Do you want to provide water for your country house on your own? Agree that doing these works with your own hands is quite a feasible task, if you know the nuances of the water supply system.
We will help you to deal with the subtleties and basic rules - in this article we will talk about how to arrange water supply in a private house with your own hands. How to start and how to properly conduct all the work.
For a better understanding of the process, we picked up a pictorial photos and water supply schemes. Also, the article is supplemented with useful video recommendations on the rules of the water supply system and tips on installing system input nodes in a country house.
The content of the article:
Selection of water source
- Option 1. Stationary centralized system
- Option # 2. Decentralized way of water supply
- How does a typical plumbing system work?
Basic design rules
- Serial pipe routing
- Manifold dilution scheme
Stages of installation of water supply
- Stage # 1. Preparation for work
- Stage # 2. Pipe selection
- Stage # 3. Pumping station connection
- Stage # 4. Installation of the accumulator
- Stage # 5. Installation of water treatment equipment
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Selection of water source
Regardless, the water supply is installed in the lived-in building or laid during the construction of a new one; its design and installation must be approached very responsibly.
First of all, you need to determine the source for water supply. You need to know that the norms of the plumbing system should provide water to everyone living in the house on the basis of 30-50 liters per person per day.
At arrangement of a bathroom and the sewerage the settlement indicator increases three times. For watering the garden and green spaces it is assumed that water consumption of at least 5 liters per square meter. meter.
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When connecting the water supply system of a private house to a centralized network, a pipeline is inserted, for which permission is required
Independent of centralized systems, a country house water supply source is most often a well.
Water supply to a private house is often arranged on the basis of a shaft well. Water supply from the well can be organized according to the summer or winter pattern
Regardless of the type of source, the autonomous water supply system includes external and internal parts, each of them requires competent design.
Connection to the central water supply
Independent system with water intake in the well
Well as a source of water supply
Fragment of the internal layout of water supply in a private house
It turns out that the volume of water consumption in a country house is quite large. Therefore, the choice of a water source must be approached as responsibly as possible.
The owner can choose between decentralized and centralized water supply. In the first variant, the source of water supply will be well, well etc. In the second - the water supply network supplying its settlement.
Competently designed and equipped water system of a private house fully meets all the needs of residents in the water, both in cold and hot
Option 1. Stationary centralized system
The most simple to implement option, involving the connection of domestic water supply to the centralized water supply network.
To make this connection, the homeowner will need to submit an application to the organization that operates the centralized highway. The document will be reviewed, after which a decision is made to allow or prohibit the connection.
To connect to a centralized water supply network, the owner of the house must obtain permission from the operating organization. You should also get a list of conditions for the connection, which indicate the place and method of connection, the depth of pipe laying for the entrance to the water collector well, etc.
In the first case, an official permit must be issued, which stipulates the conditions for connection and water use.
Together with him are given detailed recommendations with a scheme, which indicates the best ways to conduct the connection with various pipeline installation options.
Further, the owner can independently engage in pipe laying or use the services of specialists.
Option # 2. Decentralized way of water supply
It is assumed that water will be supplied to the house from the river, well, well, etc. It is important that the water intake is at a distance of not less than 20 m from the septic tank, cesspool and similar objects.
It is optimal to drill a hole or dig a well at a minimum distance from the house. This will save on pipes and facilitate the maintenance of water supply. Before carrying out work, it is necessary to ensure that the source can provide the required water consumption.
The water source for the autonomous water supply system of a private house can be a well, a well or an open pond whose water meets the requirements of the SES.
Practice shows that the well is good for seasonal use. However, it is not recommended to use it for homes with permanent residence.
In this case, the best option is considered a well, which must necessarily be equipped with a powerful pump. Only in this way it will be possible to provide enough water to serve all the needs of the residents.
How does a typical plumbing system work?
Any system that supplies a house with water consists of two equal parts: external and internal. The outer section connects the water source to the house. Depending on where the water comes from, the system may vary.
The simplest option is the construction connecting the house with a centralized network. In this case, it will be a normal pipeline.
If a well is chosen as a source of water supply, in addition to pipes to the external water supply system, treat lifting equipment: surface or submersible pump - the type of instrument depends on wells.
In addition, this also includes the automatic control system of pumping equipment, coarse and fine filters, as well as water distribution devices, which include water pressure tanks, shut-off valves, etc.
To ensure the desired pressure in the water supply can be used cumulative tank, which is placed at the highest point of the building or on the overpass near it
In a water supply system connected to a centralized pipeline, the pressure is determined by its characteristics. An autonomous system requires the installation of a pumping station or the installation of a water tank.
The first option is preferable, since in the second case it will be necessary to construct a ramp with a height of about 3-4 meters and install a metal or plastic tank on it.
If only seasonal living is supposed to be in the house, then the external water supply system can be laid in an open way, that is, directly on the ground. If the system will be used year-round, the pipes are stacked in trenches, buried below the level of soil freezing.
If for some reason the pipeline is laid above this level, the construction will need to be insulated with high quality.
The inner part of the pipeline consists of several elements. Their number may vary depending on the actual conditions.
A typical scheme necessarily includes the following:
- pipes of various diameters;
- water metering units, if the system is connected to a centralized highway;
- devices for heating water, if necessary;
- regulating and shut-off valves;
- mixers and other plumbing equipment;
- breeding network.
For proper arrangement of the water supply system, it is necessary to develop a scheme where the place of laying the pipeline will be accurately indicated. Both external and internal.
Such a scheme is necessary to determine the optimal variant of installation and to accurately determine the amount of material necessary for its implementation.
The outer section of the aqueduct fits into a trench, the depth of which must be greater than the level of soil freezing during the coldest time of the year.
Basic design rules
Some masters consider such a project an unnecessary excess and do not want to waste their time on it. This is fundamentally wrong. A competent scheme will help to avoid many problems when installing water supply in a country house.
In the process of its development it is necessary to take into account several important factors:
- type of distribution of water pipes;
- the number of collectors, if necessary;
- number of pumps and filters;
- the number of points of water pumping;
- water heater capacity;
- the location of each element of the plumbing system and the distance to it.
In addition, the scheme will need to accurately mark all the points of placement of water supply elements and show how the highway will pass through all the rooms of the building.
Therefore, to develop a scheme, you first need to perform an exact drawing of the building and, if necessary, supplement it with a plan of the site where the external part of the structure will be marked. It must be remembered that the project should be compiled on a single scale based on accurate measurements.
The connection of sanitary devices is made according to the tee-plate (serial) and collector (parallel) circuit. The second option is more complicated and more expensive, but unlike the first, it equalizes pressure in all water points of the system
Specialists recommend using one tape measure for all measurements to avoid undesirable discrepancies in the measurements. Before you work with the project, you should decide on the type of future layout. There are only two possible options.
Serial pipe routing
It assumes the presence of a common pipe, from which the taps to each point of the pumping are performed. It is clear that in this case it will not be possible to achieve the same pressure at each of the water consumption points. And the more of them, the less pressure in each of them.
The advantage of this scheme is considered the minimum consumption of pipes and, accordingly, low cost.
The main drawback is uneven pressure in the system. Such a scheme is used mainly in houses with a small number of tenants or with a small number of points of water pumping.
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The sequential layout of the water supply is also called perimeter, since pipes are laid around the perimeter of the room, and tee connections are made using tees and corners
Pipes in successively constructed water pipelines are laid in both open and closed way. Connection points to the risers are left open or covered with boxes
Closed plumbing was possible using polypropylene and metal-plastic pipes. Their service life is about 50 years.
A weighty advantage of a series connection is considered to be a relatively small consumption of pipes. Minus - in the loss of water pressure in the plumbing fittings, because of which the pressure is lower at the far point of the discharge.
Open option of laying
Closed gasket option
Pros and cons of the tee scheme
Manifold dilution scheme
The main difference from parallel wiring is the presence of a special distribution node - a collector, from which a separate pipeline is laid to each consumer. This makes it possible to supply water to all points of discharge with the same pressure.
Depending on the length of the system, it may include several collectors. The main drawback of such a system is the high consumption of pipes.
Typical scheme of water supply is approximately as follows. It begins either from the point of tie-in to the centralized highway, or from the area where the system is connected to the well or to another source of water supply.
In the latter case, a pump or pumping station should be installed here that supplies water to the system. It also assumes the presence of a hydroaccumulator and a stopcock, which is used in case of leakage or scheduled maintenance.
If necessary, divide the flow of water should be used tee. It will form two streams: one will be used for technical needs, such as watering the garden, pool, shower, etc., and the second will be sent to the house.
The pipe that drains water into the house must be equipped with a filtration system in order to clean the liquid from all kinds of impurities.
At this stage, coarse filters will be quite enough.
The collector is a distribution node in which the total flow is divided into several branches.
Next on the pipe entering the house, you will need to install another tee. This is done only if the organization of hot water supply is supposed. The stream will be divided into cold and water directed to the heated.
The cold water supply pipe is connected to the corresponding collector, from which it is installed further down the building. The hot pipeline is first connected to the water heater, then to the appropriate collector, and then - similar to the first option.
When designing wiring specialists strongly recommend, as far as possible, to shorten the length of pipelines and to make the number of joints and bends minimal. After all, they are potential causes of leakage.
In addition, it is extremely undesirable to perform the turns of pipes at a right angle. This significantly reduces the pressure in the line.
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The water supply device according to the collector scheme involves a parallel connection of the points of water pumping to the distribution node
The use of a collector allows you to optimally distribute the pressure in the system and equalize the pressure in all devices
A significant disadvantage of the collector option is a large number of pipes, which looks extremely unaesthetic
Often, the organization of the collector distribution of water supply is accompanied by hidden pipe laying, with their deepening in building structures. But the open version is allowed on small sections of length.
Collector wiring diagram
Water supply system collector
Increased number of pipes
Open water pipe laying
Plumbing can be laid in a hidden or open way. The first is the most aesthetic. He assumes that the pipes will be laid in the grooves laid inside the walls or covered with decorative ducts.
In this case, it is important that the material from which the parts are made was not susceptible to corrosion, as it will be extremely problematic to spot a leak in time. Pipes mounted in an open way are laid over the walls.
Stages of installation of water supply
When self-laying plumbing in a private house, experts recommend to follow a few rules and adhere to a specific action plan. Tell you more about this.
Stage # 1. Preparation for work
First of all, it is better to start laying the pipeline from the water consumer, and not vice versa. It will be easier. First, using an adapter to connect the threaded type, we fix the water pipe to the consumer.
It is desirable to install a shut-off ball valve between the adapter and the device. It will give the opportunity, if necessary, to quickly shut off the water supply or repair the broken device without any problems. From the water consumer pipe is diverted to the collector.
Also, when doing layout, you need to follow a few simple rules:
- Pipes should be placed at a distance of about 20 mm from the wall, so they will be easier to repair.
- It is highly undesirable to lay pipes so that they pass through partitions or walls. If it is still necessary, the parts are placed in a special glass.
- Clips are used for fastening to the walls. They must be present every one and a half to two meters and on all corner joints.
- If the installation of drain valves is supposed, the pipe is laid with a slight bias in its direction.
- When performing an internal corner bypass, the part is positioned at a distance of 30-40 mm from the wall, while bypassing the external corner - 15 mm.
Before making the connection to the collector, it is strongly recommended to install the valves to the pipe going to the consumer. This will allow you to quickly disconnect the branch from the system in the event of an emergency, as well as repair it without any problems.
Water pipes can be laid in a hidden way inside the gates made in the wall of the building. The hidden method of laying is most often used to implement collector wiring.
Stage # 2. Pipe selection
The parts from which the plumbing system is assembled must be inert to chemical and thermal effects, durable, wear-resistant and as light as possible.
That is why for the arrangement of the system in a country house most often choose polyethylene, polypropylene or polyvinyl chloride pipes. When choosing, you need to take into account the working temperature of the plastics, not all can interact with hot water.
Modern plastic parts are equipped with a large number of components, which allows you to assemble a design of any degree of complexity
As an option, you can use metal parts. Arguments in favor of the assembly of plumbing from plastic elements set. First of all, the design is easy, but durable.
Installation of the system is so simple that even a beginner can handle it. Soldering is used to fasten parts, resulting in very strong, almost monolithic connections.
Another plus is the possibility of flexing the elements, which can significantly reduce the number of dangerous in the emergency sense areas. Where it is necessary to connect metal and plastic elements, special fittings of the combined type with special metal inserts are used.
Plastic parts have a high torsional rigidity. This is very important for cases when the pump develops a large torque.
If necessary, plastic pipe can be upgraded, which is also important. In addition to plastic and metal, you can use the traditional options. These include details of steel or copper.
The main disadvantage of the first option is considered susceptibility to corrosion. Copper pipes have many advantages, but their cost is very high.
An important point - the choice of the diameter of parts. It is based on the length of a particular section of the pipeline.
For lines longer than 30 m, parts with a diameter of 32 mm are selected, pipelines shorter than 10 m are assembled from elements with a cross section of 20 mm. Medium length lines are mounted from pipes with a diameter of 25 mm.
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Metal pipes are used in the organization of systems for the supply of both cold and hot water. They are not afraid of corrosion, there is no sediment on the walls inside, there is no need to paint the outside
Mainly polypropylene pipes are used in the cold-water device, aluminum-foil-reinforced versions are suitable for hot water supply. PP pipes are stiffer than metal-plastic, assembled with fittings
Steel water pipes are a classic version, the main disadvantage of which is the complexity of installation and susceptibility to corrosion. Can be connected to metal-plastic through specially designed fittings.
Copper pipes are resistant to corrosion, plastic, used in the laying of cold-water and hot-water. They are connected by welding or fittings, they serve for a long time, but they are expensive
Water pipe from metal pipes
Polypropylene pipes in the organization of water supply
Steel water and gas pipes
Water pipe from copper pipes in a private cottage
Stage # 3. Pumping station connection
Another important issue that must be considered when building a plumbing in a country house is connecting the pump station to the internal system.
As mentioned above, a pumping station or pressure tank can be used to provide the building with enough water. Using the second option is quite troublesome. As practice shows, most homeowners choose a pumping station.
The device pumps water from a well, less often from a well. This equipment is sensitive to low temperatures, so it is placed in the basement, basement, or heated technical room.
True in this case, the noise from the running pump can interfere with the residents. In some cases, the equipment is placed in a specially equipped caisson, closing wellhead.
The pumping station is a set of equipment that provides full pumping of water from the well or from the well
Works on connecting the pumping station in general are as follows. A pipe is fitted from the source to the equipment, on which a brass fitting is fitted, equipped with an adapter with a diameter of 32 mm.
Connects to it a tee, equipped with a drain valve. This will make it possible, if necessary, to shut off the water supply. A non-return valve is connected to the tee. The device will not allow water to return to the well.
It may be necessary to turn the line to direct the pipe to the pumping station. If so, a special corner is used. All subsequent elements are connected with the help of the so-called "American."
First, a shut-off ball valve is connected, shutting off the water supply if necessary. Then put a coarse filter, which will protect the device from the ingress of impurities.
The pumping station can be installed in the insulated caisson above the wellhead, or it can be mounted in the house, in any heated room.
After that, the pumping station is connected. There is a nuance here. The equipment involves the installation of a damper tank and pressure switch. If the pump is in the well, and all other equipment is located in the house, the pressure switch is installed on top of the pipe.
Bottom mounted damper tank. After that, the dry running sensor is connected. It will not allow the pump to work without water, it will save it from breakage.
The last connection element is an adapter to a pipe with a diameter of 25 mm. After all the parts are installed, it is recommended to check the quality of the work done. To do this, start the pump and allow it to work for some time.
If the equipment will properly pump water, then everything is fine and you can continue to work. If not, you need to find the cause and eliminate it.
Stage # 4. Installation of the accumulator
Such an element as hydroaccumulator It is not obligatory at the device of the water supply system of a country house. However, it is used almost always. This device makes it possible to maintain constant pressure in the system. Pumping equipment at the same time works intermittently.
This effect gives the design of the hydroaccumulator. It is a tank, divided by a membrane into two parts.
The accumulator, which is a membrane storage tank, is designed to maintain a stable pressure in the system.
The first is the air, the second - the supply of water, which is gradually spent on the needs of residents. When the amount of fluid reaches a certain minimum, the pump automatically turns on, filling up its stock. Thus, the pressure in the system is always stable.
It is possible to do without the hydroaccumulator. To do this, you need to install a storage tank at the highest point of the building.
However, this design will not provide a constant pressure in the system. Water from it will descend to the consumer by gravity, without a strong pressure. Often, even a washing machine will not be able to fully operate in such conditions.
Therefore installation of the hydroaccumulator is considered the optimal solution. The amount of equipment is selected depending on the needs of residents living in the house.
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A hydroaccumulator is necessary if it is planned to organize automatic water supply to the consumer. Together with the pressure switch, it regulates the operation of pumping equipment.
Hydroaccumulators are included in the schemes with both surface and submersible pumps. In the first case it is located next to the pump, in the second separately, in a caisson or in a house
Hydraulic accumulators for shallow water intake sources are most often supplied in the format of a pumping station, however, they can also be individually selected for the characteristics of the pump = automatic
Hydroaccumulators can be used to automate only part of the network. For example, to automatically pump water to the consumer from the storage tank
The role of hydraulic tank in system automation
The hydroaccumulator with the borehole pump
Hydro tank with pump automatic
Transfer system from drive
Stage # 5. Installation of water treatment equipment
Water treatment also does not apply to the mandatory elements of the plumbing. However, practice shows that such equipment is installed by most homeowners. It is especially necessary for those who use a well or a well as a source of water.
The quality of such water is usually far from ideal. The fluid coming from the well, in most cases, is contaminated with mechanical impurities.
Therefore, at least the coarse filters should be installed. In order to fully protect the water supply system and household appliances connected to it, it is necessary to clarify the nature of the impurities and the chemical composition of the water coming from the well.
For this, samples are taken to the laboratory and receive detailed analysis, which will be seen exactly which filters are needed for this system.
The equipment for water treatment is installed after the accumulator. It is a set of filters selected on the basis of the results of the analysis of the water entering the house.
Here can be installed combined devices, which include several filters at once.
However, there is no need to install fine filters and reverse osmosis here. Such equipment is installed only in the kitchen to clean a small amount of water that will be used for drinking and cooking.
If water is supposed to be heated, then one of the water lines must be connected to the heating device.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What source of water supply to choose: a well or a well:
How to properly equip the internal water supply:
Installation of the water supply unit inside the building:
Plumbing in a private building, be it a cottage or a full-fledged residential house, is necessary. And you can design and build the system yourself. At the same time, it is important to listen to the advice of specialists and avoid deviating from instructions..
If this seems too complicated, you can trust the work of the construction company. Professionals will quickly and efficiently perform all the necessary work, and the owner will only have to accept the finished structure for operation.
If your experience in arranging home plumbing is different from the installation rules outlined here, please leave your comments below the article.