The pumping station - the perfect equipment to automate the process of water extraction from the well. Complex technical devices activates the system start to replenish stocks if necessary, switch off the unit at the right time. Incredibly increase comfort. After all, the country is necessary to enjoy the achievements of civilization, right?
But incredibly useful equipment is not enough just to buy, you must know how to make installation and connection. We invite you to read the article in detail covers all questions. This information will be useful to all owners of suburban housing, it does not matter whether the pumping station is connected with his own hands or for the installation invited employees.
In this article you are familiar with the varieties of pumps used in the systems fence groundwater. Also here are all possible options for the location of the equipment and connection to an autonomous water supply. Information supported by diagrams, photo and video materials.
The content of the article:
- Function and configuration of the pumping station
Types of pumps used
- Models with an internal ejector
- Models with external ejector
- Submersible type pump
- Design and operation of the accumulator
- The control unit of the pump station
- The advantages of using the pump station
mounting the pump unit Technology
- Step # 1 - site selection
- Step # 2 - preparatory works
- Step # 3 - Build diversion unit
- Step # 4 - installation of surface elements station
- Step # 5 - the first launch station
- Basic rules of operation
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Function and configuration of the pumping station
pumping equipment station performs two functions - supplies water to the home water supply system and automatically maintains the pressure in it.
This allows to lay branched water pipeline network and connect thereto appliances - a shower, a water boiler, dishwasher and washing machine.
Typical station structure comprises:
- Automation unit;
- Inlet strainer - is necessary to avoid ingress of particles into the system and possible contamination of impurities;
- Pipes, hoses and fittings necessary.
To prevent the outflow of fluid from the system when stopping the pump or decreasing the pressure in the water extraction zone is installed a check valve. There should also be a source of water intake. To do this, arrange a well or borehole.
You can use the tank (pool) with imported water and open water if the machine characteristics allow for pumping contaminated liquid.
Pumping station in the factory is a complex automation devices for water supply. Its main unit - Surface pump
Due to limitations in the technical capability of the surface pumps are used in lifting water from a depth of 8 - 12 m (depending on the model and manufacturer)
Use of a pumping station for water intake from the well to create a water system are automatically switched on and off as network filling water
The pump station is carried pumping water from an open natural or artificial water reservoir and transport to the taps
Pumping hydropneumatic pump installation with deep satisfied if withdrawals will be made from a depth of more than 25 m
In the case of the submersible pump of the pumping system components are selected according to the source to flow rates in accordance with the decision of specific tasks
Also mandatory component of the pumping system, the fluid container, the kit should include a manometer and pressure switch necessary for energizing and stopping the pump
Pump station paired with an additional hydraulic tank can be applied, if the station is used as the booster unit
Pumping station in pre-assembled
Pump station for water intake from the needle hole
Pumping station in the circuit water from a well
Pumping water from an open body of water natural
The pumping system is paired with a submersible pump
pumping system components for deep wells
The pressure switch and gauge for a pump station
Pumping station as the boost pressure unit
If sampling is performed from the natural reservoir (pond, river, lake) water is used only for economic purposes and watering.
If the water extraction is done from a well or borehole is required to conduct the analysis. According to the study of water is determined by membership in drinking or economic categories.
The pumping station is a compact and at the same time functional equipment, which ensures a stable supply of private homes
For more details about the device and the principle of operation of the pumping station, you can read in our other article.
Types of pumps used
finished pumping stations - a pump installation with a surface, performing fluid sampling from the well due to underpressure. The design of the pump itself may be included ejectorOr be external - in this case it is disposed in the well.
However, in the installation of a pumping station with their hands can also use a submersible pump or well, especially if it is already available.
Most often used ready pumping stations, in which all the essential elements already assembled together and configured. If you install just connect the power cable, the water inlet and discharge piping
Models with an internal ejector
Units with built-in ejector are capable of lifting water from a shallow depth -. 8 m, but at the same time provide a powerful pressure that exceeds 40 m.
No fear of air into, so to fill the system with water before use optionally - first station will pump the air, and then starts to feed water.
Characterized by good performance and reliability. The disadvantage is the high level of noise, and therefore in the house they are mounted only in the presence of auxiliary sound-proofed rooms.
When assembling station with a surface ejector pump must consider not only the depth of the water table, but the horizontal section of the metering line
Models with external ejector
With remote station equips the ejector as necessary fluid sampling from great depths -. 20... 50 m In this case, the ejector is lowered into the borehole (well), as a part of the intake unit. To him is supplied by two hoses installation - pressure and vacuum (suction).
According to the first liquid is supplied to the ejector and generates negative pressure in the suction chamber region, the second - picks up water from the well. Characterized by such aggregates low noise. They do not consume a lot of electricity, but also their efficiency reaches 30-40%.
Using an external ejector allows the water supply pipe to create the necessary pressure to transport water and substantially increase the depth of its intake
Submersible type pump
Submersible system (downhole) pump produces virtually no noise, water extraction may be carried out with any depth and at a sufficient distance from the well or wells of the building. Is not afraid of small leaks in the piping and air leaks.
However, submersible pumps are quite expensive. They need clean water - installation of a powerful filtration system solves the problem, but in this case need to be cleaned regularly. Repair and maintenance of the need for difficult lifting unit to the surface.
Not suitable sources for the presence of impurities in water more than 2 g per 1 m3 - filters quickly become clogged and the pump ceases to operate (+)
Design and operation of the accumulator
Start the pump current exceeds working 3-5 times and has a devastating effect on its structure. Therefore, the pump life depends on the amount of inclusions. To reduce them to be sure to install the system diaphragm hydraulic accumulator.
In the house water supply system, it performs the following functions:
- Protects the pump from wear and increases its service life - thanks to the stock liquid in the membrane compartment unit amount of inclusions is greatly reduced.
- It maintains a constant pressure in the water and protects against pressure surges.
- Eliminates water hammer in the system, A devastating effect on the connected devices and pipe fittings.
- It provides a supply of water in the event of a power failure.
The device is a sealed vessel having an inner volume of which is divided into two elastic membrane capacitance. One of them is filled with air, and the second is designed for pumping water.
The pressurized air in the hydraulic tank and squeezes the water while supporting the pressure even in the absence of electricity
Working tank is as follows. Water is pumped into the flexible container until the upper pressure threshold. Then the pump is switched off.
Pressure in the system is maintained by the air layer in the accumulator, the compressed air acts as a damper. When the amount of water decreases (consumes consumers), and the pressure reaches a predetermined lower boundary - the pump and fills the water tank is switched on again.
Selected accumulator on the basis of calculations, which take into account the number of living, the number of points water consumption, the maximum number of pump starts and power required pressure system.
Insufficient displacement volume of the tank will lead to a permanent incorporation of the pump and its wear. The capacity with a supply of water threatened by stagnation and decline in the quality, harmful effects on the inner surface of the membrane.
Accumulator in circuit with the deep or superficial pump is used for forming a stock of water under pressure and prevent excessive activation of the pump without the need for actual
For water supply systems supplying to a volume of 150 l / sec, let hydraulic tanks without support legs. Containers are vertically oriented reservoirs 6 and 10 liters
For water supply systems designed to supply water to a volume of 150 to 400 l / day produced accumulators horizontal design with support legs. Hydraulic tank capacity of 14 to 50 liters
For systems with submersible pumps, which significantly reduces the resource from too frequent on and off, hydraulic tanks selected volume from 50 to 750 liters. This vertical tanks on three strong pillars
Accumulator in pumping stations schemes
The accumulator system for up to 150 l
Horizontally oriented accumulators
Vertical hydraulic reservoir to the water supply system
The control unit of the pump station
A standard set of Pumping station control device consists of a nipple, pressure switch and a pressure gauge, and is mounted on the discharge line.
The pressure gauge is used to monitor the current system pressure and the relay control is a critical element of the pump station. It controls the supply of water into the pressure container according to the set parameters and provides automatic operation of the pump, including turning it off.
The main working elements relay - this spring maximum and minimum pressure, triggered upon reaching a predetermined network settings of the pressure. At low pressure the spring expands and closes the contact, comprising a pump motor.
Excess pressure compresses it, and when the maximum threshold contact opens. The pump is switched off and the water supply is stopped.
Control box - more complex device, condusive advanced features. Besides switching electric circuits in response to increase and decrease pressure automation unit protects the system from running dry.
Pressure switch - a device for automation of the pump station as the water flow out of the system and subsequent filling
The pressure switch detects and responds to two places at setting the water pressure in the system. When falling below a lower value of pump is activated when the upper - deactivated
The control unit also starts pumping equipment by lowering the pressure and stops it when the upper pressure value. This device allows you to more accurately specify the settings of the lower and upper pressure limit
Also carried on the duty pressure switch start / stop control unit protects the pump unit from the "dry run" - the work of the blank part of the work, as a result of which can burn motor
Pressure switch to control the pump station
Components and apparatus pressostat
Control unit pump equipment
Advanced functionality of the switch box
When selecting control apparatus for stations to pump water from the shallow excavation is better to give preference to an embodiment protected from running dry.
He will prevent the pump from overheating and disable it, if for any reason (hit the dirt, fluid level drops below the intake source node) in the water ceased to flow.
A pressure switch sensing elements are two springs. Most set to a minimum pressure, low - the difference between the minimum and maximum
Work pumping station takes place in cycles, each of which can be divided into two stages:
- The pump and raises the water from the spring. It fills the system and hydraulic tank until the pressure exceeds the upper threshold. Thereafter, the pressure switch deactivates the pump motor and the water supply stops. Pump station goes into sleep mode.
- When the consumer (opening valves, the use of water consuming equipment) water supplied from the accumulator container. liquid flow from the fluid container is carried to a pressure reduction to a lower torque threshold. This causes a new switch-lift pump and water.
the maximum number of activations, the pump used for allowable number of cycles per hour should not exceed the limitation.
The advantages of using the pump station
independent water supply device in his house provides independence and comfort.
The pump station provides the following benefits:
- It increases the efficiency of the water supply system.
- Increases the operational safety of equipment and pipelines.
- Provides some (depending on the capacity of the hydraulic tank), a supply of water and its flow even at power failure.
- It maintains a constant pressure head of water and stability.
- Increases durability connected to the water supply system of instruments and appliances.
- Automatic operation (timely switching on and off of the pump unit) reduces wear and energy costs.
- Choice of the unit mounting location.
- It has compact dimensions and low weight.
- It is easy to mount.
In the countryside, cottage and holiday villages water supply network communication often err low pressure and unstable pressure.
In this case, the pumping station can be connected to an existing water main - this will solve the problem of the pressure drop and the lack of pressure in the water.
The use of a pumping station in the scheme of autonomous water supply will not only significantly improve the the level of comfort of living conditions, but also significantly increase the service life set in the water devices
mounting the pump unit Technology
Before proceeding to installation, it is necessary to determine the seat of the pumping equipment.
Step # 1 - site selection
When planning the placement of the unit, it should be borne in mind that:
- Location of the pumping station in the immediate vicinity of the water suction source provides a stable and smooth operation of the equipment.
- The installation site should be dry and warm, well-ventilated.
- The equipment must not touch the walls.
- It is necessary to ensure easy access for repairs and routine inspections.
Option setting a pumping station with a surface pumping unit, in particular with an internal ejector should be carefully considered, since such a system has a high noise level.
There are several mounting options. Let's look at them in more detail.
Option # 1 - in the building
The most optimal place for the proper functioning of the station - a heated room. Ideally, if the house has a boiler room soundproofed.
Extreme option - is the installation of equipment in common rooms (hallway, bathroom, hallway, pantry). But in this case it is placed away from the bedrooms and provide sound insulation - for example, make the cover or cabinet.
Best one pumping station device can be considered to install it in a separate room in the house with drilled directly below the building of the well
Option # 2 - in the basement
Quite often, the pumping station is equipped on the ground floor or basement. However, you need to take care of creating optimal conditions for the location of the installation - the room must be sound, heat and damp-proof.
You can arrange a special box in the cellar, with access to hardware through the hatch.
Warm the equipped cellar with a good hydro and sound insulation and ventilation ideal for the installation of pumping equipment
Option # 3 - in the well
Pump station is mounted on specially constructed platform in the well. The depth of the mounting surface must be such that all of the equipment was below freezing. The very well insulated top.
A disadvantage of such a circuit - difficulty of access to the equipment.
When a sufficient width and depth of the well, and the pump power, the station can be set in the well on a special bracket, or site
Option # 4 - in the caisson
Around the well satisfied with room enough for subsequent servicing width, recessed below the level of soil freezing. At the surface of the earth Caisson closed and insulated, leaving only a small hatch for maintenance.
pit apparatus allows to use a pump with a built-in ejector when the depth of the water table from the ground surface is 9-11 meters.
Installation of the unit in the well caisson provides protection against freezing equipment and complete noise insulation
Option # 5 - in a separate building or annexe
In this case, the noise heard in the house will not be. However, just to warm a room is not enough, need more and Heating. This leads to additional energy costs and the carrying out of the heating system.
When installing the station submersible pump problems with noise insulation there. All elements of the system, except the pump is installed in any room of the house heated.
Installation of the pumping station in-furnished outdoor pavilion will protect from the major drawback of this type of equipment - the noise during operation
Having defined the place of installation of the pump station equipment, proceed to its installation.
Step # 2 - preparatory works
Preparing a solid substrate for pumping assembly - a concrete or wooden brick surface under installation aligned. You can use a special metal bracket.
Since the pump rather strongly vibrates during operation, in pipeline joints are formed clearances appear leakage. To reduce vibration, and its destructive effect, placed under the pump support rubber pad or mat, and the installation itself securely fastened - legs screwed anchor bolts.
The main condition for the smooth operation of the pumping station equipment - unimpeded flow of fluid from the source.
The main problem to be solved at the year-round water supply - is frost protection. Therefore, digging a conduit trench - from the base to the well or caisson (pit) wells.
The trench should be straight in plan, preferably without twists and bends so as not to reduce the pressure. To eliminate the adverse effect of temperatures on the pipe buried beneath the level of soil freezing in the area.
When forming trenches is necessary to consider deviation of 0.03 in the direction of water intake for draining liquid from the conduit to the preservation period.
With closely spaced groundwater paving water above a critical level, but in this case it is additionally used and insulated heater cable. Also a serious insulation and heating is required, if the water appears above the ground level.
If the pipe passes through the air, or lies deep, it needs some serious heating and insulation
Step # 3 - Build diversion unit
Diversion unit depending on the type of pump used.
- With the standard connection scheme - surface station with built-in ejector pump and - is connected to the polypropylene conduit sleeve through the check valve with strainer.
- Installation with external ejector. On the suction branch of the ejector wind the check valve with filter top two pipes is connected.
- When using the immersion (downhole) Pump, The coarse filter is included in its structure. Therefore, the check valve unit is attached, and a pipe. The pump has a decent weight, so it is suspended on a strong rope.
Assembly is lowered to the desired depth, given that the minimum distance from the bottom of the source is 1 m using the surface pumps and 0.5 m for immersion (downhole).
It should also be borne in mind that the level of the water mirror varies throughout the year - it falls in the summer. If the depth of the suction on the brink, then during this period you can lose water completely.
Depending on the diameter of the borehole varies ejector assembly design. Water circulation is either on two pipes, either on the principle of tube in tube
Step # 4 - installation of surface elements station
Fundamentally circuit pump station installation will vary depending on whether a transfer unit is used.
The basic rule: any additional instrument is established through ball valves and check valves are an American. This will remove the device for repair or replacement without the need to drain all water from the system.
Provision should be made and the possibility of water draining out of the system - it is formed in line retraction tee installation to which is connected the drain cock.
The feed conduit is desirable to set the coarse filter. On discharge (in the line leading to the consumers) - fine filter.
Mounting of the finished surface-type station does not cause difficulties, since the basic elements of the system are already connected with each other. It is an accumulator mounted with a motor pump and control unit.
Besides the main valve, in such a system sets a device for filling it with water before the first start. Similarly, the drain device is introduced into the pipe tee connected with a ball valve and an addition funnel.
When assembling all piping connections are to be compacted flax, FUM tape or sealing paste to avoid air leaks into the system
Read more about the features of the pump station selection and ranking of the best offers on the market for equipment owners view, you can see in this article.
In other cases, the elements of the system are mounted independently. When installing surface station line (or two conduits when using remote ejector) of the well is connected to the pump.
Further, a hydraulic accumulator and a control unit. For a station with a downhole pump it will all major surface elements in the circuit. The preferred use for this purpose 5-pin connector, which is mounted in the discharge pipe in a convenient location. It screwed pressure switch and pressure gauge.
By the side door fitting is connected accumulator. For the convenience of maintenance it is connected through a ball valve with an American suit and drain.
Carry out the connection of consumers to the pump station. In most cases, the first element is the distributing manifold cold water.
Such a system is less sensitive to air penetration, but all joints must be sealed
Step # 5 - the first launch station
Electric motor pump has a large capacity, therefore it is better to provide the pumping station Equipment own power supply line, arrange ground and install the stabilizer voltage.
Check the air pressure accumulator chamber. It should be 10% less than the pressure of the pump. However, this adjustment makes running. Previously it is necessary to achieve the following: to the hydraulic tank capacity 20-30 liters - 1.4... 1.7 bar, a capacity of 50-100 liters - 1.7... 1.9 bar.
Before starting the installation with the surface pump the working part of the system is filled with water. For this twisting plug from the filler opening at the top of the pump.
If the pipeline is provided Funnel, better use it. Pour the liquid to the full capacity until it begins to flow. Then opening (gate) tightly closed.
When filling the system with fluid through the injection port of the pump is convenient to use ordinary funnel
- The pump is connected to the mains.
- The valve filler pipe a funnel with a surface pump reveal little to remove remaining caught in the air system.
- Include unit - within 2-3 minutes from the outlet flow conduit (open or tap water pipe), water should leak.
- If the liquid is flowed, pumping equipment is turned off, top up the water in the system and turn on again.
After a successful start-up equipment should be "run" and, if required, adjust the hydraulic configuration and the pressure switch.
Basic rules of operation
After entering the pumping station into operation carried out its periodic maintenance. It needs time to clean the strainer. Without that plant capacity is gradually reduced, the water is choppy and completely clogged filter will result in the operating mode "dry" and shut down the system.
Frequency of cleansing is dependent on the impurity content in the pumped water.
Information on frequently encountered breakdowns of pumping station and about how to resolve them, you can read the following article.
Once a month, or after long periods of inactivity, winter storage or repair work, check the air pressure in the accumulator compartment. If necessary, pump up the air.
When using station only in summer, it is necessary before the frost drain all the water from the system.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Basic rules to connect the pumping station will show the video:
Roller instruction on setting up and operation of the pumping station:
How to make a pumping station based on submersible pump:
Proper installation of the pump station provides private house water supply with parameters that are not inferior urban apartment - constant pressure and sufficient pressure.
System to work as efficiently as possible, the choice and installation of equipment should consult a specialist to perform the evaluation and calculation.
If you have experience in self-assembly and installation of the pump station, please share your knowledge in the comments to this article. If you have any questions after reading the material, do not hesitate to ask them in the comments below.