A key factor for high potato yields is systematic watering during the growing season. It is important to keep the soil evenly moist from the moment of emergence until the end of the season. Do not allow it to dry completely, which can lead to unintended re-growth during watering and the growth of tuber growth. Consider how much the potato can withstand the subtleties of mulching.
Culture prefers cool, but frost-free conditions. The ideal temperature for the cultivation product depending on the vegetation period of the spring stages: 8-25 ° C.
- temperature conditions
- What temperature above zero withstand potatoes
- What storage temperature
- How to store a vegetable store, cellar refrigerator
- Vegetable store
- What negative temperature does the culture withstand, and at what freezes
- At what temperature does the spring in the ground freeze potatoes
- Mulching of the
- after planting
- Irrigation rules for a good harvest
- How often water potatoes in open ground
- Watering in the heat: how often to water
- How to water, so that the tubersbedspreads scab and other diseases
- How often to water the potatoes in a season
- How do you know that needs watering
- Signs of oversupply and lack of moisture
Origin culture of mountain areas with a cool climate has implications for agro-meteorological culture responses. Climatic features, the physiological environment is extremely important for the production of high yields with good quality tubers, in conditions typical for each particular plot.
Potato has a fibrous root system, at best, no more than 60 cm deep. As a result, a plant often cannot fully use nutrients and moisture within the soil profile.
What temperature can a potato withstand above zero
It is best to plant when the soil temperature is 7-10 ° C, daytime is in the range of 18 ° C, night-time is 12-18 ° C. The optimum condition of the soil for root growth is from 10 to35 ° C, the most active development occurs at 15 -20 ° C. Conditions are similar for the development of stolons.
For growth of the tops - from 7 to 30 ° C, the best mode — from 20 to 25 ° C. The appearance of tubers is caused by a short photoperiod and includes growth hormones. The cooler the temperature of the soil, from 15 to 20 ° C, the faster the tubers are formed and in larger quantities.
Favors the process of low nitrogen levels and high levels of sucrose in the plant. High temperatures( 35-40 ° C) reduce and actually stop the formation of tubers. Also, the long duration of the day delays the beginning of the development of tubers.
- At 9 ° C there is a slight elongation of the seedlings, very slow - at 6 ° C.
- At temperatures below 6 ° C, development almost stops.
- The presence of tubers in the soil at 1-2 ° C for several days leads to serious damage that affects the normal growth of the plant.
potatoes prefer the well-drained fertile soil with a high content of organic matter, with an acidity level of 5.0 to 5.5.As the soil becomes more alkaline, the size of the crop increases, but the incidence of scabs also increases - a condition that affects the skin, but not the nutritional value of the product.
The best for harvesting and processing of tubers are temperatures from 12 to 18 ° C. Under cold and heat stress, when below 5 ° C and more than 25 ° C, they are susceptible to diseases that are at risk of microbial rot.
What is the storage temperature of the
? The potato storage area must meet the temperature conditions in order for the product to remain healthy and the natural decomposition process to slow down.
It is imperative that it be dark, well ventilated, for long-term storage of seed varieties maintained at about 4 ° C.
For short-term storage of , followed by cooking, it is preferable to have a medium in which 7-10 ° C.
Storage forA long time at temperatures below 4 ° C turns potato starch into sugar, which changes the taste and culinary qualities. It takes on a bitter taste and the cause of this phenomenon is an enzyme called invertase.
In order to maintain a low sugar content in tubers, the culture is stored at intermediate temperatures of 8-12 ° C, although there is a risk of tubers germinating.
Potatoes are stored in an adequate environment in commercial warehouses for ten to twelve months. At home, the term is only a few weeks .If green areas containing glycoalkaloids are formed on the tubers, they must be trimmed before using the product.
How to properly store in a vegetable store, cellar, refrigerator
Optimum conditions for temperature, humidity, aeration, degree of oxidation are the most important factors for storing potatoes. Being a living organism, its quality decreases due to the loss of moisture and physiological decay. Impairments are directly related to storage temperature.
Before being placed in storage, the tubers must be cured at a temperature of 7-15 ° C and a relative humidity of 85-95% within two weeks. During the curing process, skin thickening and healing of small cuts occur, minimizing the penetration of pathogens.
Most pathogens transported to the storage with tubers logarithmically increase population growth at 5-26 ° C.
- Store potatoes in a dark place at 4-8 ° C and humidity 80-90Although it loses moisture due to respiration, low humidity is the main cause of shrinkage during storage. In good conditions, the product lasts up to six months.
- At temperatures above 8 ° C , the tubers germinate after two to three months.
- When stored with an temperature regime below 4 ° C , the potato gets a sweetish taste. But normal taste can be restored if left for several days, before use, at room temperature.
Do not allow the freezing of potatoes.
In most modern homes there are several places with good conditions for storing vegetables. The ideal place is the cellar in which the tubers are stacked in heaps. It is better to store in several small heaps.
In a piled pile of potatoes, the lower layer is often damaged due to the weight of the upper layers. In addition, the ventilation does not reach the center, and the product is very hot, which reduces the quality and reduces the shelf life.
culture. You can fold the tubers into small plastic buckets, which are covered with a layer of wet sand, boxes or baskets. Paper or perforated bags work well. The use of shelves on which containers with tubers are stacked, provides good air circulation.
Storage of in an refrigerator( usually at 2 -5 ° C) is undesirable .Cold temperatures contribute to the conversion of starch into sugar, which leads to a sweetish taste and discoloration of the product during cooking. To weaken this effect will warm the potatoes, before cooking, at room temperature for some time.
Perforated plastic or paper bags in which potatoes are placed provide the environment for extending shelf life in the refrigerator.
Losses are mainly caused by processes such as respiration, changes in the chemical composition and physical properties of tubers, damage at extreme temperatures. All the mentioned losses depend on the storage conditions of the .
Air circulation, atmospheric composition, relative importance( 85-95%) is well controlled in the vegetable store, which is pre-treated with germination inhibitors and equipped with mechanical ventilation.
What negative temperature does the culture withstand, and at what time does
freeze? Direct frost damage occurs when ice crystals form inside the protoplasm of plant cells( intracellular freezing).The degree of damage depends mainly on how quickly the temperature drops. At a slower pace, extracellular ice formation occurs, and the plant has a chance to recover.
The saturated vapor pressure above the ice is lower compared to water. As a result of extracellular ice formation, water evaporates, passes through semipermeable cell membranes and precipitates onto ice crystals outside the cells.
Potatoes When water is removed from the cells, the concentration of the solute increases, which reduces the likelihood of freezing. But as the ice continues to grow, the cells dry up more and more. In damaged plants, extracellular ice crystals are much larger than the surrounding dead cells, which causes secondary stress to the surrounding cells.
With long-term exposure to the freezing effect of , the plant dies completely .In an adult plant, the processes of biosynthesis( assimilation) stop at 2-4 ° С, as a result of which the tops turn brown. Freezes the plant at minus temperatures of −2 ° C.
The slope of the land affects the severity of frost. Potatoes growing at high levels experience warmer temperatures and less frost damage. Conversely, planted in a lowland, falls into microclimatic conditions, known as frost pockets, collecting cold air.
At what temperature will the spring in the ground freezepotatoes
Potatoes are planted in April, when the ground is thawed, dried and warmed up sufficiently. When planting in soil with a temperature of less than 6 ° C, some tubers may rot and die. Unexpected late frosts can damage shoots when the green foliage turns black. In the ground, potatoes will not suffer, but only if the upper part survives. Early plantations, subjected to long periods of cold weather, are dying for other reasons:
- cold and wet conditions delay germination and cause seeds to grind;
- light frost, about 0, -2, do a little harm to potato plants, but the difference between a light frost and a hard frost is only a few degrees;
- temperature -2.5, -3.5 cause serious damage to potatoes.
Potatoes grow best in rich, loose soil. helps to create it using organic mulch. The reasons for using mulch include retaining moisture in the soil, improving fertility and health, reducing weed growth and increasing the visual appeal of the area.
What are the advantages to potatoes from being under mulch?
In hot summer periods, mulching is a factor in plant survival. The practice of mulching has a huge impact on the consistency of soil moisture. Potatoes are particularly susceptible to excessive temperatures and irregular soil moisture.
A good thick layer of organic mulch helps to keep it in optimal condition in hot and cold weather.
By the beginning of the growing season, mulch retains the warmth of the soil, which is especially important at night. As the potato grows, it stabilizes the temperature and humidity of the soil, preventing the growth of weeds.
The effect of mulch is complex. It forms a layer between the soil and the atmosphere, preventing sunlight from entering the surface, thereby reducing evaporation. On the other hand, it can prevent water from entering the soil by absorbing it.
How to plant potatoes for mulched grass
Mowed grass for mulch is best mixed with leaves or coarse compost to ensure aeration and decomposition of the material without rotting. Freshly mowed grass can damage a plant; decomposing leads to a destructive accumulation of heat that blocks air circulation and moisture, so it is better to dry it before use.
Comparison of Mulch, Mown Grass and Straw
|Mixed with dried leafy litter forms a good compost with a healthy balance of nutrients( nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; this dramatically reduces the need for artificial fertilizers).||Controls the moisture of the and reduces the high temperature stress of the plant, but is more vulnerable to frost and wind.|
|quickly decomposes due to the correct ratio of carbon and nitrogen, which also helps to avoid problems such as mold, the unpleasant smell of rotting.||Controls the weeds of the , but at the same time there is the likelihood of contamination by seeds( weeds).|
|Fresh grass has a relatively high nitrate content, and most of it returns to the soil. Do not apply too thick a layer of , as the mowed grass decomposes into the mucous pulp, which is very hot and can burn the plant.||Basically carbon. It dries nitrogen from the soil and therefore it should be mixed with grass, manure, compost to minimize losses.|
|microbes can suck nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil during decomposition, for this reason they add a little fertilizer to compensate for the loss.||Ideal environment for slugs, attracts mice, voles.|
Benefit from any mulch - high yields and easier potato harvest.
Cultivation of potatoes under the mulch
Any biodegradable material works. But the most preferred method for growing high-yield potatoes is freshly cut grass or straw mulch. They keep the soil cool and moist, protecting it from the Colorado potato beetle and other crawling insects.
potatoes need a thick layer of , unlike other vegetable crops. Every few weeks it is checked for gaps and another layer is added.
To ensure the best results of potato cultivation by mulching, it is necessary:
- To loosen the soil well.
- Prepare a landing area. Dig a furrow about 10 centimeters deep and 25 cm wide four to six weeks before the last frost.
- Thoroughly mix garden compost( it will prevent compaction of the soil after planting).
- Plant seed tubers cut side down( or whole) with eyes directed upwards, at a distance of about 30 cm from each other. Whole tubers are pressed into the soil about 8 cm, cut - 2 cm deep.
- Fill the furrow with a 15 cm layer of pure straw.
- When the plant breaks through the covering litter, add another layer 10 cm thick.
Water as needed, keeping the soil evenly moist but not moist. In this case, remove the mulch is not necessary.
Water is a vital component in potato production, necessary for both yield and quality. Irrigation at the beginning of the growing season minimizes common scab, stimulates the growth of the bush, and maximizes the number of tubers.
At the end of the season, helps to harvest with minimum losses .But water must be applied in sufficient quantities and at the right time to achieve a good harvest.
Regional climatic conditions, weather, soil conditions affect the choice of planting time.
The depth of root formation of potatoes may vary, but the optimal is usually 700 mm .Reduces the ability of the roots to find water in the soil compacted soil, and accordingly affects the recommendations for irrigation planning.
A moderately acidic soil is preferred, but this is not essential, as the potato is adapted to a wide range. Dig a furrow with a depth of 10 centimeters, where the tuber with the buds pointing upwards is placed and covered with soil.
If necessary, fertilizer can be spread from above. Thus, when growing potatoes in an alkaline environment, after planting, sulfur is used, which maximizes germination and eliminates common scab.
Is it necessary to water the potatoes when planting
Potatoes - culture that loves moisture, but when planted it is not watered. It is preferable to plant in an open and well-lit position in a fertile, evenly moistened, well-drained soil.
The need for water is provided by the parent tuber. On the contrary, additional watering can cause rot.