In the autumn, it's time to take care of the condition of the backyard and garden. Creating a comfortable wintering environment for fruit trees is a priority for gardeners. What does garden maintenance include in the fall? On the eve of the winter cold, after the leaves fall completely, you can proceed to sanitary pruning, thinning, and reducing the crowns of perennial trees to 4-4.5 m. It is better to postpone the detailed rejuvenating pruning until spring. Why? Firstly, there are concerns about the possibility of freezing trees. Secondly, the place cuts perennial branches of large diameter can be a source of frost damage, even when processed with garden pitch or oil paint.
- Protecting fruit trees from rodents
- To prevent bark from cracking
- Treating trees, shrubs, and grapes
- Fertilizing fruit trees
- Watering your garden
- Do you need to plant trees in the fall?
Autumn conduct a thorough inspection of fruit trees, remove dry, damaged branches. Along with the removal of diseased, dry branches, trees are cleared of fruits that have dried on the branches, they burn nests, lay pests, cut out growths, remove litter of leaves, and root growth, where many species of aphids have accumulated.↑ to content ↑
Protection of fruit trees from rodents
All this must be immediately destroyed. With the formation of sections with a diameter of more than 2 cm, they are covered with garden pitch. The shtamby of young trees along the entire length are tied with a special non-woven material or other improvised means for protection against damage by mouse-like rodents with the binding of the strapping material into the soil by 3-5 cm.
I, for example, do so. Wrap narrow bandages, cut from spunbond or lutrasila, young trees. And then I begin to dig in - the ends of the bandage are then buried under the ground, as if deepened.содерж to the content ↑
In order not to crack the bark of the
In order to prevent the appearance of cracks in the bark, the freezing pads on the shtamba of fruit-bearing trees whitewash them, preliminarily stripping the trunk.содерж to content ↑
Treating trees, shrubs, and grapes
Treatment of copper preparations, such as Bordeaux liquid, can be carried out in the fall from diseases of the disease, and can be transferred to Spring in Preparation by 30.Carry it through the swelling kidneys.
In the vineyard, too, carefully examine the plants after harvest. Before sheltering for the winter, be sure to take care of keeping the plants healthy. If the presence of the leaf form of phylloxera was noticed, it is necessary in early spring to sweep the buds along the swelling buds. Incomplete shoots in autumn should be cut out. If shoots affected by anthracnose are seen, in autumn or early spring the bushes are treated with 3% Bordeaux liquid - this is one of the universal fungicides with the longest protective action duration.↑ to content ↑
fruit trees Organic, organo-mineral or mineral phosphorus-potassium fertilizers - superphosphate, sulfuric acid potassium, others 6–9 g of active ingredient per 1 m2 are brought in late autumn. Fertilizers are applied to the wells or wells with a depth of 20-30 cm in the area of the near-stem tree circles at a distance of 0.5-1 m outside the crown projection or under digging. On each square meter make one or two wells or wells.
For the orchard, long-acting fertilizers are the most important. The main ones are organic and organic-mineral fertilizers. Nutrients from them are released slowly, as they decompose by microorganisms. Organic fertilizers( manure, composts, etc.) include the whole set of nutrients necessary for perennial fruit and berry plants, as well as hormones, vitamins, etc. Their introduction affects the growth and productivity of trees for 3-5 years, while the yieldincreases to 25 and even 50 percent.
The composition of organic-mineral fertilizers includes both organic( peat, humates, etc.) and mineral fertilizers.
According to the Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture, in the fourth year after making organo-mineral fertilizers for a fruiting apple tree( to a depth of 15-18 cm), the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium at a depth of 60 cm to the plant is several times higheron non-fertilized areas of the garden. This is due to the fact that the fertilizer shovels introduced locally during the autumn digging of the garden for 2/3 of the bayonet are localized in the application zone, creating food centers within the boundaries of the main distribution of the root system of perennial plants.
In addition, in areas of the garden or vegetable garden, where organic-mineral fertilizers were used when digging the soil, it can also be noted that the soil has become more loose, crumbles well. This means an improvement in its agrophysical properties.
When using mineral fertilizers since the fall, it must be remembered that the introduction of high-speed species may lead to the activation of growth processes in trees against the background of warm weather and a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil, which will cause serious damage in winter by low negative air temperatures.
Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers( nitrophosphate, nitroammophosphate) are usually used for autumn refueling of garden soil in late autumn( November), and ammonium forms of nitrogenous fertilizers( ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) can be applied in earlier periods( October).In this case, the dose of nitrogen fertilizers is crushed: since the fall, 1 / 3-1 / 2 doses are applied;in the early spring, 2-3 weeks before the trees are flowering, the in-soil top-dressings are used with fast-acting nitrogen fertilizers( 1 / 2-1 / 3 of the main dose);in summer with irrigation water make the remaining dose of nitrogen.
Autumn dressing of soil with fertilizers contributes to the formation of fruit plants' resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, since the winter hardiness of trees is largely determined by how many nutrients they accumulate in preparation for winter and to what extent these substances will turn into protective ones. A prerequisite for a sufficient accumulation of spare nutrients is the optimization of the food regime of fruit plants, which allows for the dynamic growth of all organs, withstand spring temperature fluctuations, richly bloom in winter and form a full harvest.↑ to content ↑
Watering the garden
In connection with the upcoming winter cold weather, you need plenty to water the trees, shrubs with water - to conduct water recharge to make the plants easier to winter.содерж to the content ↑
Do I need to dig in trees in the fall?
After the leaves fall, that is, when the fruit trees, shrubs “sleep”, their active life activity is stopped, they start the main tillage in the garden - digging. To dig up the soil in the garden is necessary to maintain an optimal small-ductile structure by mixing - the top layer of soil( with the destroyed structure) moves down. At the same time the bottom layer moves.
Deep digging of the soil in the autumn creates conditions for the formation of the root system, which lies deep. This contributes to its resistance to sharp drops in temperature in winter and significant increases in summer. The approximate depth of digging the soil in autumn, especially in a young garden, should be up to 30 cm - on a spade bayonet, and closer to a stem - 10-15 cm.
When writing, materials from the newspaper Niva of Kuban - 2014 - No. 39 were used.