How to repair a puncher with your own hands

How to repair a puncher with your own hands


A properly working puncher is an excellent assistant in the farm and in production. This universal tool, which has many functions, allows you to comfortably solve even the most complex tasks. If the puncher breaks down, it is not necessary to carry it to the repair immediately. The home wizard can independently disassemble and repair this tool. How to repair a puncher with your own hands?


  • 1The device of a puncher and its mechanism
  • 2Troubleshooting perforator
    • 2.1Failures in the mechanical part: the crown is not pulled out from the trunk, the drill does not bite, the drill does not rotate, and others
    • 2.2Failures in the electrician: the motor does not rotate, the brushes on the collector spark and other kinds of breakages
  • 3Procedure for disassembling and assembling the device
    • 3.1Removing the cartridge
      • 3.1.1Video: how to remove a bead stuck in the cartridge
    • 3.2Dismantling the mode switch
    • 3.3How to check the start button and the brush
    • 3.4How to disassemble the electric motor
    • 3.5How to disassemble and check the gearbox: how to remove the plastic housing, remove the "drunk bearing" and other elements
      • 3.5.1Video: How to fix the punch and replace the shock bolt
  • 4Possible malfunctions, reasons for their appearance and solutions
    • 4.1The puncher does not hit
    • 4.2The perforator does not turn and does not drill
    • 4.3The drill does not stick in the cartridge and flies out
      • 4.3.1Video: why drill drill out of a perforator
    • 4.4Spark brushes
    • 4.5The perforator is very hot
    • 4.6The puncher does not hold the cartridge
  • 5Replacement of the main punch units
    • 5.1How to change bearings
    • 5.2How the start button changes
    • 5.3How to remove and change brushes
    • 5.4How to make a replacement for the cartridge
  • 6Features in the repair of drums
    • 6.1Video: how to repair a perforator with a vertical engine arrangement
  • 7Everyday care and storage of the perforator

The device of a puncher and its mechanism

Unlike a drill, as well as an impact drill, the perforator has an enhanced impact function, which puts it in order above in situations where a significant mechanical impact on the treated materials.

This is achieved by the design features of the perforator device. The device is equipped with an independent mechanism for generating a powerful pneumatic push of the working tool, and this his ability frees the master from using physical efforts while drilling and chiselling concrete and stone.

Percussion percussion mechanism in section

The transformation of the rotational motion of the electric motor into the translational vibration of the impactor is performed by creating a compression between the pistons. This movement is transferred to the drummer. The boa, made of high-strength steel, in turn, sends the energy of compressed air directly to the working tool - a drill, chisel or shovel. This device device allows you to increase the power of the impact to a tremendous destructive force - 20 kJ.

Perforator with vertical engine arrangement ("barrel")

Depending on the location of the engine, the drills and barrel types of perforators are distinguished.

  1. The first type of device is similar to a drill, in which the motor is located in one axis with a drill.
  2. In the second type of perforators, the motor is installed perpendicular to the drilling axis.

Drum punchers are large in size, but they have a more perfect cooling system, which allows the tool to be operated for a long time without stopping. Devices in the form of a drill are much more compact, they are convenient when working in crowded circumstances, when access to the object is limited.


Troubleshooting perforator

If the operation of the puncher becomes evident during operation, it must be disconnected from the power supply and carried out an external inspection. If external signs of failure are not found, you will have to disassemble the case and look for the problem inside.

One of the reasons for the failure of the device is a break in the power cord.In this case, the punch motor does not turn on. To diagnose it, you should carefully inspect the cable that connects the instrument to the network. It should not be damaged, broken or melted. A good power cord stays cold during operation. If the wire is not in order, it should be replaced with an equivalent one. The cross-section of the conductive elements must correspond to the power consumed by the instrument.


To test electrical circuits, it is recommended to use a multimeter. With this device it is possible not only to detect a break in the mains supply, but also to "ring" the coils of the motor windings, to determine the presence of voltage on the start button.

Universal diagnostic tool for electrical circuits

Conditionally, all the malfunctions of the perforator can be divided into two categories - mechanical and electrical.

Failures in the mechanical part: the crown is not pulled out from the trunk, the drill does not bite, the drill does not rotate, and others

The mechanical fault category includes malfunctions that occur when the engine is running:

  • the drill does not break;
  • the drill does not rotate;
  • the crown is not pulled out from the trunk (wedges);
  • the chisel does not stick in the cartridge (pops up);
  • audible sounds inside the mechanism, gnashing, vibration.

Failures in the electrician: the motor does not rotate, the brushes on the collector spark and other kinds of breakages

The following signs indicate the problems with the electrical part of the perforator:

  • the motor does not turn on when it is switched on;
  • brush brushes on the collector;
  • the smell of burning insulation comes from the body;
  • A caustic smoke is emitted from the tool during operation.

In order to find and eliminate the cause of all these phenomena, the puncher must be disassembled.

Procedure for disassembling and assembling the device

Self-disassembly should only be carried out with appropriate tools and equipment. To repair the perforator with your own hands you will need:

  • screwdrivers with different slots;
  • vise;
  • nut and end (hex) keys;
  • bearings for bearings.

In addition, spare parts for replacement, rubber seals and gaskets will be needed. To lubricate the gears gears will need:

  • grease;
  • rags;
  • cleaning solvent.

In case of self-repair of the motor other than the multimeter, you will need:

  • spare carbon (or graphite) brushes;
  • copper wire of the required cross-section;
  • pattern for rewinding reels.

Removing the cartridge

The disassembly of the perforator begins with the removal of the cartridge.As a rule, it is a cartridge of the SDS-plus system, which is disassembled with a screwdriver with flat slots. In this case, there should be no drill or chisel in the cartridge.

There are times when the drill wedges and get it is not so easy. Then you need to use a rubber hammer to accurately tap the cartridge around the circumference and pour a few drops of lubricant type WD-40 inside. After a few minutes, try again, the drill must be easily removed. After that, you can start disassembling the cartridge itself. Procedure:

  1. Pull the plastic skirt down.
  2. Screwdriver remove the rubber protective dust cover.
  3. Unclip and remove the retaining ring, which is located behind the anther.
  4. Remove the plastic boot, spring, locking plates and balls.
  5. Clean all parts from the old grease and fold in a clean place.
Schematic diagram of the device SDS cartridge

Video: how to remove a bead stuck in the cartridge

Dismantling the mode switch

To remove the operation mode switch, you must:

  1. Turn the toggle switch to the "kick" position (the hammer icon) and rotate it about 1 cm further.
  2. Release the lever from the socket.
  3. Pull the lever toward you.
The switch is removed in the position below the "shock"

How to check the start button and the brush

To get to the collector brushes and the start control button, you need to remove the back cover. For this, two or three screws are loosened from the plastic housing (depending on the model).


If the cause of the malfunction lies in the wear of the brushes, you can eliminate it by installing a new pair. The working length of the brush should be at least 8 mm. The rubbing surface - without traces of scale or chips.

Disconnecting the carbon brushes from the collector

The start button is checked using a multimeter. It must be remembered that the engine speed control system is also located inside the trigger mechanism. If the plastic is visible on the body of the button, it should be replaced entirely, as it will not function properly.


Attention! It is strictly forbidden to check the operation of the button when the tool is turned on!


After replacing the button, it is necessary to install the housing cover in place, do not forget to tighten the screws securely. Only after this it is possible to check the operation of the puncher.

How to disassemble the electric motor

To disassemble the motor, it is necessary to disconnect the motor housing from the gear unit.Between them they are fixed with four screw screws. If you unscrew them, the mechanical part is easily detached from the plastic casing. The rotor of the motor is removed from the guide bush when disassembling, releasing access to the gearbox. Accordingly, it becomes possible to inspect the electrical components of the engine.

The fixing screws connect the two housing parts

The motor consists of a movable rotor and a rigidly fixed stator. The rotor rotates under the action of electromotive force, which occurs on windings consisting of coils of a copper conductor. Inspection of windings is to determine the integrity of the insulation, the absence of a short circuit between turns. This is done with the help of a multimeter by successive measurements of resistance on lamellae. In the event of an interturn fault, the armature must be replaced or repaired. Stator windings can be rewound themselves at home using a special template.

Stator, collector and brushes

Anchor, as a rule, changes entirely, together with bearings and air intake plate.

The motor armature (rotor) is replaced entirely

How to disassemble and check the gearbox: how to remove the plastic housing, remove the "drunk bearing" and other elements

In order to determine the malfunction of the gearbox, it must be completely disassembled. To do this, the plastic housing is removed, the gearbox is thoroughly cleaned of the old grease. From the gearbox housing detach:

  • floating bearing;
  • drive pinion shaft;
  • raster bushing;
  • sleeve with piston.
Gear reduction gear in section

A floating bearing, also referred to as a "drunken bearing is attached to the aluminum casing of the reducer using a clamp, which must be pressed using a flat screwdriver. The released bearing is removed and replaced if necessary. In addition, you should pay attention to the fact that inside the "drunk bearing" is a needle bearing on which the gear wheel of the drive rotates. When the perforator is operating in impact mode, it experiences heavy loads, and therefore often fails. The new bearing is purchased separately or assembled with a breaker.

A drunken bearing transmits a shock pulse to the instrument

The raster bushing contains a shock bolt, which is fixed inside with a metal retaining ring. On the sides of the bushing there are two technological holes through which access to the locking mechanism is made. After removing the fixation ring shock bolt freely falls out of the bushing. Inside it is directly the drummer, made of high-alloy steel.

When repairing or replacing the impact bolt, it is also necessary to replace the sealing rubber bushings, which ensure the tightness of the mechanism. All parts of the drummer are subject to extensive lubrication with special grease.


In the plastic casing of the reducer, there is one more needle bearing at the output of the raster bushing, which must be well lubricated.


Video: How to fix the punch and replace the shock bolt

Possible malfunctions, reasons for their appearance and solutions

To repair the punch with your own hands, you should first determine the external manifestations of malfunctions.

The puncher does not hit


If the puncher stops beating when switching to the impact mode, but the drill rotates, it is most likely that the floating bearing is damaged.The solution to the problem will be to replace it with a new one.

The second possible cause is a disruption of the operation of the impact mechanism. Often when overloads in the work a steel boom breaks, this leads first to a weakening of the impact, and then to its complete absence. The bojok needs to be replaced.

The third probable cause is the wear or breakage of the piston group of the perforator. Replace the sleeve and the piston.

The perforator does not turn and does not drill

If the cartridge does not rotate in the drilling mode when the start button is pressed, the cause can be determined by the sound.If the electric motor is buzzing, but the chuck does not rotate, most likely something prevents the rotor from rotating inside the gearbox. What happened to the engine, it is necessary to find out, analyzing the mechanical part of the instrument.

If, however, the engine does not hum when turned on, it is more likely that a motor failure has occurred. Having opened the lid of the device, it is necessary to determine what exactly led to this phenomenon. This may be an open in the power circuit, a break in the start button or a short circuit in the windings of the coils. Using a tester, a specific cause is determined and appropriate repairs are made.

The drill does not stick in the cartridge and flies out

Incontinence of a punching tool may occur during long-term operation. The drill or chisel inserted into the cartridge does not hold and flies out during operation.This tool is not only impossible to continue chiselling, it's also very dangerous - a chipped out chisel can cause injury.

The reason for the incontinence of the tool is the wear or breakage of the cartridge. The cartridge must be disassembled and determined what the problem is. Probably, the balls were deformed, the development on the limiting ring appeared or the locking spring sagged. Usually, after replacing a damaged part, the cartridge will again function normally.

Video: why drill drill out of a perforator

Spark brushes

Sparking of brushes is a fairly common phenomenon when the tool is used in conditions of high dustiness.As a rule, sparking is a consequence of the development of the material of the brushes themselves.To correct the situation, the replacement of the latter with new ones will help, sparks will not fly out again.

If not, the cause should be sought in the stator or rotor windings. It is possible that a large amount of dust penetrating the engine has led to the attrition of the protective varnish covering the copper conductors. And this entails a short circuit. The presence of an interturn closure is checked by electrical devices (multimeter).

Measurement of resistance between lamellas is made by multimeter

Preventive maintenance of the tool: replacement of brushes, greasing of bearings of a working shaft of a rotor and an additional coating with varnish of windings on reels will reduce probability of breakages.


In addition, it should be borne in mind that the dust can adhere to the lubrication of the bearing near the collector. To prevent this, the collector is degreased with a tampon soaked in alcohol or a solvent.

The perforator is very hot

If the punch is excessively heated during operation, this is a clear indication of a malfunction of the motor.First of all, to prevent overheating it is necessary to observe the operating mode of the device:

  • pause at regular intervals;
  • after the load, allow the tool to work at idling speed.

When drilling, it is recommended to use the periodic mode: maximum power should be applied no more than 1 minute, then turn on idle for 3-4 seconds.

If the temperature of the case does not decrease, then it is necessary to make an audit of the electric motor. Having felt a characteristic smell from under the tool casing, you must immediately stop working and disconnect the device from the network. It can be disassembled only after full cooling.

The puncher does not hold the cartridge

Sometimes there is a situation when on a working perforator the cartridge flies along with the rigging.This is due to the wear of mounting the chuck body at the end of the raster bushing, which is a snap ring.When it breaks, the fixation is broken and a rubber dust cap flies during the push, followed by a spring and balls.

Restore the normal operation of the cartridge by installing a new retaining ring. This is done quickly and does not require any additional devices other than the usual screwdriver.

Replacement of the main punch units

The replacement of key elements is best done before the part becomes unusable. This will protect the tool from more severe damage, the correction of which will cost more and take more time. Most often you have to replace:

  • bearings;
  • start buttons;
  • brushes;
  • cartridge.

How to change bearings

If during the preventive inspection on the bearing there are noticeable leaks of grease, it cracks or crunches when you scroll by hand, which means that it is time to replace it. The bearing is dismantled using a special puller consisting of a screw part and a device for grasping the shell of the bearing shell. Tightening the thread creates a force that removes the bearing from the shaft.

The puller is driven by the rotation of the threaded rod

Installation of a new bearing on the workplace is done with a rubber or wooden hammer. When installing, it is important to prevent the bearing axis from tilting relative to the shaft axis. Lubrication on the part is applied after installation.

How the start button changes

To replace the start button, it is necessary to remove the cover that closes the electrical equipment of the puncher. Then, disconnect the wires of the conductors connected to it, and pull out the button body from the seat. At this place, install a new button, connect the contacts and collect everything in reverse order.

The button turns on the motor and adjusts its speed

How to remove and change brushes

Replacement of coal brushes of the collector is carried out with a wiring screwdriver. If you unscrew the cover, you will have access to the brushes. Each part is extracted one by one from the brush holder nests. In some models the device of the clamping mechanism differs, as a rule, it is a spiral spring, which must be removed during replacement.


Attention! Before replacing the brushes, the punch must always be disconnected from the mains.

To extract the brushes, it is necessary to bend the coil spring

How to make a replacement for the cartridge

In most cases, the cartridge can be repaired. If the wear of individual parts has exceeded the permissible limits or the rubber anther and plastic skirt are damaged, it is more expedient to change the cartridge as a whole.

Replacing the chuck of a perforator is done with a screwdriver

The procedure for replacing the cartridge is understandable from the above described order of disassembly of the puncher.

Features in the repair of drums

All the described procedures for assembling and disassembling the mechanisms of perforators are valid for the barrel variety. However, there are several nuances that must be considered when repairing it. Vertical arrangement of the engine at right angles to the impact mechanism slightly changes the order of disassembly.So, to gain access to the gearbox and the piston, it is necessary to remove the plastic cover located at the top of the tool housing.This facilitates the repair of the mechanical part of the device, if suddenly the function of impact disappears.


Access to the electrical part of such a perforator is carried out after removing the lower casing. And the replacement of brushes is simplified, since there are holes on the sides of the glass, through which they can be easily removed.


It should be noted that many professional barrel punchers do not have a drilling mode. Since their purpose is to a greater extent in drilling and chiselling of heavy concrete surfaces, they are equipped with an SDS-max cartridge with a shank of 18 mm. There is no fundamental difference in the device of the SDS-plus cartridge, but the sizes differ markedly. L-shaped punchers are recognized as more reliable in operation and belong to the grade of a professional tool.


Video: how to repair a perforator with a vertical engine arrangement

Everyday care and storage of the perforator

In order for the tool to last long and well, you need to follow simple rules.

  1. Before starting work, carry out a cursory examination of the technical condition of the tool. Do not ignore any signs of malfunction, if any.
  2. At the end of the work, clean the hammer from dust and debris. It is advisable to blow with a jet of air from the vacuum cleaner.
  3. When transporting in the cold season before starting work, give the device at least 20 minutes to "acclimatize" the device. Grease should thaw and become elastic.
  4. Work with observance of the operating standards described in the technical passport of the instrument.

Keep the puncher in a dry and warm place. With prolonged preservation it is recommended to pack in a polyethylene bag and cardboard box. Do not allow moisture to penetrate electrical parts, including condensate from the air.

Case - the best place for storing a puncher

Aware - then, armed. Knowing the intricacies of the mechanism of the mechanism of perforators, you can repair the tool yourself and in the shortest possible time. However, if you peek under the hood of the puncher in a timely manner, clean and lubricate the mechanisms, it is quite possible that you do not have to resort to repair at all. Regular maintenance of the device will help prolong the life of the device.

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