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As sometimes I want exotic things in ordinary home conditions. The tropical mango tree or mangifer on the windowsill will be a worthy exhibit in the apartment. A bit of hard work and the family can enjoy the thick undergrowth of this perennial plant. Yet it is worthwhile to understand that the climate of temperate latitudes differs in many respects from the tropics - the area where the mango tree grows. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the correct landing and decent care for this representative of the family Anacardia.
The mango fruit combines pleasant notes of sweetness and slightly sour aftertaste. The flesh has a delicate texture. However, the peel contains substances that cause an allergy in many people.
In wild nature
This evergreen plant is found in the tropical forests of India. In such groves you can find specimens up to 25 or 30 meters high. The crown of each of them can grow up to 8 m in diameter. Such a volume is possible due to deciduous plates, reaching 40 cm in length. The mango tree has interesting features:
- First, the leaves have a burgundy hue, but over time they become green;
- in February / March on the kidneys appear yellow inflorescences (they are somewhat similar to the pyramids of Egypt);
- the fragrance of these flowers resembles the incense of lilies, so it flies like insects, and bats;
- the root system of the plant is represented in the form of a powerful rod that sprouts up to 6 m, as well as long branched processes;
- for 3 months from the trees you can collect fruits.
Many representatives of this genus are long-livers. Some of them are more than 300 years old. The entire process of development and growth in them is uneven. In one period of the year, the trunk and branches grow faster than in the other. This is due to the fact that the climatic conditions of the tropics and the composition of the soil in different localities may differ. Nevertheless, at home, the mango tree is a compact ornamental plant. Unfortunately, its growth will not exceed one and a half meters.
From bones to stems
One of the most famous variants of the reproduction of the mangifer at home is the germination of the bones. For the first stage of this process, you need to take a cup with a lid to create a germ of a moist microclimate. But to get the best results in this case, the following recommendations of gardeners will help:
- extract the bone from the overripe fruits (they should be soft and reddish);
- then it is necessary to open it and get a seed;
- plant it immediately, otherwise it will not germinate;
- the seed should be treated with a fungicide (these drugs prevent the development of bacteria and pathogenic fungi);
- the seed is placed in the soil so that the spine is pointed toward the bottom of the pot;
- do not need to deepen it deeply into the ground (the fourth part should rise above the ground level);
- the container should be covered with a cut bottle with a neck (you can unscrew the cover for airing) or with a film that needs to be removed when a sprout appears.
If it is not possible to plant the stone immediately, you can wrap it in water-soaked cotton wool or a towel. Moistened sawdust or a glass with ordinary boiled water is also suitable for this. When the first sprouts appear, the seed germinated can be transferred to the ground.
Before planting it is important to prepare the soil and the pot. It is best to buy a neutral soil, because a mango tree does not tolerate an acidic environment. The diameter of the container should not exceed 12 cm. Among other things, at the bottom of the pot you need to drill one big or several small holes. Before filling it with soil, it is necessary to make a drainage from a layer of expanded clay (up to 5 cm).
Pot with a grain to put on a well-lit place. The plant should be watered abundantly with a warm, settled liquid. It is important to make sure that there is no stagnant water. The germination process takes from 30 to 60 days.
In most cases, from one seed several sprouts germinate at once. The strongest and most active of them is the future of the tree. The rest must be carefully removed.
Period of courtship
Florists most of all are concerned with the question of how to grow a mango tree at home. After landing - this is only half the case. The hostess understands that every effort should be made to plant the seedling and begin to grow actively. Moreover, from competent care depends the harvest that the family plans to get. However, this point of home gardening is not destined to become a reality.The essence of the problem lies in the fact that at home, the inflorescence is practically not pollinated. This problem exists even on the plantations where the mango tree is grown for commercial purposes.
However, this exotic plant can rightfully become another "green pet". To make the tree feel at home and grow luxuriantly, it needs to create the appropriate conditions:
- The soil. Black soil for mangifer is a deadly mixture. Realizing this, the floriculturist needs to give preference to loam, podzolic or sandy loamy soils.
- Shine. The southern side of the apartment is the best place for successful plant prosperity. In winter, additional lighting should be arranged using special lamps.
- Moisture. Soil in pots should never be dry. Watering the pot should be plentiful - up to 2 times a week. After such procedures it is desirable to swell the ground to provide the roots with access to oxygen.
- Air. In the tropics there is always high humidity, therefore a home-made mango should be sprayed regularly (3 times a day). For winter time, it is recommended to stop such water procedures, provided there is a sufficiently humid microclimate in the room.
- Transfer. For the first 5 years, this event should be held every year in early spring. Further it is necessary to do this with a periodicity of 2 or 3 years. Each subsequent container for transplantation should be slightly larger than the previous one.
- Pruning. Due to intensive growth, the leading shoot should be pinched. The same should be done with the side processes. Pruning is carried out when the plant reaches 70-100 cm in height.
An important role in the process of courtship is feeding. Without nitrogen fertilizers, the ovaries will be bad, and the fruits - poor. You can replace them with organic. Such substances are introduced on the 15th of July.
A mango tree can bear fruit only in one case, if it is grafted. For this, a shoot from a fertile specimen is planted to the trunk (at a distance of 2 cm from the roots). In the T-shaped incision, the kidney is placed, and then tightly wrapped with an insulating tape. After 45 days, you need to cut off the top of the main trunk (near the graft).Three years of intensive care and as a result you can see the first inflorescences. In other cases, the mango tree will only serve as a decorative exhibit in the home greenhouse.