Berry bushes in the garden not only make us happy with the harvest, but also greatly decorate our garden space. It is known that raspberry, currant and gooseberry berries contain more biologically active substances than other fruit crops. Even after processing( jam, compotes, confitures), their fruits retain more than half of the vitamins. A rare garden does without berry bushes. And in the Kuban region, probably, raspberries, red or black currants, gooseberries grow in every garden.
- How to check with a purchase whether berry bushes
- are healthy Care for berry bushes
- Reproduction of berry bushes
- Where to plant berry bushes
- The biological characteristics of berry bushes
It is common knowledge that there is nothing better than
After all, there are so many salicylic acid, vitamins, trace elements.
Black currants, gooseberries accumulate in the berries pectin and P-active compounds in combination with ascorbic acid, easily digestible forms of iron, phosphorus and other trace elements. Fresh berries and their products are used in the treatment of blood diseases, beriberi and cardiovascular diseases.
In the conditions of the south of Russia, the berries of raspberry, currant, gooseberry ripen in late June - early July, which does not coincide with the period of mass ripening of fruit crops and grapes. At present, the market for valuable medicinal products of raspberry, currant, gooseberry depends mainly on home gardening and country gardening. Therefore, the demand for planting material of these crops increases annually. But should be acquired pure-quality, healthy planting material.↑ to content ↑
How to check with a purchase whether the berry bush
is healthy Here are some signs of infected plants. In berry shrub crops often spreads woodgrain - a large moth and its caterpillar feeding on wood. It is easy to determine by the cut of the escape. The core of the cut, if it is damaged by wood or glass( a butterfly with transparent wings of its caterpillar) becomes black. A healthy seedling is distinguished by a light green pith of shoots.содерж to content ↑
Berry bushes care
In the south of Russia in the fall( from September to November) the growing season lasts. After a hot summer in autumn, under optimal conditions of air and soil temperature( 20-25 degrees), with periodic rainfall, the growth of roots again activates, laying continues, differentiation of generative buds, that is, laying next year's crop. These processes continue until the onset of steady decreases in air and soil temperature, often until the end of December.
Before the autumn leaves fall, it is very important to maximize the use of weather conditions for the active growth of the roots, the continued accumulation of plastic substances, which ensures the realization of potential productivity. To this end, it is important to ensure the care of the soil. It is known that its loosening after rain ensures the preservation of moisture, the active state of the root system. Therefore, regularly, at least once a week, it is necessary to carry out a shallow loosening of the soil around the plants in the rows, as well as between the rows. It is advisable to loosen the soil with humus, peat or biohumus, as well as ash, which is rich in potassium.
If the berry bushes have dry or broken branches, they must be cut to live wood, removed from the site, burned. The main pruning - shortening of branches, shoots, the formation of bushes - it is better to carry out in early spring, in March, when after winter you can determine the condition of the plants or damage to individual branches.
In October-November, with prolonged absence of precipitation, it is advisable to periodically, 2-3 times per month, produce watering.
All these activities will help to ensure the maximum tabulation of the generative formations of berry bushes - fruit buds, which form the crop.содерж to content ↑
Reproduction of berry bushes
Raspberries are propagated mainly with one-year-old suckers( this is a healthy stalk with lobe of the roots), and currants or gooseberries with layering or annual cuttings. Reproduction of green cuttings in the south without fogging installations fails.
The best time for reproduction by layering or lignified cuttings - early spring, the period of swelling of the kidneys. This usually occurs in late February - early March.↑ to content
Where it is better to plant berry bushes
It is better to place berry bushes in the garden plot along its borders, in sunny open places. Berry bushes will not bear fruit in the shade under fruit trees.
Raspberry seedlings can be placed at a distance of 30-40 cm, currants or gooseberries - 60-100 cm. The soil for planting should be deeply dug up, loosened with organic mixtures: 2/3 of humus + 1/3 of sand or ash for heavy loamy black soil;2/3 of humus + 1/3 of clay on light sandy soils.
Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are dipped into a thick soil humus talker( 2/3 of humus + biohumus + earth + Kornevin or Heteroauxin), which ensures good adhesion of the ground during planting, high survival rate of plants.
When planting, raspberry saplings are placed in planting pits, sprinkled with earth to the level of the root collar, and currants or gooseberries - 5-10 cm above the border of the stems of the root system. After planting, the soil around the plants is compacted, they must be watered( for 2-3 plants - 10 liters of water).
If planting occurs before winter, they need to be rounded up with earth, humus up to 5-10 cm. In spring, the soil around the plants is leveled and mulched with humus.
Autumn planting dates begin with a steady decrease in air temperature to 5-7 degrees, after shedding leaves, which is observed in the last decade of November - early December.
In spring, the earliest landing dates are used - in the second half of February or the first decade of March.
It should be recalled that the soil under the berry bushes should always be clean from weeds. After all, they not only deplete the nutritional value of the soil, absorbing a large amount of organic compounds, but also contribute to the accumulation and spread of fungal diseases and pests. Therefore, throughout the growing season, the soil must be clean from weeds.
Before the beginning of winter( at the end of November - the first decade of December), it is possible to dig the soil between the rows deeper( up to 15-20 cm).After that, on the surface of the earth, in rows around plants, organic mulching material is laid out in between rows - rotted horse, cow or bird humus layer up to 10 cm. Such a mulch not only maintains a positive soil temperature for a long time, but also serves as a good dressing and plant food.and early spring root growth.содерж to content ↑
Biological features of berry bushes
When caring for the soil should take into account the biological features of berry bushes. For example, near a raspberry, a lobe of roots is located in the top layer of soil( 15-20 cm);in gooseberry and currant, the bulk of the roots is located at a depth of 40-60 cm in the soil, and skeletal roots reach a depth of 1.0-1.5 m. Therefore, raspberries are more demanding for watering, loosening around the plants should be shallow( up to 5-7 cm).
Raspberry stalks live no more than two years. In the first year, they grow to 1.0-1.5 m and lay generative buds in the upper part of the shoots. Next year, inflorescences and berries are formed from generative buds. After fruiting, the stems dry out and die. In raspberry remontant varieties, fruiting occurs in the first year of development of shoots and the next.
Gooseberry bushes, currants consist of shoots, branches of different ages with annual growths on 2-3-4-year-old wood, as well as annual offsprings on the surface of the earth, which in the second year shorten and form young fruiting branches.
Old, 5-year-old branches with weak annual growths are usually removed from the bushes completely at ground level. The smaller the old branches, the more convenient the care of the soil, the more active the growth of annual growths, on which the main crop of berries is formed. In addition, on 2-3-4-year-old wood, fruit-trees are formed( branches with fruit buds), which form up to 30% of the total yield. Timely thorough care of the soil and plants will allow you to regularly receive high yields.
To obtain environmentally friendly medicinal products of berries, it is necessary to completely abandon the use of pesticides in the fight against diseases, pests after fruit set. The most appropriate use of biological means of dealing with powdery mildew, other fungal diseases, as well as aphids, mites. Among them - strong infusions of celandine, garlic, pepper bitter red on the basis of an aqueous soap solution. They are used after flowering, tying the berries( at the end of April), as well as before the berries ripen( in the second half of May).
The specified protection measures are absolutely safe for human health during spraying, as well as when using berries, as fresh, also for processing.
Known products of processing - jams, jams, compotes, juices can be replenished with raw vitamin jams( berries and sugar 1: 1), as well as wines and liquors made from raspberries, currants and gooseberries( colored varieties) have a dessert flavorhealing properties.
- Planting raspberries, care, transplanting seedlings
- Black currant - care, problems of growing seedlings, pests, diseases