Independent water supply at a site remote from the urban infrastructure, no luxuries and severe necessity. The most common water source is a well, which needs a special arrangement.
To protect it from adverse conditions headroom is installed caisson for wells: his own hands if you want to be able to make any handyman.
The content of the article:
- What is the well caisson and why is it needed?
- varieties of caissons
- How to make their own caisson?
- Option # 1 - solid construction made of concrete
- Option # 2 - caisson of concrete rings
- Option # 3 - budget camera from a brick
- Option # 4 - sealed containers of metal
- Useful videos on the topic
What is the well caisson and why is it needed?
Caisson - a container securely protected against the ingress of water. Initially, they were used exclusively for underwater works, then for them there were also other applications.
In particular, the sealed chambers were installed on the well headroom. Standard caisson has a very simple structure. This container, closed at the top hatch.
Through it inside the chamber goes down people for servicing and repairs. At the bottom of the device casing is introduced, in the side walls - inputs for cable and water pipes.
Cap, and, in some cases, the walls of the box, insulated. Most often used for this purpose polystyrene or foamed polymer. Luggage classical construction is designed as a cylinder height of about 2 m and a diameter of at least 1 m.
These dimensions are chosen not by chance. The height of the container due to the need to protect the equipment installed inside it from exposure to low temperature. Plot tapping water and headroom wells should be placed below the level of soil freezing. Most cases the depth of about 1-2 meters. It is determined by this value and the placement depth of the chamber bottom and, respectively, its height.
Tank diameter is also not accidental. It should be enough to install the necessary equipment and accommodation in a man who will go down for maintenance or repair of wells.
When choosing a device, you must realize that too little caisson is inconvenient to use, and too large will cost too expensive. After sealed chambers are fairly expensive equipment.
Recessed into the ground sealed container has two main functions:
- Protection of equipment against low temperatures. In winter, the water supplied from the well is exposed to freezing temperatures. In such circumstances, it may freeze and damage or even break the line.
- Protection of groundwater. Caisson prevents soil water into the well headroom than prolongs the life of the equipment.
In addition, the caisson - a convenient place to put all the necessary for the operation of the well equipment. There is usually installed pump, various water purification system shut-off valve with an electric or pneumatic actuator, and piping automatic controlling autonomous running water.
Rainproof camera protects all the equipment from unauthorized access, damage from rodents and insects.
varieties of caissons
For the manufacture of the box can be any material that provides good sealing and sufficient insulation of the inner chamber.
Practice shows that most often on the head part of the caissons set:
- Plastics. Practical solution which has excellent sealing and low weight, which greatly simplifies installation and transportation. Insufficient rigidity of the structure and its tendency to surface compensate pouring chamber installed in place on the contour of the concrete.
- metal, often steel. Enough durable and very durable option. Competently made metal chamber is airtight, it does not float and is not deformed. To prevent stress corrosion necessarily require high-quality waterproofing.
- Concrete. Very robust and durable construction. Large weight and prevents bubbling tank substantially complicates its transportation and installation. Concrete is hygroscopic, so you need high quality waterproofing camera, otherwise moisture will get inside.
- Brick. Durable, economical and durable option. It has good insulating properties, which allows not to resort to additional heat insulation. Installation of brick camera is rather complicated, it can carry out only a person with masonry skills.
- Polimerpeska. Relatively inexpensive, sealed, rugged, lightweight and highly durable design. It is simple to install: assembled from elements of connecting locks "tongue and groove" system.
How to make their own caisson?
If desired, the home master can produce any type of caisson. It is important to determine the material from which the container is made, and to its dimensions. Consider a few options that are quite easy to implement.
Option # 1 - solid construction made of concrete
For monolithic concrete caisson best it will square shape. This will greatly facilitate the process of the construction of the formwork. To begin to identify with the size of the pit, which we have to dig under the building.
Basal length generally equal to the width and is calculated as follows. To add the inner dimension of the box two wall thickness of 10 cm and two sinuses magnitude of 15 cm. In the past, we will then produce a Backward filling of soil.
Having defined the width and length of the hole, we calculate its depth. It should be 0.3-0.4 meters higher than the height of the chamber wall. Thus it will be possible to equip the draining layer at the bottom of the pit.
Such technology is selected in the case where the concrete foundation is not planned construction. If you want a concrete bottom, based on its height. In addition, the pit depth is calculated so that the design surface of the cover is flush with the ground level.
To determine the type of the future design of conduct hydrogeological assessment of the pit bottom. Optimally to do it in the spring when the ground water rise to the maximum height. If the bottom of the dry, can be dispensed drainage layer. If the bottom of the pit is wet, it makes sense to equip completely sealed bottom design. Otherwise, the ground water may flood the caisson.
When marking the future excavation note that the camera relative to the casing is better to have not symmetrical. So inside the tank will be more space for a person to descend into it.
In addition, in this case, the equipment can be positioned with greater convenience. Determine the size and location of excavation, to begin excavation.
During their execution can be immediately dig a trench to a home water pipes. Once the pit is ready, we proceed to the drainage arrangement. It will consist of two layers:
- Sand bed height of about 10 cm. Backfilled with sand and rammed it thoroughly.
- Rubble height of about 15 cm.
This drainage will not allow the water trapped in the caisson, to stay inside. She quickly goes into the ground. Then proceed to the arrangement of the formwork. You can run two versions of its installation.
The first involves the use of the excavation walls as outer formwork walls. The sides of the pit close tightly with polyethylene, so that the water would not go away from the concrete into the ground. After that, we proceed to the arrangement of the carcass reinforcement.
For it is possible to take a steel mesh coarse plaster or tie yourself in increments of 30 cm. Fasten the valve so that it is inside future concrete layer, then establish a second formwork wall. For it is possible to take a board or wood-polymer plates. The second option involves the use of formwork arrangement from downed shields boards.
They are installed in the pit so as to form a double wall. Between them mounted fittings and design is ready for pouring. This method requires the use of more boards, but it enables arrangement of the drainage of the sinuses, which is impossible in the first embodiment. Sinus drainage needed at a high water table, or caisson will be flooding.
Getting concrete pouring. Mixing the solution by hand - a laborious process. It is much easier to take concrete mixer rental, or do it yourself from a metal barrel of a suitable size.
To feed solution in the formwork have to do a special tray, it is quite suitable and cut vertically previously used downspout. Concrete is poured in small layers, each of which must carefully compacted.
For sealing we need an electric vibrator. This is a special tool that is quite expensive. If possible, it would be good to take his hire. If not, you must use another method of sealing - shtykovanie. To implement it is necessary to previously fabricate special adaptation. Take the thin tube or rod reinforcement piece and welds it to the handle.
The resulting tool dramatically plunges into the freshly poured concrete. Then we begin removing it, do it slowly, shaking the device from side to side. During shtykovaniya air and water rise to the surface, and the concrete becomes denser. Once the entire structure will be filled, it is necessary to properly dry. The first 3-5 days of concrete has not yet grasped and needs to maintain humidity.
The fact is that during its solidification in the upper layers of active evaporation of water continues. If the moisture is not enough, the upper layers of the concrete structure begin to crack, resulting in a reduction in strength of the entire chamber. Therefore, after pouring the concrete are regularly sprayed with water or, in the case of the heat, cover with a damp cloth. After a week it will be possible to remove the formwork.
However, the full strength of the concrete attains only 28 days. That's when you can start finishing work. The easiest way to install the hatch equipped with a floor slab, made in the factory.
Another option - to make a fill overlap by executing pre-horizontal formwork. All installation and pouring concrete formwork solution are carried out similarly to those already held. After complete drying of the design do not forget to carry out waterproofing work.
Option # 2 - caisson of concrete rings
Downhole device caisson of concrete rings begins with the preparation of the pit. Its depth is calculated similarly to the monolithic structure. The height of the bottom structure depends on its type. It can also be sealed or be a drainage layer. Selection of the type carried out according to the level of groundwater.
Consider the embodiment with sealed bottom. Digging desired pit depth, aligned bottom and laid it on sand bed height of about 10 cm. Well it rammed.
Precast concrete floor to install. Drillability hole in the plate under the well pipe. Then, using the ad accurately omit bottom down obsadu flowing into the prepared hole. Put a plate on a sandy base.
Getting to the preparation for the installation of concrete rings. Each of them is carefully coat with waterproofing compounds, such as mastic asphalt, and give it to dry.
Omit the ring into the pit, carefully treating the bonding composition of each joint. Some experts advise zapenivat seams, explaining it by the fact that the solution is destroyed when the earth shifts, and a plastic foam should remain intact.
We treat the resulting joints waterproofing. Laid on top of the overlap with a hatch.
Caisson ready. It remains only to fill the voids around the structure.
Option # 3 - budget camera from a brick
Its arrangement resembles the construction of monolithic caisson concrete. We begin with the excavation of the pit. It can dig just below the capacity of the future, or do a little more.
The second embodiment is preferable. He suggests filling all the voids in which water can be poured rain, after the chamber walls will be erected and dry.
In the first case, the brick will be laid to the wall of the pit, but guarantees that no voids behind it can not give anybody.
Regardless of whether sealed to the bottom of the box or not, is performed for the camera brick strip foundation, the width of which should be slightly greater than the thickness of future masonry. The perimeter structure dig a trench depth of about half a meter, sleeps its sand bed height of 10-15 cm and ramming it well.
Future foundation is not necessarily concrete. Alternatively, you can fill in the trench rubble brick, large rubble and fill sand and cement mortar.
After backing grabs, you can start laying. Laid on the foundation waterproofing, it may be a roofing material, and any other suitable material.
Laying starting from the corner seams well fill solution. From time to time monitor the quality of work plumb and level. When the clutch reaches the height level of the input cable and conduit, between the bricks inserted into the sleeve under inputs.
We would clutch to the desired height. We give it to dry, then plasterers or treated with a special solution for waterproofing.
Getting to the arrangement of the tank bottom. If it has to be sealed at a height of 4-5 cm from the bottom level set Laying nets. Then pour the concrete. Its height should be about 15 cm. If the bottom should not be leakproof, laid rubble layer and ramming it well.
Overlapping brick caisson may be different. You can put the finished plate or perform it independently. In the second case the upper chamber wall segments put channels, beams or planks.
Anchoring down the ventilation duct, the hatch sleeve and under watering pipe. Then, the resulting design cover with tin or plastic film, if the lath is laid without gaps.
To strengthen the construction at a height of 4-5 cm from its base expose the reinforcing mesh. Fill the concrete and wait for it dry. Thereafter Equips spout chamber. Then fill up the capacity level of the soil and assemble the door. If there is a desire to reduce the cost of construction, the upper ceiling can not pour concrete. It can be filled with soil, having equipped hill height of 0.3-0.4 m.
Option # 4 - sealed containers of metal
Metal caisson can be any shape, it often determines the available material. For quadrangular chamber will need 3-5mm and metal rods or rebar with a cross section of 10 mm. Round container can arrange segments of industrial pipes 1250 mm diameter housing and approximately 600 mm for the neck.
When choosing the shape of the future container, consider that the lower the welds, the less chance of fracture and, correspondingly, a loss of sealing chamber.
We start with the calculation of the preparation of the pit. We dig a hole the right size and align it on the bottom level.
The casing is cut off at a height of 40-50 cm from the bottom and temporarily close plastic or cloth. Prepared metal parts are cleaned of rust and piled up on the boardwalk that will prevent their possible contamination during the work. We start with the bottom panel.
Cooking item desired shape and cut a hole in it, into which is inserted the sleeve to the casing. For its installation using double-sided weld.
If we produce rectangular chamber cut out of the side walls of metal. Mark up them up and cut holes for cable glands and conduit. We connect the bottom and side walls.
Put the cover capacity. Do not forget that all the welds should only be done double-sided. This will provide the necessary tightness caisson.
Weld-neck and a pencil case for ventilation. Is welded to the sleeve walls of the chamber for cable and pipeline. Loops from a bar, or rebar, which will be needed to fix the sling. Attach the door or cover.
Getting waterproofing. All welds, both external and internal, are thoroughly cleaned of slag.
Then treated them to a few times a preservative. With all the construction proceed similarly. As a result, we should get a multi-layer bituminous waterproofing exterior. Inside impose primer, paint and anti-corrosion compound.
If necessary, insulate the camera. You can use extruded polystyrene foam or other insulation. It is important that it is not hygroscopic.
Metal caisson ready, it can be lowered into the pit. a crane with cushioned straps used to design mounting. Over excavation set wooden bars, which put the container.
Then remove the backup, and the construction of very carefully and slowly descends, spitted on the casing. Who gets to the bottom of the pit caisson necessarily aligned on the level. The plant in the liner pipe and cable. Check the waterproofing. Re-treat areas where it has been damaged during installation.
The sleeve is welded to the casing or zapenivaem if obsada made of plastic. Draw works on the sealing portions of input power cables and piping. Then it is possible to fill the caisson.
Useful videos on the topic
How to install a metal caisson:
Process of manufacturing a monolithic concrete caisson:
How to equip a brick caisson:
There are many ways how to make your own caisson for wells. Which one to choose - it depends on the features of the site, qualifications handyman and his financial capabilities. In any case, if everything works properly and efficiently carried out, the resulting sealed chamber will reliably protect headroom wells from freezing and falling groundwater. Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of clean water in the house.