What are palm trees? What kinds of palm trees grow on our Black Sea coast? Can I grow them at home? Which ones can you grow yourself from seeds? We will try to answer these questions. For a start - general information.
- Canary Date
- Finger Date Edible
- Butea Capitolus
- Sabal Palmetto
- Hamerops Squat
- Washingtonia Niterochnous or Filamentous
- Trachekikapas Aim that has been applied and can be applied by a new instance of a rule that has been applied and has been applied by a non-thread-like orthoptera component
The leaves on the petioles are arranged spirally. Flowers same-sex or bisexual. Fruits - drupe or walnut.
Palm trees grown at home from a seed have for a long time been in the rosette state, and only after the rosette reaches the required diameter does the stem grow in height. This feature makes it possible to keep young, palm-tree-grown palm trees in indoor conditions. The following types of palm trees are most suitable for this: canary date, buteus capitate, sabal palmetto, low chamber( squat) chamber, washingtonia of Washington, trachycarpus Forchuna.содерж to the content ↑
Latin name - Phoenix canariensis Chahand. This plant is dioecious, evergreen. It develops like a tree, but looks more like a large wide bush 10–20 m tall, with a massive, unbranched, false trunk covered with the bases of old leaves.
In the open field on the Black Sea coast, the palm tree reaches a height of 12-15 m. The leaves are large, up to 4 m. There are sharp needle-like spines on the edges of the leaf petiole.
This palm blooms in the summer-autumn period. Male inflorescences up to 2 m long, female inflorescences shorter. The fruit is ovate, yellowish-brown, 2.5 cm long, with coarse flesh, slightly edible. Propagated by seeds.содерж to the content ↑
Finger date edible
Canary dates should not be confused with edible palate( Phoenix dactylifera).Unfortunately, the seeds extracted from the fruits of edible dates germinate poorly - after all, before the dates reach the consumer, they significantly lose their germination. Moreover, the temperature necessary for germination, 20-25 ° C, can only be maintained in greenhouses and greenhouses.
The city of Basra in southern Iraq is considered the world capital of edible dates.420 varieties of this species are concentrated here. Arab wisdom says that "the palm must stand in the water with its base, and the top must be drowned in the hot rays of the sun."
Finger date - dioecious plant. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks hung inside the crowns of several male broom squirrels, sprinkling pollen, because without artificial insemination, female specimens are left without fruit.содерж to the contents ↑
Latin name - Butia capitata. This type of palm tree is from Brazil. It grows in mountainous areas on sandy soils. The trunk has a characteristic capitate thickening at the base, gradually tapering upwards.
The appearance of new leaves begins in April and continues until the end of September. During the growing season from 4 to 9 leaves are formed, and each lives up to 7 years.
Palma is beautiful with its openwork crown, lush buds and fruits.
In the open field of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, butia enters flowering and fruiting from 10-12 years of age. In room conditions rarely blooms.
At the butoy, the seed is roundly oblong, pointed at the ends, up to 20 mm long and 10 mm wide, with three distinct seams. In the lower part there are three rounded pores, covered with loose, sutured tissue — this is the place where the embryo emerges.
Seeds contain about 60% liquid coconut oil. Fruits of buti are used in food raw and for making boiling and liqueurs.
It is recommended to carry out their long-term stratification in wet sand or peat before germinating seeds. Mechanical stratification is possible - filing of seed shells or neat destruction of corked tissue with a sharp metal object.
Freshly harvested seeds germinate after stratification within 35-45 days. In some cases, the process may take up to 24 months.
To speed up the time of germination, it is recommended to carefully split the hard seed coat and sow the released nuclei into the soil, pre-soaking them for 24 hours in water. At the same time, the period of emergence of shoots is halved.
Butia capitate frost-resistant - it can withstand temperatures as low as -10 ° C.Drought resistant. It grows well on sandy soils.
In room conditions, butii requires regular watering, and in summer the plant must be fed with flower fertilizers once every two weeks. For her, you should use the soil mixture for palm trees, sold in stores.содерж to the content ↑
This type of palm trees( lat. Sabal palmetto) is originally from North America. Its single trunk in open ground reaches a height of 20 m. Leaves are fan.
Inflorescence up to 2 m long. The fruit is a black spherical drupe.
On the Black Sea coast, Sabal palmetto blooms and produces viable seeds, which usually germinate within four months.
Stratification at a temperature of 35 °( about one month) reduces the time of germination. Soaking in hot water( approximately 90 ° C), and especially removing the cap on the germ, also accelerates seed germination. At home, the young, not yet opened, leaves are used as food, like vegetables, they are called “palm cabbage!” There.содерж to the contents ↑
The botanical name of this type of palm trees is Chamaerops humilis. Came to Europe from Africa. Cultivated in greenhouses for over 300 years. This is a bush-shaped palm tree with several trunks 2-3 m high, growing from a common base. In the Sochi Arboretum NIIgorlesekologiya there are instances that have in the bush 7-10 or more trunks.
It is not recommended to separate the side shoots of hamerops because they are not suitable for vegetative propagation.
Palm grows slowly. During the summer forms up to 7 leaves, which usually live 7 years. Blossoms in May and June. The fruit is a drupe, ripens in November-December.
Palm is drought-resistant, soil undemanding. Propagated by seeds. Seeds in the pulp of the fruit do not germinate. After removal of the pulp, germinate for 2 months at room temperature. Removing the cap causes accelerated seed germination in 11 days.содерж to the contents ↑
Washingtonia is thread-bearing or filamentous
The Latin name is Washingtonia filifera. She hails from southwest North America. This is a very beautiful fan palm. The trunk at home reaches a height of 30 m. Leaves are fan-shaped with delicate, delicate threads hanging between leaf segments.
Complicated inflorescences. Flowers bisexual with a strong odor. The fruit is a non-opening drupe.
On the Black Sea coast it blooms and bears abundant fruit, fruits ripen in December. This is one of the fastest growing palm trees.
Easily propagated by seeds. Germination 80-90%.At a temperature of 35 ° C in greenhouse conditions shoots appear on the seventh day. Under normal conditions - during the month.
This type of palm tree will look good in spacious rooms - halls, offices, greenhouses. The care is simple, but there is one peculiarity - in the winter it will feel more comfortable in cool conditions. If you can not maintain the temperature in the room no higher than 20 ° C( preferably 15-18 ° C), then the dishes with the plant should be kept in a pan with water and spray it daily. With a high temperature in the room and dry air, it can shed its leaves.
Seeds remain viable for up to 5 years.↑ to content ↑
This type of palm trees( Latin Trachycarpus fortunei) at home, in China, Burma, Japan, grows to 10 m.1.5 m. Flowers same-sex, dioecious, gathered in large paniculate inflorescences. The fruit is a drupe. Abundant fruits from 20 years. Blossoms in May, the fruits ripen in December and January.
This is the most frost-resistant of all fan palms.
The soil is undemanding. Easily propagated by seeds. Seeds germinate within a month.
Young plants in room conditions are recommended to transfer to larger pots once a year. This accelerates their growth and makes it possible to remove rotten and dried parts of the root. All work on transplantation should be carried out in the spring, at the beginning of the growing season.
Trachikarpus Forchuna tolerates transplant well and in adulthood.
In many places on the Black Sea coast it gives plenty of self-seeding and runs wild.