- №1. Basic types of slate
- №2. Natural shale slate
- No. 3. Asbestos cement slate
- №4. Euroshifter
- №4. Plastic slate
- №5. Rubber slate
- №6. Metal slate
- №7. Calculation of the required amount of slate
- №8. Large manufacturers of slate
The most popular roofing material in the domestic space is slate. This is a composite concept, under whichmean different in technology of manufacturing materials.They are united only by the fact that they are sheeted and, as a rule, have a profiled shape. To choose the right slate for the roof, you need to analyze the features of the roof imposed on it loads, environmental factors, as well as know the basic properties of each type of slate and the scope of use each of them.
№1. Basic types of slate
Due to the wide distribution of asbestos slate, many still refer to it as "slate". Nevertheless,Slate can be made of different materials and using different technologies. Depending on this,such types of slate:
- natural slate slate;
- asbestos slate;
- plastic slate;
- rubber slate;
- made of metal slate.
Each of them requires detailed consideration, because it has its own sphere of use.
№2. Natural shale slate
The progenitor of all known types of slate- Shale, because the very word "slate" is of German origin and translates as "slate". The material is a plate of shale of different shapes and sizes, the color, as a rule,gray and gray-blue, there are fewer greenish and brown shades. The length of the elements usually varies from 25 to 60 cm, width - from 15 to 35 cm, height - from, to, cm. Due to its unique appearance and high price, the material is used for the construction of elite roofs.
The main advantages of slate slate:
- a unique structure and a vernal appearance, thanks to which with the help of the material it is possible to form unusual roofs;
- low thermal conductivity;
- resistance to sunlight, low and high temperatures, moisture, which makes it possible to use the material under any climatic conditions;
- excellent sound insulation;
- resistance to fire;
With such high operational and decorative qualities, slate slate has not found wide distribution in view ofits shortcomings:
- high weight and brittleness of the material, which complicates the work with it and requires the formation of reinforced rafter structures;
- high price.
No. 3. Asbestos cement slate
Asbestos-cement corrugated sheets receivedmost widespreadamong all types of slate. Material is made on the basis ofcement, water and asbestos, so the color turns out to be light gray. Asbestos, evenly distributed, reinforces the cement slurry, while increasing the strength of the material. From a dull gray shade today managed to get rid bycoloring of finished slate sheets. Thanks to the layer of paint, the material receives additional protective and strength properties.
The popularity of this type of slate is provided by a combination ofits advantages:
- simplicity of laying;
- low price;
- long service life, up to 40 years;
- low thermal conductivity;
- resistance to frost and fire;
- choice of colors.
Among the main drawbacks:
- large weight of the material, so it is necessary to equip a powerful crate;
- fragility. The transportation and handling of the material will not be easy
Strength of asbestos-cement slate at purchase can be checkedold and well-proven method. It is enough to put the sheet on a flat straight surface and stand on it - a durable material must withstand the weight of a person without cracking or cracking.
There is an opinion that asbestos-cement slate is harmful to health, since it contains asbestos, which has a carcinogenic effect upon ingression into the respiratory tract. This statement is only partly true. The fact is that asbestos is the name of a whole group of natural minerals. there ischrysolite asbestos, obtained from the mineral serpentite, it is resistant to alkalis, but dissolves in an acidic medium.Amphiol-asbestos, obtained from actinolite and anthophyllite, on the contrary, is resistant to acids. This is the key difference and causes a danger to human amphibole-asbestos. In Europe, asbestos slate was banned because it used amphiol asbestos. In Russia, only chrysolite-asbestos is mined, the harm from which is incommensurable with amphiol-asbestos, so domestic slate can be safely used.
When choosing asbestos-cement slate, it is worth paying attention tonumber of waves per sheet.This parameter ranges from 5 to 8:
- 5-wave slateis the least demanded due to its low profitability;
- 6-wave slatewith dimensions of 2 *, 25 m has the greatest thickness, which reaches, mm. The material was widely used in industrial and housing construction;
- 7-wave slatehas received the greatest popularity, is especially often used for arrangement of a roof of country houses. With sheet parameters, 5 *, 8 m, the thickness is, mm;
- 8-wave slate is used less often due to the large weight.
Having abandoned asbestos-cement slate, the European states switched to the use of the Euro-scope. It is also calledbituminous or soft slate. In our construction stores, the material appeared not so long ago, but buyers have already had time to evaluate its merits. Evroshire producedbased on cellulose fibers, which are impregnated with special polymeric substances, after which the material is pressed under exposure to vapors of bitumen at high pressure and temperature, and after drying it is painted in the desired Colour. Bitumen allows to create absolutely waterproof material.
Evroshifer is represented by the followingspecies:
- Ondulin is produced on the basis of cellulose, rubber, bitumen, dyes and mineral components. As a result, soft and plastic sheets are obtained;
- zeroesalso plastic, strong and with a wave profile, but slightly heavier than onduline, and its service life is longer;
- guttaStrikingly different from other types of bitumen slate. In its manufacture, organic fibers are used, which reinforce the sheets of material. Special impregnations are applied to increase rigidity and strength. Gutta is usually used for the roofing of industrial buildings, this material is cheaper than other types of bituminous slate, but in basic properties is not inferior to them.
Common for all types of Eurospire areadvantages:
- lightness, sheets of bituminous slate can even be laid over an old roof;
- strength. The material easily withstands significant wind and snow loads;
- durability. The service life reaches 50 years;
- excellent waterproofing properties. The material does not leak and does not absorb moisture;
- high level of sound insulation. When raindrops are beaten on the roof, this noise will not be heard in the house.
Withoutshortcomingswas not done:
- insufficient resistance to low and high temperatures. In summer the material can soften, and in the winter it becomes excessively brittle;
- low resistance to ultraviolet rays, therefore, faded spots may appear on the surface of the slate;
- relatively high price.
№4. Plastic slate
Plastic colored semitransparent slate favorably differs in its appearance and is usedfor the roofing of pools, pavilions, greenhouses, attics, the creation of garage canopies, etc. The material is producedfrom polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride.
- moisture resistance;
- frost resistance;
- ability to withstand significant wind and snow loads;
- resistance to fire, ability to self-extinguish;
- light weight, which greatly facilitates both the direct roofing work, and the preparation for them, because the reinforcement of the crate will not be needed;
- high strength. A polycarbonate sheet, for example, is very difficult to break.
Of course, a plastic semi-transparent roof is not an option for every building.The main drawback of the materialit can be considered the ability to expand under the influence of high temperatures, which must be taken into account when arranging such a roof.
№5. Rubber slate
Rubber slate produceof fiberglass and rubber waste. As a result, sheets with a wave height of 2-3 cm are obtained. The material was not widely used, it is mainly used for the roofing of small buildings. According to some characteristics, rubber slate resembles asbestos cement.
Main advantages of the material:
- light weight;
- simplicity of processing. Rubber slate easily cut with a knife, it can be bent, so that the material can be used for the roof of complex curved roofs;
- strength. Such slate is often used for roofing of gentle roofs, on which it is necessary to walk for snow cleaning.
- low frost resistance;
Two of these minuses limit the scope of rubber slate.
№6. Metal slate
Metal slateor profiled flooring is made of galvanized steel. The sheets can have waves of different shapes and sizes (wave height from 8 to 50 cm), on top the material is covered with a protective layer of polymers. Previously, metal slate was used only for roofing industrial buildings, but when manufacturers have learned to give the material different shades, such slate has also been used in residential construction.
By the mass of parameters, the metal slate is not inferior to other types of slate, and by some even surpasses them.Main advantages of the material:
- high strength and rigidity due to the presence of the profile;
- ability to withstand high temperatures, as well as temperature extremes;
- several protective layers make the material resistant to UV rays, moisture and mechanical damage;
- durability. If properly installed and properly treated for roofing, the metal slate will last about 50 years. Moreover, due to the use of special substances, the material retains an attractive appearance for a long time;
- light weight, which greatly simplifies the installation of the roof;
- fire safety and full ecological compatibility.
Among the shortcomings of metalslate we note:
- the material perfectly conducts acoustic noises, so the sound of the falling rain will be very audible. The way out is by using a layer of vapor-insulating or heat-insulating materials under the roof, which will absorb sounds;
- Metal slate is not suitable for arranging roofs of complex shapes.
№7. Calculation of the required amount of slate
The selection and purchase of a certain type and quantity of slate must be preceded by work onmeasuring the roof area. It is important to analyze the features of the roof and the environmental conditions, to estimate the costs of installation and the specificity of the installation of a material.
To calculate the approximate amount of material required, it is necessary to know the area of the roof slopes. Make calculations easily, knowing the parameters of the roof and applying simple mathematical calculations. After that, theuseful area of slateby the simple formula: Sn = S * k, where S is the area of the slate sheet, and k is the effective area coefficient. When overlapping in one wave, k into two waves .
For example, a sheet of slate with parameters, 5 *, 25 will have an area S = 7 m2, and when overlapping in one wave the useful area will be equal to Sn 7 *, 79 m2. It remains to divide the area of the roof slopes into the useful area of one slate sheet in order to obtain an approximate number of sheets of material. To the result, it is better to add 10% to waste when cutting and fighting.
№8. Large manufacturers of slate
At the moment, the market for slate80% is represented by domestic production, and this, in general, asbestos cement sheets. The largest domestic manufacturers of slate:
- JSC "Belgorodasbestotsement" has been operating since 1953, produces flat and wave asbestos-cement sheets, as well as special fastening elements. Production is carried out on 10 high-tech lines, the products comply with national standards;
- OOO "Bryansk asbestos cement plant" has been operating since 1908, when the first Russian artificial slate plant was opened in Bryansk district. Today the production is equipped with modern technologies and a quality control system. Flat and wavy slate is produced, as well as dyed in several shades;
- LLC "Workshop" Wave the largest Siberian enterprise, existing more than 60 years. For the production of asbestos-cement slate uses high-tech equipment, produces sheets with a different number of waves, painted and unpainted;
- JSC Lato is one of the leading enterprises in the sphere, specializes in the production of chrysolite-cement products, produces slate and component parts for roofing;
- JSC "Orenburg Minerals" was created on the basis of a deposit of chrysolite fiber. Today, here, among other things, chrysolite-cement slate is produced wavy and flat, painted and unpainted;
- JSC "Sebryakovsky Combine of Asbestos-cement Products" - one of the largest domestic manufacturers of roofing and flat asbestos cement slate, is located in the Volgograd region, supplies its products to all regions of the country, as well as several CIS countries;
- LLC "Timlyuysky Zavod" produces slate for 55 years. Products always undergo serious control, so it is characterized by consistently high quality;
- Fibratec LLC is a young Ryazan enterprise, equipped with the most modern technological lines. A wavy and flat slate is produced.
With the advent of new types of slate in the domestic market appearedproducts of foreign manufacturers:
- ONDULINE - the French company engaged in the production of bituminous slate. The material, manufactured here by its own technology, became one of the varieties of bituminous slate;
- GUTTA is a Swiss company that manufactures euro-sphere Gutta type;
- ONDURA - American manufacturer of bitumen slate;
- ONDEX - French company for the production of translucent slate from PVC;
- SALUX - the German manufacturer of transparent roofing sheets from polycarbonate.
When inspecting and purchasing slate, you can safely require quality certificates to be sure that the material is fully consistent with the qualities declared by the seller. Transportation of some types of slate should be extremely cautious.