culture with basezol, or hold it for 17–18 minutes in a weak manganese solution. Next, the processed tubers are placed in low containers with a mixture of earth and river sand.
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At first, containers are kept in a warm shaded place, making moderate watering. When sprouts reach a height of more than 2 cm, they are transferred to a lighted place. Water sprouts rarely need, it is desirable only to wet the ground. Planted them in the first decade of May. Cover is not necessary.
When is it best to plant dahlias in spring in open ground? The planting time is related to the climate of the region. For central Russia, this is the third decade of May. For the southern regions - April. For the north - the beginning of summer.
Planting dahlias in open ground in Siberia and caring for them should be carried out in the second decade of June.
This culture loves warmth, so it is important to choose the right place. A flower bed with flowers should be located on a sunny plot that is not blown by drafts.
Some varieties have a fairly high stem, which is easily broken off by a strong gust of wind. Such varieties require support - stakes made of wood, 1.5–2 meters high. It is advisable to install them in advance.
Ideal location: near the wall, on the south side of the building. It is recommended to plant flowers next to a group of shrubs and trees in a fairly well-lit area. However, trees near flowers should not give a thick shadow, as dahlias like light very much. These freedom-loving colors are not suitable cramped and impassable thickets.
At first, the plot is leveled, after the wells are prepared. Tubers are planted in open ground, then they are covered with a layer of earth for a few centimeters. Should provide tubers enough sun and easy watering.
There is a different breeding method for this crop - grafting. But this is a very laborious and responsible occupation. And if you are worried about these efforts, you can grow an annual plant from seeds, it is:
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Seeds are sown in open ground in mid-May, and bloom by mid-August. To get early flowering, the seeds will have to germinate.
Collection and storage of
root crops Planted dahlias planted in the open ground also need maintenance in the fall. Before frost the bush should be tucked up and remove the leaves on the bottom of the stem. It is recommended not to rush to dig up the tubers! When the ground part dies, it is cut, and the tubers are left in the ground. Within two weeks, their skin will harden and form starch. And only after the first frosts( before the onset of severe frosts), the root-club should be excavated and rinsed. This is done in the morning, so that they are dried in the air during the day.
Planting material is stored in the cellar, in a box with a mixture, which includes earth, vermiculite, sand, sawdust, peat. The optimum humidity of the room is 60–70%.
Periodically air storage.
In January, it is necessary to re-inspect the tubers in order to separate the large ones. Upon detection of affected areas, it is necessary to remove them, and cut off the cut points with brilliant green paint( can be greased with crushed activated carbon).
The main enemies of the plant are:
- flower eater;
- and others.
To combat slugs, earth is covered with metaldehyde. For aphids, the shoots are dipped in a soap solution or sprayed with a 0.2% chloroethanol solution. Hot weather favors the development of the spider mite, which affects the lower part of the leaves. They turn yellow, dry and die. The diseased culture is irrigated with Celtan( 0.2% m).Against pests also use a decoction of celandine and wormwood.
It is recommended to plant marigolds near dahlias - many pests do not tolerate their smell.
So, magnificent dahlias are distinguished by a variety of shapes and colors, lush long flowering. If you follow the above recommendations - you can easily grow these gorgeous flowers in your backyard.
All about planting dahlias in open ground - video