Onion crops are characterized by good germination and rapid growth. However, the harvest may decline or even die due to diseases and pests. Timely prevention and adherence to landing technology significantly reduces risks. In this article we will examine the main issues of most gardeners: why the tips of the feathers on the onions may turn yellow, which pests can spoil the harvest in spring or autumn. And what to do and how to deal with misfortunes.
Table of contents
- The main diseases of onions and the fight against them by various means
- False powdery mildew
- What does gray rot look like?
- Bacteriosis and its treatment with chemical and folk remedies
- Fusarium rot and how to get rid of it in spring and autumn
- Bacterial rot of onion testis
- The main pests of onions and protection from them
- How to fight onion fly?
- Onion mite and processing
- from it Onion thrips
- How to process onions?
- Reasons why the onion on the garden turns yellow and what you can do
The main diseases of the onion and the fight against them by different means
Plant and grow onions in a small area or on a huge plantation is not difficult , if you follow the process. However, in addition to the planned activities, it may be necessary to treat the crop from pests and insects. Ignore the signs of damage to the plant is not worth it, because in just a few days the beds can significantly thin out. And to cope with the neglected form of the disease or the mass colonization of insects is difficult enough, not to do without the use of chemistry. Therefore, it is recommended that preventive procedures be included in the onion care schedule in order to prevent serious problems.
False mealy dew
Peronospora is one of the types of fungal infection, the pathogen is well preserved on the onion peel, seeds. The transition of bacteria into the active phase occurs when creating favorable conditions that are characterized by high humidity and positive temperature conditions. The following symptoms can be recognized:
- formation of yellowish-green oily spots on the leaf surface;
- under feathers gray-violet raid settles;
- increase parameters of spots;
- death sheets.
The control methods consist in processing the culture and the soil under it with special or homemade solutions. Of the drugs have proven themselves well:
- Fitosporin-M for onions and garlic;
There are folk methods that are preferred by most gardeners:
- a solution of 9 liters of water, 1 liter of skim milk, 10 drops of iodine;
- weak solution( slightly pink) potassium permanganate;
- infusion of onion peel;
- a mixture of water( 9 l) and serum( 1 l);
- ash infusion( 8 liters of boiled water half a bucket of ash).
What does gray rot look like?
The infection is well preserved on the planting material, infecting the soil and, accordingly, the entire crop through loosely closed scales. When pressing on the turnip, the skin bends in the neck, and on the surface you can see a gray patina.
The fight against the disease lies in the following activities:
- disinfecting of sevka before landing;
- soil enrichment with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer;
- timely removal of damaged plants from the plantation;
- moderate watering and soil moisture control;
- correct collection of root vegetables;
- airing and drying onions after assembly;
- crop storage conditions;
- periodic bulkhead in order to remove rotten turnips.
Bacteriosis and its treatment with chemical and folk remedies
At high humidity , and warm weather, putrefactive bacteria penetrate through the scales of onions and infect a healthy fetus.
The remnants of last year's fruits can provoke the appearance of harmful bacteria on the soil, so the beds after harvesting must be dug up. Onion stripping is done on the infected site not earlier than in 4 years.
Fusarium rot and how to get rid of it in spring and autumn
The disease is infectious, the pathogen is in the ground, where infection occurs. Donets of the turnip during the developmental period are affected by rot, as a result of which the greens, and then the root part, perish first. Among the causes that provoke the formation of a pathogen in the soil:
- waterlogging during irrigation;
- harvesting in rainy weather;
- late harvesting;
- drought during turnip ripening.
As a preventive measure, the following procedures are recommended:
- Before planting, sevok should be disinfected;
- , when selecting seeds, preference is given to early-ripening and mid-ripening species( they are less likely to be infected);
- to comply with the rules of irrigation, avoid over-wetting the soil;
- produce root crops in dry weather.
If you identify a diseased onion, you should remove it from the bed and treat the soil with Bordeaux mortar( 1%).
Bacterial Rot of Onion Testis
Often rot affects the turnip with an excess of moisture in the soil. The reason is the prolonged rains and the type of soil that impedes the rapid absorption of precipitation. First, the mold is formed in the neck of the onion, lowering over time on the testes. Such a crop cannot be stored for a long time, the process of decay cannot be stopped.
Experts recommend that you observe the following rules for prevention:
- before planting, sevok should be disinfected;
- irrigation under constant control of the degree of soil moisture;
- regularly clean the beds from affected plants;
- should be harvested only in dry weather;
- ensure adequate storage conditions with temperature from + 5 ° to + 8 ° and airing.
The main pests of onions and protection from them
Not only diseases can reduce the yield, but also various pests that prefer to grow on the onions.
How to deal with an onion fly?
What does a parasite look like? Externally, the onion fly( carrot) is practically no different from ordinary insects, but its great passion for onions can ruin the crop. She flies with the beginning of flowering dandelions and appears in the gardens. The fight against pests should begin with prevention, it will allow to grow environmentally friendly fruits. When insecticides are used, toxic substances are accumulated in plants and soil, therefore they are undesirable. The following rules should be observed when planting and caring for onions:
- Before planting, sevok should be prepared: warm for several days at a temperature of 23-25 °, soak in saline( 1 liter of water for 1 tbsp. Of salt) - 3 hours, then repeat the procedure, but in a manganese bath -2 hours.
- A place for beds to choose well-ventilated. It is recommended to have a bow and carrot in the neighborhood. For both crops, this will provide additional protection against pests.
- Annually change the place for planting onions. In the late autumn, when frost occurs, it is necessary to dig up the ground well so that harmful bacteria and larvae die.
In order not to use chemicals, many gardeners use traditional methods. The most effective are:
- solution based on ammonia( 10 drops of water take 3 drops of iodine, 1 ml of ammonia, several crystals of potassium permanganate);
- tincture of fragrant herbs( for 10 liters of boiling water add a few sprigs of valerian, wormwood, mint);
- coniferous broth( in 10 l of water brew half a bucket of spruce or pine needles);
- wood ash powder;
- powder from ash, red hot pepper, tobacco leaves.
In addition to the above methods, the bed can be treated with salt at the rate of 300 g of salt per bucket of water. The main thing that should not be forgotten when using this method is to spray the onions with clean water to wash the salt off the feathers. When successfully processed, the flies will stop flying over the onions and will not lay eggs in the garden beds.
In addition piperazine helps to cope with the pest. Used at the rate of 1 package per bucket of water. It is necessary to splash all the affected areas.
Preseeding treatment of onion seed from an onion fly is carried out in early spring. It is necessary to sprinkle the whole bed. The drug Zemlin also helps in the fight against the pest, as you can always learn how to make it in the instructions.
Onion mite and processing from it
Before planting onions, the soil is fertilized. This is the environment that a tick chooses. It is possible to determine the insidious pest on the garden by the following characteristic features:
- deformation of feathers with the formation of a white plaque on them;
- wrinkling plants due to loss of moisture;
- mold and mildew formation.
Fighting the tick is a long and laborious process, because the parasite can sleep and wake up for a long time under favorable conditions. It is more efficient to use several methods at the same time. In case of late detection of insects or signs of their presence, acaricides and insectoacaricides should be used( Ditoks, DI-68, Nugor, Fostran, Dimethoat-400, ProProgor, Danadim, Kinfos).These are potent chemicals, so you need to prepare the solution, strictly following the instructions.
In order to prevent pests, the following methods are used:
- thoroughly re-seeding seed during storage;
- preparation of planting for planting( sorting and heating);
- disinfection procedure;
- regular treatment of beds with decoction of herbs, infusion of nettle.
The insect female lays the larvae inside the onion feather. The parasites feed on the sap of the plant, as a result of which the green is covered with yellow spots and dries out. A featherless turnip develops very slowly. The root crop as a result will not meet the quality standards for taste and dimensional data.
To prevent thrips from growing on the onion beds, it is recommended to carry out the following activities:
- annually change the place of onion planting in the garden;
- store planting material under proper conditions;
- comply with the rules for the preparation and planting of sevings;
- removal from the bed of the entire crop and tops;
- soil digging in late autumn.
How to process onions?
In case of large-scale destruction of the plantation, special preparations are used:
- Spark Gold;
- Zeon et al.
You can also try traditional methods:
- placement between the beds of adhesive tape for flies as traps;
- planting nearby onion plantation of fragrant herbs, marigold flowers;
- spraying infusion of tobacco leaves( insist 3 hours);
- treatment of plants with infusion of celandine leaves( leave for 48 hours).
Reasons why the onions turn yellow in the garden and what you can do
Not always yellowed spots on the winter onions indicate the presence of diseases or pests .Sometimes the cause may be a lack of nitrogen in the soil. To remedy the situation is quite simple - to introduce nitrogen-containing fertilizers into the soil. Organic and mineral bait can be used for this purpose. You can feed a green vegetable and ammonia. It is an excellent fertilizer, and also allows you to get rid of flies and other pests.
Water ammonium nitrate should be with caution according to the instructions. In addition, you can pour and spray onions with kerosene. It allows you to protect the crop from onion flies. Treat the beds need to calculate 2 tbsp.kerosene on a bucket of water. This measure will help preserve the crop and you can not be afraid of repetition of infection.
Yellow feathers can also indicate inadequate care of the crop. Each variety has features of cultivation. Planting different species, few people are interested in the intricacies of growing a certain hybrid. Experienced gardeners recommend in the selection process to get acquainted with the description of the plant and the rules of care.
Adverse weather conditions can provoke the formation of yellowness on the batun. As a result of prolonged rains, feathers change color, deform. Or from too hot summer under the influence of intense sunlight, feathers begin to dry out prematurely. Help in such cases, the plants can cover the film or agrofibre. Treatment in this case is not required. Fertilize vegetables need in normal mode.
Early diagnosis of the problem will not only save the crop, but also prevent soil infection. Delay processing is not worth it, because pests and diseases are very intensively ruining plants.