People often ask if it is difficult to grow cornels? Planting and care is not the most difficult. The main difficulty is to plant seedlings so that they take root. And then the cornel grows as if by itself. Cornel is a tasty berry, which many people associate with the south, rest in the Crimea or on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Yes, indeed, wild dogwood grows in the southern regions of our country. But today gardeners are engaged in its cultivation not only in the south, but also in regions located much to the north. Domestic plots cultivate cultivated varieties, the berries of which are much larger than wild ones. They are brighter in color, tastier. Of course, the taste still depends on the variety, on the ripening period.
- Features of the cornel
- Reproduction of the cornel
- Planting of the cornel
Features of the cornel
Cornel is a frost-resistant plant that easily tolerates a drop in temperature to minus 32-35 degrees, therefore suitable for growing in central Russia. Adverse effect on its fruiting have strong fogs, long rains, chilling actions of insects. But dogwood, by the will of God, blooms for a month, so it develops normally. Fruiting year.
The yield of a single plant depends on the age: it ranges from 8 to 250 kg. Fruits are red, black, orange, yellow, purple, cylindrical, elliptical, pear-shaped, round in shape, fruit weighing 2-6 g,( pear-shaped up to 12 g).
Cornel is a cross-pollinated plant. Some consider it self-pollinating, but giving reduced yields. But self-pollination is considered a reserve act, the adaptation of a cornel to adverse environmental conditions.
When planting varietal dogwood, ensure that either wild plant or another variety is nearby. That is, for growing and good yields, it is necessary to have at least two or three plants on your own plot or at a neighbor nearby. It is very important! Cornel, if he is comfortable, has as many flowers as many fruits.
Many gardeners make a big mistake by planting one plant. You can wait for many years, to provide proper care for dogwood, but you can’t wait for a good harvest. The fruits, of course, will be, but they will be single fruits, they will be few. It hardly suits you.
This is a shade-tolerant and light-loving breed at the same time. It should be borne in mind that in lit areas, dogwood blooms earlier. Although he stoically makes shade. The best option is when the cornel is slightly engraved, since in open areas it feels depressed from the strong summer heat.
We must have time to collect the cornel on time. Ripe berries will fall to the ground and then harvest will become more difficult.
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Propagation of dogwood
Propagated dogwood with seeds and vegetatively. The seed method does not ensure that all valuable traits of the variety are fixed in the progeny. Even with this method, the plants begin to bear fruit in the fifth or sixth year, and vegetatively propagated - in the second or third year.
For breeding purposes, seed reproduction is used( the best forms for selecting the most interesting ones according to certain given characteristics).But for the germination of seeds requires a long stratification - 20-28 months.
There are interesting facts: if the seeds of ripe fruit germinate in 1.5-2 years, then the unripe ones - in 6-7 months. Freshly harvested fruits( without drying the bones), immediately sown, had germination in April of the following year to 47%.
Agronomist Svetlana Litvinenko, an agronomist, proposed an affordable, accelerated method of growing dogwood seedlings from seeds. The collected seeds were treated with a 2% solution of sulfuric acid for three days, then placed in a box with wet sand, placed in a greenhouse. The sand in the boxes was kept moist. After three months, the seeds began to peck, and in spring( after 5-6 months), they germinated to 78%.
Vegetative breeding methods for cornels: layering, grafting( budding), cuttings. All these growing methods are very effective. But vaccinations take root very hard.
Reproduction of green cuttings carried out in June, when young shoots stop growing. For better rooting of cuttings, all conditions for green grafting are necessary. This is the use of growth stimulants, temperature control, lighting, humidity.
A very affordable, easy way to reproduce is budding in July and early August or graft cutting in March. As a rootstock, cornel from seeds is used - one-two-year-old seedlings. Many experts consider budding the only reliable way of reproduction. Survival of eyes - up to 70%.By the end of the vegetation period, oculiators reach 80 cm. Reliability survival rate during reproduction by vaccination is very low - no more than 10-20%.
In the first year, 3-5 lateral shoots are formed in the case of occulants. Already by the autumn they are planted in a permanent place, and in the second or third year the cornel begins to bear fruit - instead of 6-8 years when it is propagated by seeds.
If you know that varietal cornel saplings do not survive in your area, then you need to sow the seeds from varietal cornels - you get a semi-cultural plant that is more adapted to your climatic conditions. By sowing a few seeds, you will get plants with different properties - some will have larger berries, while others will have a smaller size, taste, color, shape of berries, too. Even the timing of fruiting can be different. As a result of great work, keep the plant that will satisfy you in the best way. And it will be your own dogwood breeding( at the amateur level), which has super-stability, super-yield for your climate zone. You can even propagate your own variety.↑ to content ↑
Dogwood grows on any soil, but prefers calcareous, with sufficient manganese content( 42 mg / kg soil).Although it is a drought-resistant plant, it still prefers moderately moist soils. With a prolonged drought, leaves begin to curl, flower buds may not grow, the length of growth shoots decreases.
Dogwood seedlings do not have to be planted in the open sun. It grows well in the penumbra of other, higher plants. This is a very good feature of it.
Planting pits for cornels is made with a diameter of 80 cm and a depth of 60-80 cm. Seedlings, when planted in a permanent place, are formed with a stem height of 30-50 cm, with five to seven skeletal branches. Usually pruning branches do not hold. Only remove shoots below the planned height of the trunk. Krona necessarily thinned.
Depth of planting of dogwood seedlings: the root neck when planting should be at ground level. If you deepen a sapling when planting, then over time there will be a lot of shoots around the trunk. And if the root neck is above the level of the soil, then the seedling is very bad and will take a long time to take root.
Saplings of different varieties are planted from each other at a distance of at least 3-4 meters. But if you have little space in the garden, you can do so. Seedlings of 2-3 years old of different varieties are planted in one planting pit. Immediately intertwine( braid) the trunks of both around each other and over the years you will get one plant with flowers capable of pollinating each other. That is, visually it will be one plant. Its trunk will have the form of a dense spiral.
A variation of such planting of two seedlings in one planting hole will be the winding of the stems not around themselves, but around the post( better than metal), which is placed between the seedlings. The bar remains there forever.
Dogwood can be formed in the form of a tree or in the form of a bush. Everything will depend on you - how you will form the plant. If you do not remove the lower shoots, then over time grow a bush. If during the first 3-4 years to do trimming extra branches from the trunk, then a tree will be formed.
Cornel - long-liver. He can produce a wonderful harvest in a hundred years! So, if you plant dogwood on your plot, it will delight with its tasty, beautiful, healthy fruits for more than one generation.
Many interesting cultivated large-fruited dogwood varieties have appeared, of which the most interesting for gardeners are Pear-shaped, Droplet, Harvest, Eugenia Seedling, Number Two, Firstborn and others.