How to grow walnut from walnut? I have never asked such a question, as my experience suggests that this is not the best way to get a sapling of the variety that I want to have on my plot. I have three walnut trees. Two varietal, and the third just grew out of the nut. And those nuts that I collect from the last are not at all like the one that was planted. But let's do everything in order. To decompose everything start from afar.
- Walnut tree - biological characteristic, description
- How to grow walnuts - reproduction methods
For successful cultivation of walnuts in order to obtain fruits, you need to know deeper the economic and biological features of this crop, the features of the crop, it is necessary to know deeper the economic and biological characteristics of the walnut in order to get fruits, you need to know deeper the economic and biological features of this crop, the features of the walnut, in order to produce fruits, you need to know deeper the economic and biological features of this crop, features,material.
Walnut tree - a biological characteristic, description
Walnut is a powerful tree up to 8-15 m high with a large spreading crown, trunk diameter 0.5-1.5 m. With growth in free space, these indicatorsmay be higher. The growth and development of walnut trees is determined by the place of their growth, soil properties, subsoil, biological features of the variety, rootstock, state agrotechnology.
Now created varieties with restrained growth( tree height 6-8 m), which develop a small crown. They may well be cultivated in small cottage, household plots.
If the planting is thickened, the walnut forms a rare, highly elevated, and if thinned, a thick, sprawling spherical crown, consisting of a large number of skeletal, semi-skeletal branches of different order. His young shoots are dark green.
Most zoned, promising varieties of walnut with vegetative propagation begin to bear fruit at 5-6 year after planting in the garden, and trees of seed origin - from 8-12 years of age. Garlic varieties of the Ideal type are able to start fruiting for 2-3 years, and some of its varieties can bear fruit twice during the growing season. With age, the expansion of the crown fruiting increases. Full fructification comes on 10-12th year. Its value depends on the variety, growing conditions, as well as moisture supply. When using higher agricultural technology, the walnut harvest can be easily increased. He fructifies to old age.
In the Krasnodar Territory, nut trees of seed origin grow in the old Circassian gardens, which are 80-100 years old and more and have a rather high productivity - 80-120 kg per tree. Low labor costs, funds for cultivation, their value make this culture highly profitable.
Walnut belongs to mono-house diode-like pollinated plants. Male and female flowers are formed on the same plant, but separately. Male( staminate) flowers have the appearance of inflorescences in the form of earrings, which are formed from lateral buds in the growth of the previous year, and female( pistillate) flowers are formed in the apical and lateral buds( in the leaf axils) of the shoots of the current year. They are green in color. Well developed sticky two-bladed stigmas.
In the south of Russia, walnut vegetation begins in the first or second half of April, the most active growth of shoots in length occurs in the first or second decade of May, by the end of June it fades out. Walnut blooms in late April-early May, flowering ends in the second or third decade of May. In terms of flowering, there are early-medium and late flowering varieties. It is characterized by the phenomenon of dichogamy, that is, non-simultaneous maturation of male and female flowers on the same plant, which prevents self-pollination, but promotes cross-pollination. Plants in which the anthers open earlier than the stigma matures are called protindric, and if the stigma ripens earlier, protogynical. Sometimes there are homogamous trees, in which the timing of flowering of staminate and pistillate flowers coincide. In the latter case, they begin the fruiting period faster, their pistillate and staminate flowers bloom longer, which provides partial self-pollination, respectively, an increase in yield.
The phenomenon of dichogamy must be considered when selecting walnut varieties for planting together on a plantation, combining them so that the flowering of the female flowers of some coincide with the flowering of the male inflorescences of others.
The fruit is a false drupe( walnut), varying greatly in shape and size. The ripening period of the fruit is extended - ripening begins in late August and early September, and lasts almost until the end of the month. In terms of ripening, there are three groups of trees: the first is early ripening, the second is ripening, the third is late ripening.
The vegetation of walnut in the North Caucasus often stops with the onset of frost, which coincides with the end of October - the beginning of November. The growing season is 190-240 days.
The root system is powerful, rod-like, penetrates to a depth of more than 8-10 m. It has well-developed lateral branches that go far beyond the crown projection. The bulk of these roots are located in the upper half-meter layer of soil. Walnut sensitively reacts to the close occurrence of groundwater( less than 1.5 m), the underlying dense clay horizon or rock( less than 0.6-0.8 m), in these cases, the taproot dies, and the surface root system develops. In addition, the lack of drainage in a wet year creates the danger of over-wetting of the rooting horizon, which leads to a strong inhibition of the root system, and during long-term flooding - to its complete destruction.
An important biological feature of walnut varieties is the type of fruiting. Most have apical type of fruiting. The laying of the generative organs in them occurs only in the apical bud of the annual growth. However, there are varieties in which, along with the apical bud, the fruit is also part of the side( apical-lateral type of fruiting).It has been established that the varieties with the last type of fruiting are 1.5 times more productive than those with apical type of fruiting, which should also be taken into account during plantation plantings, preferring the first.
Walnut is a thermophilic, but rather frost-hardy and winter-hardy nut-bearing breed. It grows successfully, bears fruit where the average annual air temperature is plus 8-10 degrees, the growing season is 150 days, and the minimum temperature rarely drops below minus 22-25 degrees. However, walnuts can withstand lower temperatures without significant damage in the winter, when the trees are in a state of deep dormancy. For example, in Moldova, there are cases when he suffered a decrease in temperature to minus 25-27 degrees, in Bulgaria - to minus 30 degrees, and in Ukraine - to minus 40 degrees.
Observations of the walnut winter-hardiness in the North Caucasus have shown that short frosts down to minus 27-28 degrees do not cause serious damage to trees of local variety forms — they bear fruit normally. It is much more dangerous for him to sharply lower the air temperature after a long thaw, as well as at the end of winter. In such years, there is no fruiting, but restoration of the damaged crown is going on, which lasts at least two years, after which the tree is able to bear fruit again. The degree of damage depends on the characteristics of the variety, rootstock, plant age, standing density, place of growth, and the state of agricultural technology. On a good agricultural background, trees suffer less from severe frosts. Their winter hardiness increases with sufficient moisture supply of the soil, dry, cold autumn, an earlier end of the growing season.
Walnut reacts very sensitively to cooling in the flowering phase( the mass dropping of pistillate flowers occurs when the air temperature drops to 0-1 degrees Celsius.where there are no late spring frosts.
Walnut does not tolerate heat, prolonged soil atmospheric drought, which inhibits the growth of trees, reduces the size and quality of the crop.temperatures of more than 37 degrees caused premature shedding of fruits from the lower part of the crown. The negative effect of drought is aggravated when it is grown on poor, dry soils.precipitation.
It should be noted that most areas of the North Caucasus have a favorable combination of climatic factors that ensure normal growth, the annual fruiting of nut treestrees.
Walnut has a high pobegoobrazovatelnuyu ability, therefore, tolerates rejuvenation of the crown. It quickly recovers when branches freeze over in severe winters, when the air temperature drops to a critical point for wintering below minus 28-30 degrees. At the same time, the restoration of the crown is due to the abundant overgrowth, which is formed on the lower parts of old-growth branches that are not damaged by frost, and if the entire crown has frozen out, then due to the overgrown, which forms at the base of the tree from the root collar.
Walnut is a light-loving culture, therefore it grows well and regularly bears fruit when it is sparsely placed on the plantation, where there are conditions for free growth and the development of a powerful sprawling crown. When thickened plantings, where access of sunlight due to lateral shading is limited, the trees are strongly drawn in height, form a crop only in the upper part of the crown.содерж to the content ↑
How to grow a walnut - reproduction methods
Walnut is propagated by seed and vegetatively( by grafting).
With seed reproduction, the splitting of the economically useful traits of the mother plant in the offspring occurs, often for the worse, so it cannot serve as a basis for the creation of varietal plantations. It is used primarily for growing seedlings as well as hybrid material for breeding. This breeding method is especially promising for the northern regions of our country, where walnut seedlings are gradually adapting to new ecological conditions of existence. Some of them may produce viable offspring.
To increase winter endurance, germinated seeds are recommended to be exposed to low temperatures( IV Borzanovskaya technique).According to this technique, germinated seeds( root length not more than 0.5 cm) are kept for 12 hours in a refrigerator at a temperature of minus 3 degrees, and for the next 12 hours in a warm room at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. The term hardening seeds - 3-5 days. With such an effect of variable temperatures on sprouted seeds, walnut seedlings were characterized by better growth, increased winter hardiness, precociousness, and yield compared to control plants( without hardening the seeds).
A vegetative breeding method ensures the safety, transmission of varietal traits, properties of the parent plant to offspring.
Grafted walnut planting material is in great demand, both from the production side, as well as from amateur gardeners. Buy varietal planting material is not always possible. Therefore, we offer the most enterprising gardeners to master the method of vegetative propagation of walnuts on the basis of summer budding, which will allow them to grow on their site walnut seedlings the necessary number of desired varieties - both to meet their needs and to implement.
For breeding, it is necessary to use zoned promising varieties that differ economically valuable properties. Most of them are skoroplodny, winter-hardy enough, relatively resistant to diseases, fruitful, with fairly good commodity qualities of the fruit.
Now the most developed, applied in practice, received two methods of vegetative propagation: summer budding and winter vaccination( the latter method is more energy-intensive).With timely, high-quality implementation of all types of work, they give approximately the same yield of standard seedlings( 65-70% of the number of grafted plants).
To grow rootstocks, nuts are sown at a permanent place in the fall or early spring( March), subject to their stratification. Sowing method - single-row in furrows with a distance between rows of 70-8 cm, between seeds - 10-15 cm. Depth of embedding seeds - 6-8 cm. Caring for plants consists in mulching, loosening the soil, destroying weeds, and during drought -watering.
The most common way of budding is a rectangular shield with a peephole( half ring).For this you need a special double knife with parallel blades located at a distance of 3-3.5 cm. The best time for budding is during sap flow of the stock( June - first half of July) with a sleeping eye.
The success of budding largely depends on the quality of the cuttings. Harvest them from healthy, high-grade high-yielding young trees. The cuttings should be sufficiently mature, rounded, straight, at least 30 cm long, with large well-developed vegetative axillary buds.
The technique of budding with a rectangular flap is simple. On the stock, using a double knife at a height of 8-10 cm from the soil surface, make two transverse cuts of the bark, not touching the wood, then make two longitudinal cuts, as if connecting them with the transverse, and separate the strip of bark.
After that, with the same knife, in the same sequence, surgical operations are performed on the graft cutting machine in such a way that the eye is in the middle of the shield. Instead of a stripped bark strip, a rectangular scion flap is inserted in the stock.
film. Immediately after the scion lining, the budding site is tightly tied with plastic wrap, and the peephole and petiole are left open. After 20-25 days after budding, the bandage material is removed, the shield with an eye by this time, as a rule, grows well with the stock. In the spring of next year, after swelling of the kidneys, the stock is cut at an angle of 65-70 degrees above the shield without leaving a spike. The shoots that appear on the stock during the growing season are removed. On a good agricultural background, okulyanty grow quickly, by the time of their digging reach a height of over 2 meters.
This simple technique will allow you to first grow a walnut from a walnut as a stock, and then plant a cutting obtained from the tree with the properties you need.