Heating scheme from a gas boiler in a two-story house: an overview of the best options and their comparison with each other

The best protection against click fraud.

Are you building a new house or renovating an old house, and it came to the heating system? Not sure which type of wiring is best to choose? A properly designed heating scheme from a gas boiler in a two-story house is a guarantee not only of warmth and comfort in winter, but also of the smooth operation of equipment.

A competent heating project takes into account many factors - from climate and financial possibilities, to the need for point adjustment and aesthetic issues. In this article, we will analyze in detail all possible types of heating systems, present and compare ready-made circuits with the most successful set of parameters for different cases, as well as indicate the possibilities of their modifications.

The content of the article:

  • Types of private gas heating systems
    • One- and two-pipe connection schemes
    • Open and closed systems
    • Type of heaters
    • By type of coolant circulation
    • Horizontal and vertical wiring
  • Additional equipment - advantages and disadvantages
  • The best schemes for a two-story house
    instagram viewer
    • Single-pipe Leningradka - reliable and cheap
    • Tichelman loop with forced circulation
    • Collector connection and mixed systems
    • Vertical gravity scheme
  • Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Types of private gas heating systems

There are many parameters that determine the type of heating system, choice of gas boiler as the main heat generator - this is only the first step. It is possible to equip the heating circuit by connecting all the devices with one pipe, or to conduct separate supply and return lines.

Also, the structure of the system depends on the heating devices used, the type of expansion tank, the layout and area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe house. In addition, you can break the system into several separate circuits and provide for the possibility of natural circulation in case of a power outage, and much more.

Collector heating system

A well-designed and installed boiler room is a guarantee of a comfortable temperature in the house during the heating period and the smooth operation of equipment

We will consider in more detail all the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of each type of system below.

One- and two-pipe connection schemes

Within these two types, 5 basic connection schemes can be distinguished.

Consider them in order of increasing complexity of design and cost:

  1. Simple single pipe.
  2. Single-pipe "Leningradka".
  3. Two-pipe dead end.
  4. "Tichelman's loop".
  5. Collector, or beam scheme.

Protozoa one-pipe scheme connecting radiators implies that the coolant enters the second radiator only after the first has passed, and so on. A warm floor can also be included in such a system - it is connected last, from the return line of the farthest battery.

Simple one-pipe system

This option allows you to save as much as possible on pipes, fittings and valves, and also guarantees the flow of coolant through all radiators

A simple one-pipe circuit can not only be drawn up and calculated, but also mounted independently. In addition, it is easy to equip it with the possibility of natural circulation.

However, such a system has a serious drawback: the temperature drops noticeably with each battery, and this cannot be adjusted in any way. If you limit the supply temperature to the first radiator with a thermostatic valve, the temperature in all of them will decrease proportionally - only an increase in the number of sections of the last radiators partially helps.

But in two-story houses, as a rule, the area is significant and the systems are too long for such a scheme to work productively. Due to the impossibility of tuning, a simple one-pipe system is practically not used.

An improved one-pipe scheme, the so-called "Leningradka", provides for bypass on each radiator. Thus, part of the coolant passes by the radiator, and a hotter mixture enters the next one.

Heating system Leningradka

By installing control and shut-off valves for the supply, return and bypass of each battery, you can control the temperature in individual rooms

If you add taps and thermostats to the scheme, you get a system that is average both in price and in functionality between a simple one-pipe and two-pipe - a fairly popular solution.

A two-pipe system involves dividing the supply and return into two separate pipes connected to each radiator. Much more materials will be required, but the hot coolant will not mix with the return, and therefore it will effectively warm up a much larger number of batteries.

It is convenient to lay dead-end branches where it is not possible to loop the room with pipes, for example, because of a balcony door. The direction of flow in the supply and return turns out to be opposite, and therefore there is a possibility that the water will go along the path of least resistance and closes the circle of circulation already through the first radiator, and does not get into the rest at all.

The problem is solved by using balancing valves, as well as pipes of a smaller cross section for connecting to a radiator than for highways.

Varieties of two-pipe schemes

You can use to combine different schemes: here dead-end branches are held in the basement, on the first floor there is a Tichelman loop, and on the second floor there is a collector connection

The Tichelman loop is the most successful and popular solution in terms of cost and effectiveness. Its difference is that the direction of flow in the supply and return is parallel, therefore, through which battery no matter how the coolant flows, the length of the circle of circulation will be the same, the path of least resistance will not exists. As a result, all batteries heat evenly, but each of them can be individually adjusted or completely turned off without compromising system performance.

The collector circuit implies the presence of two collectors, for supply and return, from which pairs of pipes are separated by beams to each heater. For best performance collector positioned so that the distance from it to each heating device was approximately the same. Usually a separate collector is installed on each floor.

Only in such a system, a coolant of the same temperature will be supplied to each battery, and it is the easiest way to control it, to change the heating power of individual points.

The main disadvantage of the beam connection scheme is the need for a large number of pipes, which not only increases the cost, but also complicates installation. On the other hand, the eyeliner of such systems is completely hidden, and this looks aesthetically pleasing.

Another important point is that the collector system, unlike all the previous ones, cannot be gravitational. This means that even with a non-volatile boiler, the heating will turn off as soon as the lights are turned off and the pump stops.

Collector heating cabinet

To set up the beam system, you do not need to approach each device: all taps are assembled in a manifold cabinet, you just need to accurately mark them when connected

Often in two-story houses, different heating distribution schemes are used for different rooms, depending on their layout, area and the heaters used.

In a two-story house, single-pipe projects, with a single supply pipe, are practically not used, because the last radiators in the circuit work extremely inefficiently. Depending on the area of ​​the house, separate contours correspond to each floor, several or even each room.

It is also customary to separate the radiator circuit from the underfloor heating, due to the need for different operating pressures and temperatures.

The division of the supply from the boiler into different circuits can be carried out through a hydraulic arrow, a collector, or a combination of them. The first provides flows of different pressures and temperatures for different systems, while the second is effective for circuits with the same type of devices, for example, radial connection of radiators.

Open and closed systems

This parameter indicates whether there is contact between the coolant and air, and is determined by the type expansion tank.

The expansion tank compensates for the increase in liquid volume during heating, preventing pressure build-up in the system. An open-type tank has a hole at the top and works simply due to the volume reserve, filling up to different levels. To prevent water from overflowing from it according to the principle of communicating vessels, such a tank must be installed at the highest point of the system. In a two-story house, as a rule, this is the top of the supply riser.

There are many disadvantages of such a system. The coolant comes into contact with open air, which means it evaporates and is enriched with oxygen. As a result, it is forbidden to fill such a system with antifreeze, water will need to be topped up regularly, and excess air constantly provokes corrosion and air pockets. In addition, when taken out to the attic, the tank requires careful insulation, and it is problematic to disguise it indoors on the 2nd floor.

Diaphragm expansion tank

In modern gas boilers, a closed-type expansion tank can already be built in - this saves space and facilitates connection

The closed expansion tank is airtight and consists of two chambers separated by a membrane. It works due to the ability of air to compress: when the system is heated, water occupies a large part of the tank, the pressure in the air chamber rises. As it cools, it is this pressure that pushes the water back into the system.

Such an expansion tank can be installed at any point in the system, most often on the return line, in front of the pump. The system with a closed tank is absolutely hermetic, it can be filled even with a toxic ethylene glycol solution. Even ordinary water under such conditions is gradually cleared of impurities and dissolved gases, turning into an almost ideal heat carrier.

Type of heaters

Different devices can be included in one heating system: radiators, underfloor heating, convectors and others. They can be combined even within the simplest one-pipe circuit, but with a gravitational circulation type, it is better to use conventional batteries.

Underfloor heating convector

All heating devices built into the floor are commonly called convectors. In them, heat transfer occurs due to air circulation in the cavities of the device.

A warm floor is not only pleasant and convenient, but also economical, since warm air fills the lower, residential part of the room, and cools down under the ceiling. This solution is especially indispensable if there is a child in the house. They are also often installed in the bathroom and in the kitchen.

Systems consisting of only warm floors, can only be equipped in well-insulated buildings and in a temperate climate, otherwise in frost it will either be cool in the house or it will be impossible to walk on a hot floor. As a rule, in one scheme they combine underfloor heating with a small number of radiators - this is both beautiful, and economical, and convenient.

Radiators are the most popular for good reason: they also work on heat radiation from the outer plane, warming up the air and objects in front of you, and according to the convection principle, passing streams through the ribs air.

The efficiency of the radiator depends on the connection

The efficiency of the radiator depends on the connection of the supply and return pipes, and, consequently, the distribution of coolant flows in the sections

The main disadvantage of traditional batteries is the difficulty of placing them without disturbing the interior design, because any camouflage screens reduce efficiency.

By type of coolant circulation

Water or antifreeze through the system most often moves from the circulation pump: it creates the necessary pressure, providing fast, efficient and uniform heating. However, the presence of a pump makes any system volatile - that is, in the event of a power outage, the heating will also turn off.

An alternative option is gravity systems. They are designed in such a way that the coolant circulates due to an increase in density during cooling, and also under the force of gravity - due to the slope of all pipes of the circuit.

Gravity two-pipe heating scheme

The heating risers (4) and return pipes (5) must be smaller in diameter than the mains (3 and 6), and the expansion tank (7) is installed either at the beginning of the supply (2) or in front of the boiler (1)

Such a heating scheme for a private two-story house with a non-volatile gas boiler will work, even if electricity is not connected at all, but the circulation rate, and hence efficiency, will be significantly lower. In addition, slow flow leaves much more sediment on the walls of the system.

The ability of systems with natural circulation to self-adjust is interesting: the colder it is in the house, the faster it cools the coolant in the batteries, the difference in supply and return temperatures increases, which means both the flow rate and work efficiency heating.

If regular power outages are a harsh reality, and the house is small, the best solution is a system with a mixed type of circulation. Its plan must be calculated, as for a gravity system - with pipe slopes, a boiler at the lowest point, etc.

Bypass with circulation pump

To install a circulation pump, a special “pocket” is provided - a bypass in front of the boiler, switching the type of circulation is carried out using taps

It is possible to install underfloor heating in such a system, but they will only work when the pump is turned on.

Horizontal and vertical wiring

In a two-story house, it will not be possible to manage only with horizontal pipelines - at least one riser on the second floor must supply a coolant. But the type of wiring as a whole does not change.

Horizontal wiring can be done within each floor. With it, pipes connect all radiators of the same level into a single circuit. It is the most versatile and popular, implemented in any layout.

Upper and lower heating wiring

There are also upper and lower wiring, which touches the vertical part of the pipeline. For systems with gravitational circulation, only the upper

It is easy to imagine single-pipe vertical wiring using the example of the heating system of apartment buildings. The layout of each floor, including the location of the radiators, perfectly matches in them. Each battery is connected by a riser to the same neighbors from below and above, and there are no horizontal heating pipes in the apartment.

If the layout in your house allows you to place all the radiators exactly on top of each other, the vertical layout will work more efficiently, especially with the gravitational type of circulation. In addition, risers are easier to disguise than horizontal pipelines.

However, when installing the system, it will be necessary to cross the floors many times, and this is more difficult than passing the pipe through the wall.

Additional equipment - advantages and disadvantages

Any heating scheme can be improved by adding thermostatic valves to it to adjust the operation of each batteries, thermostats, hydraulic switch, circulation pump for each circuit, other additional appliances.

Mayevsky cranes and air vents at the top of each riser are mandatory in systems with a closed expansion tank. Each additional device makes the system more efficient, economical, and enables finer and more convenient settings.

Heating system from a double-circuit boiler

It is worth remembering that excessive complication of the system not only increases its cost, but also significantly increases the risk of breakdown.

Use only the necessary components, because the fewer units, the lower the likelihood of one of them failing and stopping the system.

The best schemes for a two-story house

In each case, it is necessary to develop an individual heating project that will ensure efficient and economical operation.

To make the right choice, consider the following factors:

  • climate and quality of building insulation;
  • the number and purpose of rooms. Is constant and uniform heating necessary everywhere;
  • the stability of the power supply and the presence of a generator largely determine the type of circulation;
  • individual wishes of residents - warm floors or walls in separate rooms or throughout the house, etc.;
  • the layout of the premises - is the wiring around the perimeter feasible;
  • design requirements and stage of repair. In many cases, all pipes, and sometimes even heating appliances, can be hidden in the floor and walls;
  • budget - the estimate for the arrangement of heating in one building can differ many times and dozens of times.

By answering all these questions, and knowing the features of different schemes, you will get an idea of ​​\u200b\u200bthe required option.

Open heating system of a two-story house

Do not chase overly complex circuits: sometimes primitive ones serve more reliably and no less efficiently, and there is no need for fine-tuning

Next, we suggest choosing one of the proven effective schemes for connecting heaters to the boiler and adjusting it in accordance with your layout.

Single-pipe Leningradka - reliable and cheap

Such a one-pipe scheme is one of the cheapest, simplest and oldest, but relevant and popular to this day. The use of only radiators makes it possible to provide for a mixed type of circulation in case of a power outage. To do this, the gas boiler must be non-volatile, all pipes go with a slope of 5 - 10 mm per 1 m.

To facilitate the adjustment, you can put thermostats on the supply of each battery, control valves on the battery bypasses. An additional valve on the riser will make it possible to turn off the heating circuit of a separate floor.

Underfloor heating can be included in the system as a separate, third circuit, or replace radiators on one floor. However, in this case, the division of flows must pass through a thermal mixer or hydraulic arrowso that the floor does not heat up in frosts up to 70 - 80 ° C, like batteries.

Also note that in the event of a power outage, only batteries will work, and in a strictly horizontal floor heating circuit, the coolant will be idle.

One-pipe system in a two-story house

For the effective operation of the Leningradka system, it is necessary to use pipes of different diameters: supply from the boiler to dividing into separate floor contours - the thickest, the floor mains are medium, and the connection of radiators - the smallest diameter

The main limitation in the arrangement of such a system concerns the heated area: a house of more than 100 m2 does not warm up with natural circulation of the coolant. Such a system will save only from defrosting pipes and rupture of the boiler heat exchanger during a long shutdown, but not from cold.

In addition, even with forced circulation, such a heating circuit is almost impossible to set up if it includes more than 5 - 7 batteries. That is, for ease of use in a large house, it is necessary to break the circuit into more circuits.

More information about the arrangement of a one-pipe heating system Leningradka can be found in this material.

Tichelman loop with forced circulation

As we have already mentioned, this connection scheme provides the most efficient operation and convenient adjustment of each radiator at a relatively low cost of materials.

The system can cover the entire house with one loop, be divided into 2 circuits by floors, as in the diagram, or be used only for one floor or part of it.

Heating scheme from a gas boiler in a two-story house: an overview and comparison of the best heating schemes

The system is easy to set up and maintain, if necessary, part of the batteries can be disconnected or even dismantled without stopping the boiler

Modern radiator heating systems are often equipped according to such a plan, if it is possible to disguise the pipeline. In addition, different types of devices can be included in one circuit: radiators, convectors, thermal curtains.

Collector connection and mixed systems

Using a manifold to separate not only heating circuits, but also to connect each appliance individually is the most modern and user-friendly solution.

It has a number of advantages:

  • beautiful - all pipes are hidden in the floor and walls;
  • convenient - adjustment of any device in the manifold cabinet;
  • efficient - all devices are supplied with the same hot coolant, but each of them heats exactly as much as you need;
  • universal - devices of different types can be connected to one collector, regardless of the layout.

The main disadvantage of this solution is the high cost of both materials and installation. Pipes will be needed much more than for any other connection scheme, and laying communications on the floor, especially if a concrete screed has already been poured, will cost a lot.

It is also worth considering that such a connection completely excludes the possibility of natural circulation.

Collector of the combined heating system

For ease of connection and maintenance, pipes of different colors, red and blue, are sometimes used for supply and return.

In two-story houses, as a rule, one collector is installed in the center of each floor, but with a large number of heaters and collectors, there may be more. For underfloor heating systems, separate collectors are used, with a lower coolant temperature.

Vertical gravity scheme

In addition to the standard options described, there are also more exotic ones, such as a vertical two-pipe with natural circulation. Perhaps this is the best solution for a two-story house, in which the lights are often turned off.

Due to the fact that water circulates more easily in a vertical system than in a horizontal one, and a large expansion tank under the roof plays the role of a collector, the most efficient and uniform heating is provided even without the use of pump.

Vertical gravity system

When arranging such a system, it is very important to use pipes of different diameters, depending on how many radiators they serve.

The hot water supply pipe to the expansion tank and the return line should be the thickest; the supply risers feeding the 2nd floor are slightly thinner, their lower part, on the 1st floor, is even smaller in diameter, and the pipes for connecting radiators are with the smallest cross section.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

You can see how a two-pipe scheme is implemented in practice in a 2-story house in this video:

You can find out about the arrangement of a combined system with radiators and underfloor heating here:

And this video is useful for those who are going to equip heating with a gravitational or mixed type of circulation:

Summing up, we can say that there is no ideal and universal heating scheme: in each specific case, many factors must be taken into account and prioritized. We have tried to describe all the available options to make the choice easier and more correct.

What is the heating scheme in your house? How satisfied are you with it and what would you like to change? Join the discussion below.

Open heating system: open circuits and embodiments of type

Open heating system: open circuits and embodiments of typeDiagrams Of Heating Distribution

Due to the ease of installation, low cost and sufficient efficiency outdoor heating system continues to be in demand. Having dealt with the principle of works, and installation rules, you can organ...

Read More
Steam heating with their own hands: how to do according to the rules

Steam heating with their own hands: how to do according to the rulesDiagrams Of Heating Distribution

Every home should be warm, or live in it will be very uncomfortable, even if it is very spacious and beautiful. The owners decide to heating problem in different ways, based on their own capabiliti...

Read More
Polypropylene boiler tying: schemes and device rules

Polypropylene boiler tying: schemes and device rulesDiagrams Of Heating Distribution

Engineering systems from affordable polypropylene pipes can last up to half a century. Polymer pipe products are extremely easy to install; only one soldering iron is needed to connect them. But i...

Read More
Instagram story viewer