Content of the article:
Chrysanthemums are one of the most favorite plants of growers. This is due not only to their beautiful decorative appearance, but also relatively simple care. They decorate any flower garden until late autumn.
Beautiful chrysanthemums( growing and care)
Growing chrysanthemums is not difficult, even for inexperienced florist. For them, well-lit areas with fertile, medium mechanical soil are suitable. Soil should not have an excess of organic fertilizers. When choosing a place for chrysanthemum should be remembered that they do not tolerate stagnant water. This plant is distinguished by its cold and drought resistance.
Chrysanthemums are propagated by grafting and dividing queen cells. Recently, the method of growing these flowers by sowing seeds in open ground and on seedlings has become increasingly common. Most often, this method of propagation is used for breeding rare varieties of chrysanthemums. Some experienced growers grow flowers by sowing seeds for the winter.
Chrysanthemums are considered quite resistant to disease and pest plants, but despite this, they can be affected:
- Powdery mildew, a sign of which is a white powdery coating on all parts of the plant. This disease requires the introduction of a sufficient amount of phosphate and potash fertilizers, regular removal of old leaves and under-root watering without moisture on the leaves.
- Nematodes, in which the leaves appear bright spots, limited veins. Then they turn black and dry out. Methods of struggle: the treatment of land with steam, disinfection with formalin or carbothion. Sick bushes are kept in hot water( 55 ° C) for 5 minutes. After this treatment, they are planted in decontaminated soil.
- A field or meadow bug eating plant sap. Methods of control: spraying with various insecticides( "Karbofos", "Decis", "Fury").
- Spider mite, damaging the leaves from the bottom. Methods of struggle: spraying "karbofos".
In flower gardens, these forms of chrysanthemums are grown:
- Small flowers, which have many shoots topped with numerous( up to 800 pieces) small inflorescences with a diameter of 2-9 cm.
- reaching a height of 1-1.2 meters. On their stems is 1-10 large inflorescences.
Some flower growers use the biological characteristics of certain varieties of chrysanthemums for growing them in winter in indoor conditions. To obtain flowering plants in January-March late-flowering varieties with a budding period of 12-14 weeks are used. This method of growing chrysanthemums is very expensive, since it uses additional lighting.
How to grow chrysanthemums from seeds in your own area?
The cultivation of annual and perennial chrysanthemums has recently become increasingly popular. They can be obtained by sowing seeds in open ground at the end of April or in May. In the prepared beds make holes with an interval of 20-25 cm. Fill them with warm water and put 2-3 seeds. The holes covered with earth are covered with a garden film. Thanks to it, the soil in the hole will be well warmed and hydrated, which contributes to the rapid germination of seeds.
When the first shoots appear, the shelter is removed. Caring for young chrysanthemums is the regular loosening of the soil, removing weeds and making additional dressings. One week after sprouting, they can be fed with liquid fertilizer, strongly diluted with water. For this purpose, suitable drugs such as "Rainbow" and "Ideal".
When seedlings reach 5-10 cm in height, one plant is left in the hole. To do this, choose the strongest instances. The remaining seedlings can be carefully removed from the ground and planted elsewhere. Chrysanthemums bloom 40-50 days after the appearance of seedlings.
Growing chrysanthemums from seeds by seedling method
Growing chrysanthemums from seeds can also be done through seedlings. At the same time flowering occurs much faster. Perennial chrysanthemums are grown only in this way. In February and March, seeds are sown in small boxes filled with nutrient soil mixture. For its preparation in equal proportions, you can take the soil from the greenhouse, humus and peat. Before sowing the seeds, the soil mixture is sieved and steamed at a temperature of about 120 ° C.For seedlings fit and ready land for flowering plants.
Drainage must be poured at the bottom of the boxes( expanded clay, small stones, broken red bricks).On top of it fall asleep wet soil. Seeds are poured on its surface.
In this case, there is a strict rule of their embedding:
- seeds of annual chrysanthemums are sprinkled with a layer of soil of 0.5 cm;
- seeds of perennial varieties are left on the ground surface, only by pressing them with a palm.
Moisturize the earth with a spray gun. Boxes covered with plastic wrap. They are placed in a warm place in which the temperature is 23-25 ° C.Crops regularly check, moisturize and air. The soil should not dry out. After 10-14 days shoots appear. After this, the boxes with the seedlings are exposed to a bright place.
When 2-4 leaves appear, the plants dive into cups or pots. This will protect the root system of chrysanthemums from damage during transplantation. Strongly stretched and weakened seedlings are not suitable for diving. After this procedure, the plants are sprayed with a solution of "Zircon" or "Epin-Extra."These drugs help seedlings settle down faster.
Care for young chrysanthemums is simple. It consists in maintaining an optimum temperature of 16-18 ° C, regular watering and dressing. Plants fertilize 1 time in 2 weeks. With insufficient natural light, you may need additional. With proper care, seedlings reach 15-20 cm in height in 1.5 months. When the outdoor air warms up to 15-18 ° C, the plants are transferred to the greenhouse. After the cessation of the threat of spring frosts in May, chrysanthemums are planted in a permanent place. Immediately after disembarking on the flowerbeds, the seedling heads are pinched. When the side shoots reach a length of 15-20 cm, the pinching is repeated. Thanks to this procedure, get dense, compact bushes, studded with numerous buds.
Planting and dividing a bush of chrysanthemums
Vegetative is considered the main breeding method for chrysanthemums - cuttings. The breeding process begins with the selection of the best queen cells. After flowering, they are added in greenhouses or planted in boxes and left in a cool, dry place with normal lighting. Then vernalization is carried out - the content of the queen cells at a temperature of 1-4 ° C for 2-4 weeks. Then they are entered into a warm, well-lit room. After this, root growth begins to actively grow on the queen cells. It is cut into cuttings during the formation of 2-3 internodes. They are planted in prepared boxes. The optimum temperature for their development is 16-18 ° C.
Reproduction by dividing a bush is less productive, but the easiest. For division, small-flowered chrysanthemums are most often used. Shrubs transplanted after 2 years, dividing them into several parts with young shoots.