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Irises - Description and Features of
Culture Irises are low perennials of the rhizomatous genus. Translated from the Greek word Iris means rainbow. Indeed, more than 700 types of irises are known, differing in size, shape, structure, and shade of a flower. Outwardly, the iris peduncle resembles an orchid, the color of the petals is the most diverse - from white and pale to rich and bright. In some varieties, the peduncle is colored with two, three or more colors, and a peculiar pattern is applied on the lower petals.
The beginning of the blooming of irises - the May and June months, the lush blooming may continue until the end of June. In autumn, the iris may bloom again - in August and September.
Culture has a vast geography around the world, some species are found in the harsh climate of the Northern Hemisphere. In nature, there are rhizomatous and bulbous irises, which are outwardly absolutely similar to each other. Rhizomatous irises are stable and unpretentious, they winter well and are not afraid of cold weather. Bulb varieties need a little more care and attention. The wild flower iris has long become fond of flower growers and has become urban. You should learn all about the care and planting irises in open ground.
Rules for planting irises in open ground
Rhizomatous irises prefer a well-lit area where they will bloom beautifully for a long time. For free distribution of roots irises need space - not less than half a meter from each other. All species love loose, nutrient-rich and oily soil. Planting irises in the spring in the soil is carried out after compost and potash phosphate fertilizers have been applied. Manure is not recommended.
Moisture of the soil for each variety needs its own:
- bearded iris is better to plant like a fan on the slopes, so that there is a good outflow of rain and melt water;
- Siberian iris and marsh iris is best grown where it is always damp - in water bodies and in partial shade.
Read also: Decoration of the dacha reservoir - marsh toffee
The plot for irises is dug up, treated with fungicides, against harmful insects, and herbicides to reduce weed growth. For rhizomatous irises preferred soil with a neutral medium. If the soil is with high acidity, it should be mixed with ash, lime or chalk. When planting, the upper kidney remains on the ground surface; it is not buried.
Rhizome varieties - how to plant irises in spring:
- A fossa is dug under the root, in the center of which a small mound is poured.
- The central root should be located on the knoll, and the lateral roots should be distributed to the sides.
- The main rhizome is covered with earth, a layer of sand is superimposed on top, the earth is slightly compacted.
- Do not get the roots too deep, they should be close to the soil surface.
- Let the central kidney remain free from the earth - above its surface.
Experienced growers recommend spring and summer planting of irises in open ground. During the warm season, the plants have time to fully take root in the soil, due to which they hibernate without loss and begin to bloom next year.
Bulbous irises - planting and care in the open field:
- Bulbs are planted in early spring or autumn before frost.
- The soil temperature for planting should not be below 10 °, otherwise the bulbs may freeze.
- A shallow trench is dug, the bulbs go deeper into the trench by 3-4 cm, no more.
- The overall planting depth should be approximately 10-12 cm.
- The excavated soil is mixed with garden soil for nourishment, river sand and pounded coal for drainage, with double superphosphate for growth.
- The prepared grooves are disinfected by spilling with a solution of potassium permanganate and a growth stimulator to strengthen the roots.
- The iris bulbs are planted with a sprout upwards, not too deep, at a sufficient distance from each other - 15-20 cm.
- The ground is filled up from above, which should be slightly compacted so that the bulbs do not crawl to the surface.
- Repeated watering is needed only after 3-4 days.
Excessive root penetration harms the growth and development of irises, and the ground should not be heavy. Compost, peat and coarse sand are added to the soil to loosen.
Melkolukovichnye varieties of irises are not demanding on moisture. They are buried to three times the height of the bulb, their flowering begins as early as next spring.
Read also: Choosing popular varieties of irises for the site
Caring for irises - the basics and secrets of
According to experienced gardeners, irises are strong and viable plants that grow well and bloom without fertilizing. However, in the third year of life, it is recommended to pamper the flower with a step-by-step complex top dressing - in spring, during budding and after flowering. In response to care, the plant will become stronger and stronger, it will grow faster and bloom more abundantly.
Irises - spring care:
- top dressing in the ratio 2: 1: 1 - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium;
- watering depending on the surrounding weather conditions.
In the period of budding, the application of top-dressing should take place at a ratio of 3: 1: 3 - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. At the same time watering and spraying are carried out as needed. One month after the end of flowering, it is recommended to apply a top-dressing in a 1: 1 ratio - phosphorus plus potassium. In the autumn, before hibernation, a dry mineral fertilizer should be applied in a tablespoon, scattering it at each plant root.
Watering the irises should be at the root with the land completely drying around the bush. After planting, the plant is watered only after three days.
Than to feed the irises in the spring:
- if there is a lack of minerals, you should add a mineral dressing personally for each bush;
- in early spring is useful for the plant complex nitrogen-potassium phosphate fertilizer for flowers.
Prevention of diseases and pests includes sanitary pruning of dead plant parts, timely removal of wilted peduncles, regular spraying and a shower, and cleaning of the bed from fallen leaves. In the open field, planting irises weed by hand, carefully loosen the soil and watered as needed. Before winter, rhizomes are covered with earth and covered, as they are located close to the surface itself and can freeze.
How and when to transplant irises
Irises can be planted in three ways - rhizomes, processes and grown from seeds. To get plants from seeds is the longest and most difficult way. In practice, it is much easier and faster to grow flowers by dividing the bush and shoots. At the same time, plants grown from rhizomes will bloom next year, and seed plants will have to wait another 2-3 years.
How and when to replant irises:
- The best time to transplant is early spring, that is, March-April, before flowering;
- flowers are propagated by dividing the rhizome and sprouts.
Read also: Flies in irises: what is it and how to fight them
Iris transplantation in the spring to another place is carried out using only healthy and strong plants that will take root quickly and without problems. The rhizomes are removed from the ground and divided into parts so that each individual rosette has one leaf bud. Excess foliage should be trimmed. Before planting the roots for a few minutes immersed in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. Dried rhizomes are planted in shallow trenches or small landing holes at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other.
When vegetatively propagated, the iris should bloom at least once. After this, until the budding stage, young shoots can be taken from it. Root new plants should be in time from March to May in the shade, creating greenhouse conditions. Full rooting can be observed after 2-3 weeks.
Irises can be grown from seeds. In the fall, seeds are sown in a pot with a sandy substrate, covering it with polyethylene or glass. By spring, the seeds will sprout, they dive and planted in open ground. When to plant irises in the open ground in the spring? The optimal time to land in the ground is early spring, the month of March and April. By this time, young landings have grown up enough to be able to quickly and fully take root in the ground.
Irises in landscape design
The high decorative qualities of irises allow you to plant them on flowerbeds and mixborders, along fences, on flower beds and rockeries. The ideal place for them is on an elevation where there is no stagnation of moisture, and there is no close adherence of groundwater. There are low-growing and high types of irises. High plants are usually tied up so that they do not break down and hold the bud well. Dwarf irises grow in a solid wall, they require periodic cutting and watering in dry weather.
Irises in landscape design photo:
Knowledge of the rules of planting and caring for irises in open field will allow you to easily and easily grow these plants in the garden. When you see an iris, you don’t want to rip it off at all, you want to admire it endlessly, inhaling the delicate and delicate scent of a flower.
These different irises on the site - video