Every home should be warm, or live in it will be very uncomfortable, even if it is very spacious and beautiful. The owners decide to heating problem in different ways, based on their own capabilities and climatic conditions.
Some equip the houses central heating: with their hands to collect such a system is quite simple. How to do it? Try to understand.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of steam heating
- Why choose steam heating?
Basic elements of the steam system
- Steam boiler - the heart of the system
- The pipes and radiators
- Unit test and measurement equipment
- Varieties of the heating system
- How to equip a boiler room?
- Preparation for the installation of the steam system
- steam heating mount technology
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of steam heating
Many people confuse the system of steam and water heating. Indeed, they are very similar in appearance. In both cases, the boiler is required to present, pipes and radiators. But for the steam system as a coolant vapor to water - water.
This fundamental difference between the two systems. The boiler does not heat and evaporate water, the resultant steam moves through pipes to radiators.
The steam heating is used as heating medium of dry steam, which generates heat upon condensation
For directional movement of steam coming from the boiler, steam pipes installed. According to him the media to enter the premises
In the steam boiler heating the heat carrier heats up to 130 degrees, which is required to consider when selecting a heating unit
For the steam heating device selected devices capable of operating at given temperature conditions. An important factor for the selection - the capacity, because steam condenses inside the device and reduced in volume to 400 - 1500 times
Sizeable reduction in the volume of coolant allows to arrange the condensate is much narrower than the steam pipes, carry pipes for transporting condensate from plastic
Often, as steam heating devices are used just pipes of large diameter, from which the condensate flows into the first condensate tanks, boilers then
To increase the heat transfer tubes are equipped with metallic ribs. So increase the efficiency of ten times
Since the pipe in steam heating circuits also produce heat transfer to the environment, systems satisfied predominantly open way. The exception is the proximity to a gas pipe and devices
The principle of operation of steam heating
Movement couple to consumer
Boiler for the preparation of the coolant
Selection of devices for steam heating
Accounting for the difference in temperature in areas
Traditional steam heating devices
Open pipeline circuit assembly
Inside them there is the cooling and humidification. During the condensation of steam kilogram allocates more than 2000 kJ of heat, while to cool for 50 ° C water will only 120 kJ.
It is understood that the couple many times more heat, which explains the high efficiency of this type of heating. Condensate formed inside the radiator flows into the bottom of parts and gravity moves towards the boiler.
Return on ways to turn the coolant in the condensation of steam all kinds of heating systems are divided into two types:
- Closed. In this case, there are no discontinuities in the circuit, and the condensate flows down on pipes laid under a certain angle, directly into the boiler for further heating.
- Open. The system is characterized by the presence of the storage tank, where the condensate from the radiator hits. From this tank it is pumped by a pump back to the boiler.
By means of a wiring assembly and steam pipes are subdivided into heating circuits species absolutely similar water systems.
The operating principle of the steam heating system is very simple: used as a coolant steam generated in the steam generator
The parameters of the heating system of the absolute pressure divided by steam at high pressure with an excess species index> 0.07 MPa; Low-pressure pressurized in the range of 0,005-0,07 MPa; vacuum with an absolute pressure of <0.1 MPa.
If there is, communicating with the atmosphere areas or devices, they are classified in the category of open, if there is no low-pressure circuit - closed.
The contours of the steam heating are built on the principle of water systems. The steam rises through the riser, moved on highways to heating appliances. Only, instead of going to the return condensate formed by the heat transmission pair consumer
Why choose steam heating?
I must admit that the steam heating system can not be attributed to a number of very popular. Such heating is rather uncommon. Depth look at its strengths and weaknesses.
Among the first, no doubt, include:
- The efficiency of the heating system. It is so high that enough small number of radiators, and in some cases you can do without them for space heating: pipes will be sufficient.
- The low inertia of the system, so that the heating circuit warms up very quickly. Within a few minutes after the start of the boiler to heat the rooms being felt.
- Heat losses in the system are practically absent, which makes it a very cost-effective compared to other.
- The possibility of lack of use, because of the small amount of water in the pipe system is not defrosted. As an option can be set in a country house, where people come from time to time.
The main advantage of steam heating is considered to be its efficiency. The initial cost of equipping its humble enough in service, it requires a relatively small investment.
However, even with so many advantages of the system deficiencies are very important. They relate primarily to the fact that as the coolant steam is used, the temperature of which is very high.
Inside the steam radiator condenses water vapor. large amount of thermal energy released during the process, which explains the high efficiency of the system
This ensures that all system components are heated to 100 ° C and even higher. It is clear that any accidental contact with them will cause burns. Therefore, all the radiators, pipes and other construction details must always be closed. Especially if there are children in the house.
Heat radiators and pipe provokes an active circulation of air in the room that sufficient uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous, for example, in allergic reactions to dust.
When using the steam heating the air in the rooms becomes too dry. Its desiccate hot pipes and radiators. This requires additional use humidifiers.
Not all finishing materials, which are decorated, heated room in such a way, kept neighborhood with red-hot radiators and pipes. Therefore, their choice is very limited.
The most viable option in this case - the heat-resistant paint painted cement plaster. Everything else - is questionable. Have steam heating is another influence on the comfort of living in the house of the lack of noise, which produces the steam flowing through the pipes.
For more significant disadvantages include poorly regulated system. Heat dissipation design is almost impossible to control, which leads to overheating of the premises.
Steam heating refers to a potentially dangerous emergency systems, so the choice of equipment must be treated very seriously. Pipes for the system should be only metal
Solutions there. First - installation of automation, which will include at cooling of the boiler rooms. In this case residing in the building will be sufficient uncomfortable from the constant fluctuations in temperature.
More "gentle" but time consuming way - arrangement of several parallel branches that need to be run in operation as required.
The main disadvantage of steam heating, because of which it is little used, is its high accident hazard. It should be understood that the pressure impulse occurs in a pipe or radiator will beat the hot steam, which is extremely dangerous.
That is why such systems are now banned in apartment houses and less often used in the production. In private homes as they can be rehabilitated under the sole responsibility of the owner.
Basic elements of the steam system
The structure of the steam system consists of several compulsory elements. Let us consider each of these in more detail.
Steam boiler - the heart of the system
The main function of the heater is to convert water to steam, which is subsequently fed into the pipeline. The main structural elements of the device are considered the collectors, the drum and piping.
Furthermore, there is a container with water, called water space. Above it is formed in the vapor space during operation of the device. They are separated by a so-called mirror evaporation.
The figure schematically shows one form of domestic boiler
Inside the steam space can be set additional equipment for steam separation. The basis of the principle of the boiler flue gas heat, water and steam.
Distinguish two kinds of steam heating devices: fire tube and water tube. In the first case inside pipe laid inside the water tanks, moving heated gases.
They transfer heat to the liquid that reaches the boiling state. Water-tube varieties work a little differently. Here on the pipes laid inside the fumes chamber, the water moves. It heats up and boils.
Water and steam inside the boiler can be moved forcibly or naturally. In the first case the design of the pump is activated, in the second - using drop densities of water and steam.
In all species of steam boilers used approximately the same principle is the conversion of water into steam:
- The prepared liquid is supplied to the tank, located in the upper part of the boiler.
- From here the water flows through the pipes in the manifold.
- Fluid from the reservoir rises to the upper drum while passing through the heating zone.
- Inside the pipes with water as a result of heating generates steam that rises upwards.
- Steam if necessary passed through a separator where it is separated from the water. Then he goes into the steam line.
Steam boiler can use a variety of fuels. Depending on this, certain changes are made to its structure. They relate to the combustion chamber. For settling solid fuel grate, on which are placed coal, wood, etc.
Liquid and gaseous fuels are used special burner. There are also practical embodiments combined.
Among the house masters, particularly popular arrangement of steam heating using an oven. The photo shows one of the possible alteration of the furnace options
Depending on the area to be heated is chosen boiler capacity.
This can be done on the basis of average values:
- 25 kW for buildings up to 200 square meters. m;
- 30 kW for houses ranging from 200 to 300 sq. m;
- 35-60 kW for buildings of 300 to 600 sq. m.
If more accurate data are the standard method of calculation, wherein for each 10 square meters. meters have to 1 kW of power equipment. We should not forget that the formula used for buildings with a ceiling height of 2.7 m or less.
Power is necessary to take more for higher buildings. Particular attention in the selection of the boiler should be paid to its certification. Any steam heating system is potentially dangerous, so be sure to test the equipment.
The pipes and radiators
The temperature of the coolant in the steam systems ranges from 100 to 130 ° C, which is much higher than in the liquid, where it is from 70 to 90 ° C. Therefore, use similar equipment are strongly recommended for resettlement systems.
This is especially true of metal-plastic and polypropylene pipes. Limit operating temperatures for these materials are in the range 90-100 ° C, so their use is strictly prohibited.
The ideal option for arranging the steam heating pipe copper. They are not susceptible to corrosion, withstand high temperatures, but very expensive
For main pipelines steam systems typically use three kinds of pipes. The cheapest option - steel. They can easily withstand the temperature of 130 ° C, which is more than enough, and a sufficient strength differ.
However, the condensate formed inside parts rather quickly destroys the pipe, since steel is subject to corrosion, and the steam formed by the aggressive environment only increases this disadvantage.
Another drawback of steel elements - the need connection by welding, which takes a lot of time and effort. Much more resistant to pipe corrosion of galvanized steel. They are also well withstand high temperatures.
For their threaded connections typically used method, which greatly simplifies the process. The main disadvantage of galvanized pipes - their high cost.
The ideal option considered copper pipes. The material withstands high temperatures, sufficiently ductile and strong at the same time, does not corrode. For copper brazing of parts used.
Pipelines of copper is very durable and strong, but their cost is very high. Thus, the most suitable ratio of quality and price an option - the steel pipes with corrosion-resistant coated or galvanized.
The best choice for steam heating - cast iron radiators. They will be able to withstand severe stress due to the presence of hot steam inside the battery
Radiators for steam systems are selected on the basis of strength. It is important that they withstand high temperatures and are resistant to corrosion. Based on this, the best one can assume massive iron batteryThe worst - steel panel.
Given the high efficiency of the system, in some cases it is possible to use the ribbed steel pipes.
Unit test and measurement equipment
steam heating system is characterized by an increased risk of an emergency, so having control devices required. Monitor the pressure in the system, it is normal if necessary. For these purposes, it is commonly used gearbox.
The apparatus is equipped with a valve through which excess steam is removed from the system. For larger installations may be required not one but several of these valves.
Varieties of the heating system
In practice it is possible to meet a large enough quantity of steam heating variations. By the number of tubes emit a single and two-pipe steam system species. In the first case, the steam moves through the tube continuously.
In the first part of the way he gives off heat the batteries and gradually becomes liquid. Then he moves the condensate. In order to avoid obstacles on the path of the coolant, the pipe diameter must be large enough.
Often that the vapor is not condensed and partially breaks in the condensate. In order to prevent its penetration into the thread intended for condensate after each radiator or group of radiators it is recommended to set traps
A significant drawback of pipe system is the difference in heating radiators. Those that are located close to the boiler, heated more. Those that are more - less. But noticeable this difference will be only in large area buildings. AT two-pipe systems pair moves in one pipe, the condensate leaves at the other. Thus it can be done in all temperature equal radiators.
But at the same flow pipes is greatly increased. As well as water, steam heating can be one or two-planimetric. In the first case, the system is used only for heating premises, in the second - and even to heat water for domestic use. Different heating and wiring.
Practiced three options:
- From the upper wiring. Bulk steam pipe is laid above the heating devices, pipes are omitted from it to radiators. Even below, the floor is laid condensate. The system is the most stable and easy to implement.
- With the lower wiring. Backbone is located below the steam heating devices. As a result, one and the same pipe, which must be somewhat larger than usual diameter, steam moves in one direction and in the opposite - condensate. This provokes the depressurization of hammering and construction.
- With mixed wired. steam line pipe is mounted slightly above the radiator. Everything else - as in overhead distribution system, thereby managing to keep all its advantages. The main drawback - the high risk of injury due to easy access to hot pipes.
The regeneration scheme with natural compulsion must be remembered that the steam pipe is mounted with a slight slope in the direction of movement of the pair, and condensate - condensate.
The slope shall be 0.01 - 0.005, i.e., for each running meter of horizontal threads should have 1.0 - 0.5 cm bias. The oblique position of steam and condensate eliminate the noise passing steam through the pipes and ensure free drainage of condensate.
Steam heating systems are building on one pipe and two pipe system. Among the predominant one-pipe versions with horizontal connection to the radiator. In the case of the circuit structure with vertical connection devices is better to choose an option Twin-Tube
According to the level of the internal pressure are two main varieties:
- Vacuum. It assumed full tightness of the system, which is installed inside a special pump that creates a vacuum. As a result, the steam condenses at lower temperatures, which makes such a system relatively safe.
- Atmospheric. The pressure inside the loop above atmospheric to several times. In the event of an accident it is extremely dangerous. In addition, radiators operating in such a system, are heated to very high temperatures.
Steam heating arrangement options a lot, so everyone can choose for your home the best option, taking into account all the features of the building.
The figure shows the open-circuit steam heating
How to equip a boiler room?
Steam boiler running on any fuel should only be mounted in a specially equipped room.
Standards developed for standard devices with steam pressurized to 0.07 MPa, producing steam temperature 120-130 ° C, provide a number of requirements for such boiler:
- distances from the heater can not be less than 100 cm;
- room height should be at least 220 cm;
- a minimum level of fire resistance doors - 30 minutes, the walls - 75 minutes;
- availability of high-quality ventilation;
- the presence of doors and windows facing the street.
The boiler room is best to equip separate roomBut permitted and peregorazhivanie suitable room. Inside, it is necessary to trim non-combustible materials. It is best suited for this purpose ceramic tile.
The walls in the boiler must be finished non-combustible material, e.g., ceramic tile
Preparation for the installation of the steam system
To properly make steam heat, you need to start with the preparation of the project. Its development - a difficult task to decide which is best specialists. In the finished project should be taken into account many aspects.
First of all, it calculates heat loads on each of the premises and the building in general. Selects the source of steam, as well as a pattern for the system and the degree of automation.
In addition necessarily determined by the steam flow rate, based on this, the equipment is selected and the scheme to use it. Once the project is ready, you can begin to compile the installation plan.
For its implementation will require a building plan, which applied the location of the equipment. Usually begins with the boiler. It is determined by its location. If the system has natural circulationThe boiler must be below the level of the battery.
In this case, it is usually omitted in the basement or ground floor, so the condensate can drain the device yourself. Then, on the plan of the house wiring to apply the entire heating system. It is celebrated all the necessary equipment.
Experts advise to carry out this operation directly "on the spot", while in the room where the equipment will be located. Only in this way you will notice and take into account all the bumps and obstacles that need to go around.
Layout of the future system definitely performed before the start of the installation, which is celebrated all the equipment and the radiator mounting
All transitions and corners are necessarily marked on the diagram. Once it is finished, we can pass to the calculation of the required amount of material for its implementation. Once again you should pay attention to the importance of correct choice of equipment.
Steam system is potentially dangerous emergency, so do not skimp on materials and devices. Everything must be of high quality and certified, otherwise serious problems will arise.
steam heating mount technology
Getting started with the installation of the boiler. It mounted in a pre-prepared room on a concrete base. In some cases, prepare a separate small foundation for the equipment.
The device is mounted on the base is level, properly checked building level. Known errors immediately eliminated.
Placed at the base of the boiler is connected to the exhaust system. The connection must be durable and completely sealed.
The next stage - hung radiators. To do this in the designated places on the mounting scheme are driven into the wall special hooks that are attached battery. If the use of finned tubes, then they are fixed.
The finned tubes can be used in steam heating systems instead of radiators. High heat transfer parameters of the system will be greatly enhanced by the increased surface area of the conductive heat
Checks fixing strength heat emitters. Then you can proceed to the arrangement of the expansion tank. It is fixed at the highest point at a short distance from the boiler, it is best to make this distance as possible to a minimum.
Now you can set the group control devices. They are mounted on the boiler. There should at least be positioned pressure gauge and dump valve.
All such items are interconnected pipes. Connection method depends on the material from which they are made. In any case, you should carefully check the accuracy and reliability of the connections made.
For open systems installed at the end of line for condensate collection tank and the pump is mounted. A branch pipe which extends from there to the heating device must be smaller than the rest of the pipe diameter.
The steam boiler is connected to the heating circuit. In this case, be sure to install all the necessary valves and filters that will retain large dirt particles that may be present in the water.
If the equipment works on gas, you are connecting the fuel line. Flexible hoses in this case the use is prohibited - only rigid hoses.
All connections are made exactly according to the standards in order to subsequently avoid emergency
Further it is possible to conduct a test run. To this end, the circuit is filled with water, after which the equipment starts to work. First, at the lowest working temperature, then it was gradually increased while monitoring the correct operation and the integrity of the system.
In identifying the slightest flaws equipment stop and eliminate all the faults in his work.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How do I convert the furnace steam boiler:
The principle of operation of the steam boiler:
Homemade steam heating:
Steam heating - a very simple and economical way of heating homes. Many are attracted to its minimal heat loss, high efficiency and low operating costs.
However, we must remember that the steam heating system is potentially dangerous, and the emergency situation in this case may lead to serious injury. Therefore take his calculation and arrangement should be taken seriously.
After reading the material and have questions you would like to get an answer? Leave, please comment in the below section, share your expertise arrangement of steam heating, participate in the discussion.