Wiring shall be for a house, its occupants and technology many risks. Eliminate most of them are able to install an automatic residual current circuit breaker (RCBOs) - Emergency circuit breakers.
This device provides protection against leakage currents, network overload, short-circuit and destruction of human current. It is important to know how to connect the differential machine to maximum equipment protection, human health and property.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation Emergency circuit breakers
Possible connection diagrams
- Emergency circuit breakers with a single system
- Two-tier system of connection
- Emergency circuit breakers one-tier system
- Installation Emergency circuit breakers without grounding
- Scheme when three-phase network
- Features installation of selective Emergency circuit breakers
- Step by step instructions for installing Emergency circuit breakers
- Useful installation tips
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation Emergency circuit breakers
Emergency circuit breakers built in three mechanisms, each of which turns off the power in a given situation:
- leakage current;
- unexpected short circuit;
- overloading the mains power.
Leakage is determined using a differential transformer, which is responsive to the difference between current values at "zero" and "phase".
The difference may be in contact with human subjects under tension or under a partial electrical circuit of the surrounding surface. In such cases Emergency circuit breakers triggered and disconnects the electricity.
The protection mechanism at a current leakage can be detected electronically or electro-mechanically. The second option involves the presence of a control chip
The sensor reacts to short-circuit current high. A connection excessive load is determined by heating the metal termoplastiny which opens the circuit by increasing its own temperature.
Thus, any hazards associated with electrical wiring, quickly determined Emergency circuit breakers and protective finishes disconnecting the voltage to the troubled circuit.
Possible connection diagrams
Emergency circuit breakers connecting methods differ not so much embodiments wiring arrangement as the number and characteristics of the devices themselves. It is therefore important to understand the possible schemes, see the details of their application and connectivity to ensure maximum protection for themselves and appliances for minimum money.
Emergency circuit breakers with a single system
The first connection circuit Emergency circuit breakers assumes the presence of only one protective device. It is installed immediately after the meter. To exit RCBOs connect all the electrical circuits.
It is necessary, if possible, set at the beginning of each chain limit switch. So it is necessary to be able to carry out repairs of wiring in the same room without turning off the light throughout the apartment.
Emergency circuit breakers only for the rest of the apartment - the best budget option, but it is able to protect the occupants against electric shock in case of accidental contact with the surface under stress
The maximum load current of the protective device should be related to power simultaneously connected equipment and the characteristics of the meter. It is advisable to RCBOs breakdowns before fuses meters.
Emergency circuit breakers to a single top connect the leads from the meter, and the bottom face are joined by distribution inside. Advantage of this scheme is its simplicity, low cost and minimum space requirement for the placement of RCBOs.
The disadvantage of the described embodiment relates Electrical search inconvenience causes knocking Emergency circuit breakers. Since the de-energized once the whole apartment, then determine which room is RCBOs trip reason, it is difficult.
In addition, if a problem with the electrical wiring there is only one room, the voltage can not be included in the entire apartment. To avoid disadvantages schemes with a single Emergency circuit breakers, it is recommended to look at the other options it is connected.
Two-tier system of connection
Emergency circuit breakers two-tier system is more reliable and easy to maintain. The first level is connected after the meter RCBOs through which pass the entire load. Wires coming out of it are connected in parallel to multiple Emergency circuit breakers, whose number is equal to the number of electric circuits in the apartment.
To install several Emergency circuit breakers sold special panels that allow you to save space on the wall, while maintaining the convenience of connecting electrical wires
second level devices can be less potent and have a lower threshold leakage current. This will save, preserving the effectiveness of the equipment.
Theoretically, a separate safety device can be connected to every household appliance, but in practice it is impractical. Sometimes in a separate circuit emit the most powerful equipment in the bathroom - washing machine, electrified shower, jacuzzi.
The advantages of differential machine connecting two-level scheme include:
- Reliability and safety. Emergency circuit breakers of the first level, in fact, is redundant and can turn off the electricity at the same time with the following protective devices for them.
- Search lightness elektrokonturaIn which a fault has occurred.
- Ability to disable only one room of electricity for the period of repair work.
The disadvantages of this option electrical protection can be attributed solely to the purchase of several Emergency circuit breakers and complexity in the allocation of space for their installation.
Duplex scheme efficiently used in extensive networks with multiple electrical circuits. If the electricity meter connected to at least the art, it will be enough to install a single Emergency circuit breakers.
Emergency circuit breakers one-tier system
Single-level wiring diagram resembles a two-level Emergency circuit breakers. The difference lies only in the total absence RCBOs. Proponents of this option emphasize that it allows you to save money and space by eliminating a protective device from the circuit.
In a flat pattern Emergency circuit breakers it is recommended to connect the switching bus, which regulates the electric wires and simplifies installation
The downside of this method of installation is no backup device in the circuit, which would provide an additional level of protection. With respect to particular installations and applications of a distributed single-level scheme, they are identical to those in the two-level embodiment.
Installation Emergency circuit breakers without grounding
Schematic wiring diagrams Emergency circuit breakers in the absence of grounding does not differ from single-level and bi-level embodiments discussed above. The difference lies only in the absence of special wires, which should be approached to each elektrotochke providing current removal from the instrument body in violation of its electrical insulation.
The lack of grounding in the apartment greatly facilitates the installation of electrical wiring, but creates additional risks in the operation of household appliances
In older high-rise buildings and private homes earthing system simply was not possible. As a result of such hindsight there was a risk of human injury shock upon contact with the equipment and structures that happen to be under stress.
Emergency circuit breakers functionally substitutes for the grounding wire, breaking the electrical circuit of hundredths of a second after the determination of the leakage current. During this time, electrocution does not have time to hurt a person, and the impact is limited to a maximum of slight shock.
RCBOs additionally protects equipment from overload and short circuit protection, than favorably with conventional ground.
Differences in action differential rifles and RCD lists and analyzed in the article, Devoted to the comparison of the two types of protection devices for wiring.
Scheme when three-phase network
Sometimes it is necessary to establish Emergency circuit breakers in the building, which is brought 380V network. This may be a garage, shop or small industrial premises. In this case, the same scheme that and in 220V. Emergency circuit breakers differs only very design.
Connecting wires to the three-phase machine terminals of the differential is carried out in strict accordance with the marking on its body
RCBOs for three-phase voltage has four input terminals and the same output, from which wires go to the appliance. It is desirable that the electrical circuit has lived earth. But in the absence of such in the current leakage necessarily react Emergency circuit breakers and de-energize the room.
The advantages and disadvantages of different connectivity options RCBOs to the three-phase network are the same as and at a voltage of 220V.
Features installation of selective Emergency circuit breakers
Most selective Emergency circuit breakers are in the name of the index S. These devices differ from conventional RCBOs increased response time upon detection of the leakage current.
Selective Emergency circuit breakers are used only as a major instrument in the two-level schemes. They provide the individual operation of the second level when the circuit devices throughout the network.
Selective difapparat rational to buy only when installing the duplex schemes. If he is the only one in the apartment, the time lag will, on the contrary, the disadvantage
Their features are as follows. When the leakage current of its Emergency circuit breakers can detect both levels. Which one will work the first is given at the mercy of chance, but it is usually cut off the electricity of both.
Increased response time allows the central RCBOs Emergency circuit breakers second level trigger first. Thus, as a result of the fault is disabled, only one elektrokontur and the rest of the apartment continues to be energized. Using selectivity allows Emergency circuit breakers with the same threshold leakage current.
There is another connection diagram without selective device, which allows for selective disabling RCBOs second level when a leakage current.
For this purpose, the central unit selects the parameter with a threshold value to 100 mA, and the secondary - 30 mA. In this case, the first will operate Emergency circuit breakers second level selectively disabling only one elektrokontur. However, the 100% performance of such a scheme is not guaranteed.
Priority should be given with the purchase of selective Emergency circuit breakers that provide greater reliability and convenience.
Step by step instructions for installing Emergency circuit breakers
Emergency circuit breakers installation is straightforward and can be done on their own without any special training.
To place the block Emergency circuit breakers should be easily accessible. Around it is advisable not to place flammable and explosive items
The sequence of actions with the following:
- Check the integrity and performance of its RCBOs tumblers.
- Secure Emergency circuit breakers on a special metal DIN-rail at its permanent location.
- Switch off the electricity to the apartment to check the absence indicator.
- Strip the supply wires in the cable and connect them to the two upper terminals Emergency circuit breakers. The blue color is typically connected to a "zero" RCBOs, yellow or brown - to the contour of the ground, and the third color - for "phase" of the instrument.
- To lower terminals Emergency circuit breakers connect the wires, a voltage is applied to the flat or on a subsequent protective device.
- Energize the RCBOs and test the functionality of the device.
Special "T" button is provided to test the Emergency circuit breakers on it.
When it is pressed leakage current appears in an electrical circuit that is to trigger the device and disabling voltage. If RCBOs not respond, then it is defective and must be replaced.
The wooden houses required fire-resistant shield for Emergency circuit breakers. It will protect the walls of the house from fire in case of fire protection devices
AT mains apartments Emergency circuit breakers is only an intermediary, providing additional protection, so its installation will not cause difficulties.
Useful installation tips
Installation Emergency circuit breakers has a lot of small nuances that make the work efficient and reliable equipment.
"Zero" to the load must come from the Emergency circuit breakers, otherwise there is a difference currents, and the protection device will be released immediately. As a result of connect electrical appliances fail
The electrician should not neglect the advice, so to these guidelines should be taken carefully:
- When connecting wires to the differential machine be sure to observe the polarity. Terminal "zero" is designated as N, and the "phase" - 1 or 2.
- Connection works must be carried out with full blackout of all wires.
- The best security scheme provides Duplex Emergency circuit breakers with selective first level.
- It is necessary to select power Emergency circuit breakers second level in accordance with the intended load on elektrokontur in each room.
- You can not combine emerging "zero" and "phase" Emergency circuit breakers with electric wires unconnected to it, even if they come from the parallel connected RCBOs.
- Emergency circuit breakers coming out of "zero" does not come into contact with the ground wire.
When fixing the wires in the terminal you need to make sure that the connector has not got isolation. Poor contact can lead to overheating and malfunction Emergency circuit breakers.
Failure to comply with most of the above recommendations RCBOs simply will not function properly. It can "knock" under load is connected or not fire on the leakage current. Therefore, the wiring diagram should be taken very seriously.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
What are the difficulties you might encounter when connecting safety devices, you will learn from these videos.
Testing the two-level selective and non-selective schemes:
Internal device Emergency circuit breakers:
Analysis of different connection schemes Emergency circuit breakers (3 parts):
Connecting protective differential machine - the process simple. The main condition for the rapid installation of a strict adherence to the recommended electrical circuits. In this case, self-installation of protective devices succeed the first time, while they themselves are RCBOs reliable service for years to come.
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