- №1. What are the requirements for the exit door?
- №2. Material of door leaf manufacture
- No. 3. Metal entrance doors
- Metal door construction
- Hinges and door frame
- Finish door leaf
- Thermal insulation of metal doors
We will not begin with banality and say that the front door is the face of the house and the basis of its protection. We hope everyone understands so well how much security, insulation and perception of the appearance of a private house depends on the chosen door. Unscrupulous companies often try to sell to us under the guise of a reliable product a Chinese door of questionable quality, seducing discounts and conducting loud advertising. That's why you need to know yourself how to choose the right entrance door to a cottage, country or private house, which is important to take into account and what details to pay attention to.
№1. What are the requirements for the exit door?
Let's start with the declaration of variables, more accurately we will sound the characteristics that a really good front door should answer:
- reliability. The door leaf should be maximally unapproachable for intruders who try to cope with the door in various ways. The entrance door to the cottage should be stronger than the one that is installed at the entrance to the usual apartment. To explain why, probably, it is not necessary;
- good heat and sound insulation qualities, after all behind a door cloth there is a street, instead of an entrance. The door should be an excellent barrier to cold air and noise;
- resistant to wear and negative weather conditionsexterior finishing. The canvas should withstand the impact of rain, snow, icing, sunlight and temperature drop - something that the usual apartment door does not face;
- attractive appearance. The canvas should meet the architectural style of the house, the appearance of the porch and the landscape design of the adjacent territory;
- easy operation. Over time, the door can survive - this is normal. It is important that the canvas can be simply adjusted.
№2. Material of door leaf manufacture
The choice today is not very great for us. Entrance doors are often made of such materials:
- metal plastic.
Steel door- a classic, a sample of strength and aesthetics. Today, such doors are in more than 70% of private homes. Lining of wood and MDF, powder painting, other ways of finishing the canvas allow you to talk about a decent variety. A strong competitor to metal canvases recently consideredmetal-plastic doors.Running ahead, we note that they differ in better thermal insulation and a slightly lower price, but they are not inferior to metal doors in terms of reliability.Wooden doorsare used less and less. Today it is an outdated version that has a lot of flaws, and if such a canvas can be used in an apartment, then in a cottage it is unlikely, except in rare cases.
No. 3. Metal entrance doors
Many people prefer to buy entrance doors to a cottage, a country house or an apartment made of metal. Such constructions possessa number of undeniable advantages:
- ease of operation. Metal products do not require maintenance. After installation, they will serve for many years;
- high level of security. Metal is a very strong material. A well-designed door structure will reliably protect the room from unauthorized entry;
- moisture resistance and fire safety. Entrance doors are in direct contact with precipitation. They will not deteriorate under the influence of moisture, nor will they be ignited;
- availability. In the sale of products of different configurations, it affects the cost. You can choose an inexpensive door that will have good performance.
Metal doors are so popular that the range grows day by day. Next to really high-quality samples are sold doors that can be damaged by an ordinary can opener. They are made in China and can be realized both at very tempting prices (which justifies their quality a little), and at average market value. How to recognize a really high-quality door and not get caught in the trick of cunning producers and sellers?
Evaluate the metal door is necessary for a number of indicators:
- type of steel used and its thickness;
- Features of stiffeners and carcass;
- quality of the sealant, hinges and door frame;
- outer lining.
Metal door construction
The door consists of a frame, to which the inner and outer leaf of the door leaf is attached. Between the webs are placed stiffeners, in the cavities between which is laid insulation. The construction is illustrated in the figure.
Metal canvases can be manufacturedfrom hot and cold rolled steel. The first option is cheaper, but this material is more prone to corrosion. Cold-rolled steel for the entrance door in the cottage will be an advantageous option: it is less susceptible to rainfall and more durable.
Steel sheets should have a thickness, -2 mm, or better - even more, otherwise the canvas can be easily damaged with a sharp knife. Some experts advise installing in the country houses doors with a thickness of steel plate about 4 mm. Note that only the outer sheet can be metal (then the inner panel is made of MDF, for example) or both sheets. The second option is preferable, since the door leaf will be more durable. In some doors between the outer and inner steel sheetadditional layer of steel. From the point of view of reliability it is an ideal option, but it will also be worth it.
However, even if only the outer part of the door is made of steel, the fabric can still remain reliable. The main thing thatthe lock zone was reinforcedan additional sheet of steel or an armored plate.
Door frame, to which the sheets and stiffeners will be fastened, can be made ofintegral profile pipe, whose ends will be joined by only one suture. This is an ideal option. If four profile sections are used to create the base, which weld together, a less robust but still satisfactory construction is obtained. Worst of all, when each side of the frame is welded from a pair or more segments. In this case, too many seams are obtained, and each seam reduces the degree of protection of the web.
Stiffening ribstrengthen and strengthen the structure. They may be:
- vertical.Well resist torsional loads and will not allow the corners of the cloth to bend;
- horizontal.Protect from forcing and do not allow you to press the door leaf from the box;
- combined. Such doors have vertical, horizontal, and sometimes inclined stiffeners, so they perfectly resist any loads.
The more stiffening ribs will be, the better. Minimum - two vertical and one horizontal. Do the ribs usually fromrectangular pipe or corner. This is a classic and reliable option. There are doors where the ribs are made from a profile of a complex configuration. This approach allows you to create an equally strong fabric with a reduction in the weight of the structure.
The void between the stiffeners fillsinsulation, which increases the thermal insulation and allows you to get rid of the unpleasant sound of the hollow door. Usually, mineral wool and polyurethane foam are used for this purpose - both are quite effective. Foam, sintepon, paper and pressed cardboard are not very suitable for thermal insulation of the front door.
On the contour of the door leaf should be locatedsealant, which provides a tight fit of the door to the door frame, protects from noise, drafts and odors from the street. If the seal is qualitative and installed correctly, one circuit will be sufficient, so that samples with two, three or more contours should be treated with caution. It is best if the seal is made of rubber. Silicone and polyurethane in this case behave somewhat worse, and the option with foam rubber and plastic is not even worth considering.
Hinges and door frame
If the door leaf is not susceptible to breaking, the thief can try to cut off the hinges. Therefore, it is important to consider the entrance door as a complex complex construction, where each element is important.
Loops can be of the following types:
- conventional outdoorLoops can become easy prey, so modern doors complement themanti-detachable bolts. These are special metal pins that, when closing the door, enter the door frame and do not allow you to open the door, even if the hinges are cut off;
- hidden loops, which are not visible from the outside. This canvas is aesthetically pleasing and as safe as possible. The disadvantage is the increased risk of jamming.
Number of loopsdepends on many factors: the weight and dimensions of the door, the thickness of the metal, the exterior and interior decoration. The minimum required is 3 loops. Less can not be even in the lightest designs. If the canvas turned out to be quite heavy, you can takehinges with supporting bearings, which will facilitate the process of opening and closing.
The door box also affects the strength and reliability. It should be made of a U-shaped profile with a thickness of at least 3-5 mm.
Finish door leaf
The material of the door trim should be combined with the front of the house (when it comes to the outside of the canvas) and the interior of the hallway or vestibule, but this is not the main thing. External finish should be resistant to various weather conditions and be wear-resistant. On the inner part of such strict requirements do not apply.
For finishing the inside and outside of the metal entrance doors use the following materials:
- powder painting. Apply only to metal. The surface of the canvas is covered with special paints which, under the influence of high temperatures, are sintered and form a strong anti-vandal film that protects the metal from moisture and other influences. Color solutions are enough. For the entrance door of the cottage it isperfect option, and powder painting is bettercover the canvas on both sides- so the door will be less susceptible to temperature changes and more durable;
- solid wood. The panels are made of the most durable and moisture resistant rocks (oak, larch, walnut, etc.). Outwardly such a door will look like a completely wooden one. The option is not cheap and requires special care;
- MDF and chipboard panelsdiffer a huge variety, can be covered with natural veneer, painted or laminated. Such overlays are allowed to be usedonly from the insideentrance door.
There are other ways of finishing, such as hand-madepainting, laminating with PVC film or using plastic panels, but in this case I do not want to recommend them. They do not look solid, and they do not show themselves very well in operation.
Note also that a metal web can haveglass insert. It adorns the door, but makes it more vulnerable, so the glass is armored or protected with a grille. Excellent forged lattices look, especially if they are supported by other forged elements in the design of the porch and the site.
Thermal insulation of metal doors
Perhaps the only drawback of the metal entrance doors is theirability to freeze and become covered with icing.Qualitative heat insulation (in the form of a layer of insulation inside the door) is able to virtually neutralize this problem, but sometimes additional measures may be necessary. To get rid of the freezing of the metal door, you can use the following tricks:
- Together with the metal door, you can install a metal-plastic door that will lead from the vestibule to the house. It has excellent thermal insulation and will not let warm air from the dwelling into the vestibule. This means that on both sides of the door there will be approximately the same temperature, and there will be no freezing. The method is suitable only if there is a vestibule;
- choice of door in thermal fracture. This means that inside the canvas will be located two different insulation with a thermal insert made of polyamide. In this case, it is possible to maintain the temperature on the inside at + 100 ° C at an outside temperature of -250 ° C. Such doors are expensive and do not protect the lock zone from freezing;
- electric heating with a heating cable, which is located on the contour of the door. Even at the lowest temperatures, the canvas will remain dry, but additional spending on electricity will be needed.
№4. Wooden entrance doors
The safety of metal models is beyond doubt. Durable material, high protection against burglary, fire resistance and mechanical damage - all these advantages have made them a worthy competitor in the market. Can the entrance wooden doors exceed the metal ones? To understand this, you need to understand the mainpluses of products from a tree:
- strength. Input models are made as durable as possible, therefore they are often made of oak. The material is quite difficult to damage;
- long service life. Wood itself is considered a long-lasting basis. Due to the correct surface treatment andsubject to constant carecanvas can serve at least 50 years;
- environmental friendliness. Wood is a safe and hypoallergenic material. It has practically no analogues;
- external appeal. The classic shade of oak or pine looks very beautiful on the entrance doors and harmonizes with any facade. In this respect, metal canvases will have to be chosen more carefully;
- resistance to corrosion. The tree does not rust (unlike metal). Due to this, periodic surface treatment with various anticorrosive agents is not required;
- noise insulation. Sufficient thickness of the door provides protection from extraneous sounds even if there is no filler;
- low thermal conductivity. The wooden door will not be covered with condensation or frost.
On the other hand, a wooden canvasis afraid of precipitation, sudden changes in temperature, fire and pests, so it will have to be constantly treated with special protective equipment - without them, even the door of the glued beam can not last long. In addition, if suddenly the leaf leads, then repair is almost impossible. These shortcomings can erase all the advantages of wooden doors, so today they are put very rarely. If the facade does not resemble anything other than wood, it is better to take a metal door with a wooden lining. The best place for a purely wooden door will besouth side of the house. Naturally, the porch should have a reliable canopy.
№5. Metal-plastic entrance doors
The metal doors can compete only with metal plastic ones. They have suchadvantages:
- excellent heat and sound insulation properties. The cloth does not let outside noise, prevents the ingress of cold and does not freeze;
- good strength properties. On reliability and safety, such doors, contrary to prejudice, are not inferior to metal ones;
- resistance to negative environmental factors;
- a variety of appearance;
- simplicity of care;
- low cost. Such doors will cost an average of 10-15% cheaper than metal.
BystructureMetal-plastic doors remind the well-known plastic windows: the principle of production is the same, but the design is different. The profile for this door has a minimum of five cameras, reinforced with steel. The glass unit is put not from ordinary glass, but from an armored or triplex. The glazing section can be any area, but for security reasons it is better that it occupies only a third of the door leaf.
№6. Burglar resistance of the entrance door
Large manufacturers certify steel doors in the class of burglar resistance. In total there are 13 such classes: doors from 1 to 4 classes are used in everyday life, the rest are armored doors for banks and safes:
- first class doorsfor 10-15 minutes they are opened with a hand tool;
- the doorsecond classare only suited to power tools, but they are not suitable for input;
- third-class doorsare distinguished by thick steel sheets. It takes a lot of time and energy to break them.A good option;
- the doorfourth grade-perfect optionfor the cottage. The design has bronenakladki, steel has the maximum thickness.
№7. Lock for the entrance door
A strong door leaf protects against rough methods of hacking, and a reliable lock - from the intellectual. On the front door put these types of locks:
- lock locks- the most durable and reliable. The degree of protection depends on the number of handrails. They can be from 1 to 10. A good castle has 6 or more sovald, and their number can be judged even by the number of steps on the key (from their number it is necessary to take a unit to get the desired value). For the entrance door suited lock locks of a crab construction, their bolts are locked in the opposite directions: they will be harder to find and cut their thief. Also locks with a manganese insert, which protects the mechanism from drilling, also show good results;
- cylinder lockworks on the basis of cylinders located at a certain height. With the help of a master key, it is difficult to open it - it's much easier to knock out, so it's better to protect the mechanism with a bronenabel or special balls that will resist the drill. As an independent castle it is better not to use it - only as a complete set with a lever lock;
- electronic locks, which open by digital code, fingerprint or map, reliable, modern, but expensive, so far no spread;
- combinedin one lock combine several mechanisms.
The front door is betterpair. Suvalny and cylinder - an ideal pair, but it is better to arrange them at some distance from each other, 25-30 cm will be enough. Choose locks3 and 4 security classand trust the products of famous manufacturers.
We did not mention, but it goes without saying - before you contact a company that makes and puts doors, you need to know the dimensions of the doorway. If it is very wide, perhaps, one can not do without one - it will be more convenient to put the door on two or one and a half shutters. Please note that ordering a canvas of a custom size will cost more. Also do not forget about the fittings (pen, peephole, etc.), which should also be of high quality.