Cellars and basements of private houses located in areas of high groundwater, often subject to flooding, which may eventually lead to the destruction of the foundation. This will prevent a complete drainage system, fitted around the house.
We'll show you how to arrange the drain and install the drain well with your hands. In the article presented for consideration of the system are discussed in detail circuit device collecting and draining water to remove dirt from its foundation. Structures listed options wells and installation methods described.
For visual perception difficult it is accompanied by information useful scheme, selection of photos and video guide.
The content of the article:
- Function and configuration of the drainage system
The main types of drainage wells
- Characteristics manholes
- Purpose of storage structures
- Features of the absorption capacities
- The material of construction of drainage wells
- Basic principles of arrangement of drainage at the site
Production and installation of plastic wells
- How to install audit and collector well
- Mounting structure absorptive plastic
- Production capacity of plastic pipes
- well structure made of concrete rings
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Function and configuration of the drainage system
Drainage must be performed in the event that the house is located in a valley, or the ground water level above the ground floor or basement rooms of the structure, and there is a danger of flooding. It is especially important to make drainage portionLocated on the clay soils that are prone to heave during freezing of the lower layers in the cold season.
The drainage system also serves several important functions:
- reduces the pressure of the groundwater in the walls and floor of the house;
- prevents flooding of basements;
- It drains the territory adjacent to the building.
It is advisable to carry out drainage improvement even at the stage of excavation digging under the house, so as not to disturb the landscape of the area when it is already built outbuildings equipped.
Drain well - a functional component of the drainage system, which is designed for the collection and removal of groundwater
The unit of drainage system along with the installation of wells must be carried out at the stage of foundation structures
Drainage system to arrange the formwork device for pouring the foundation
Wells are installed in points of change of direction of the drain pipe, i.e. in the corners, are used to control the operation of the system
Drainage system laid separately from the standard and storm sewer. With livnevki may connect only the pit generally
construction formwork for pouring the foundation slab or ribbon-type performed after installation of all types of sewer pipes and installation of objects
Work on pouring the foundation and further arrangement of communications are conducted taking into account the already arranged systems
After warming the base and the introduction of a basement space necessary communications, the backfilling of the pit. Drain well cut at 10 to 15 cm above the level of dumping of compacted and set hatch
Appointment of drainage wells
Time and place of installation
Laying the geotextile at the bottom of the trench
Installing drainage wells in the corners
The specificity of the organization of drainage system
The construction of the formwork after laying pipes
Fill foundation based communications
The final stages of the drainage arrangement
everything for drainage system of the house perimeter developed trench. It should be at a distance of one and a half to three meters from the excavation or structure (if the house is already built).
Then it closed the pipeline is laid, and in the required places are set, one or more drainage wells. The number of wells and channels for pipes depends on the area of the site, the depth of groundwater, soil type.
The figure shows that in the absence of drainage ground water exerting pressure directly on the basis of the foundation and the walls and seeping into the house. In the presence of a drainage sewer water goes into the return pipes
Some confused with stormwater drainage system, and yet the difference between them is quite significant. Storm drainage is intended for drainage of rainwater and, as a rule, located at the surface. The depth of the drainage tube must be below the base of the foundation.
At arrangement of stormwater and drainage systems can do both diversion pipe sewage collector in one well
For information on how to develop the project drainage system for the collection and removal of ground water, drainage and landscaping the site, you can read in the other popular article our website.
The main types of drainage wells
There are several types of wells, which are different from each other as intended, manufacturing materials and sizes. Device drainage wells different kinds almost equally.
They represent a container with closed bottom, which are brought into the shaft pipe drainage sewer. The well is completely submerged in the earth, and its top closed hatch.
The main difference between the wells - in their appointment. Each type is designed to perform a specific function and is located in a certain place of the drainage system.
Inspection or audit in a different drainage wells are designed to:
- of scheduled inspections of sewer system;
- pipeline control efficiency;
- Periodic cleaning of pipes and repair work.
Inspection manholes are installed in places where there is the highest probability of contamination or the silting of pipes. Their sizes are selected based on characteristics of the sewage system. In smaller pipes are usually installed manholes diameter of 340 to 460 mm.
Major drainage system it is advisable to equip the manholes of large diameter, equipped with all necessary devices for carrying out routine inspections and repairs
Major drains equipped with drainage structures having the inner diameter of one and a half meters, some steps vessel equipped for easy descent. In such a well could easily fit an adult for cleaning or repair of the pipeline. Cleaning the system is carried out by washing with water jet tubes under pressure.
A variety of manholes are rotary structure which is disposed in the angular field of pipe connections. They need not be installed at every turn, they are usually mounted through angle.
When installing the rotary wells is necessary to consider the structure drainage system and install them so to them it was possible to bring all the corner and cross sections of the pipeline.
Rotary shafts are dug in the pipe angles. They are installed in such a way that you can quickly make sewer cleaning, if necessary,
Purpose of storage structures
The collector or otherwise water inlet sump serves to collect and store water and its subsequent pumping into the reservoir or gutter. It is a large capacity and a half meters in diameter, which are discharged all the pipes of the drainage system.
It is set in a place where it is impossible to put a filter well or divert the collected sewage water into the drain. As a rule, they are taken outside the area.
For the removal of accumulated water in the pit is set submersible pump with a discharge pipe, which pumps the collected liquid into a natural water source
Water inlet tank is usually equipped with an electric pump, which is pumped the liquid accumulated in the reservoir or for watering the garden. Conception in the drives installed automatic system which, when filling the container to a certain level the water is pumped in an automatic mode.
Features of the absorption capacities
Filter wells used in areas with a slightly moist soil located far from natural water bodies and not equipped catchment systems. The quantity of water to be pumped out, must not exceed 1 cubic. m per day.
The shape of the well may be circular with a diameter up to one and a half meters, or rectangular or square area of not more than 6 m. Usually used for manufacturing concrete well rings or plastic capacity.
The depth of absorption of the well into the ground should not be less than two meters, and the thickness of the filtration layer - not less than 30 cm
Device absorbing well It differs from other types of drainage tanks so that it does not have a sealed bottom. Instead, at the bottom of the well is equipped with a filter system which passes through a dirty water drains, cleans them from the trash and takes away the deep soil layers.
The material of construction of drainage wells
Wells for arranging the drainage system can make the most of the concrete rings, or buy ready-made plastic containers desired size and place them on the site. How to make a drainage well, you decide, but it is worth considering that the first option - is cheaper, but it is much more difficult by the complexity of manufacturing, the second - easier, but more expensive.
For organizing all kinds of drainage systems produce a wide range of pipes and wells of PVC polymers, PP, HDPE etc.
In the old drainage inspection and the pit is still sometimes constructed of brick. The method is not pleased with the pace of construction and requires from the performer experience
It performed much faster construction of drainage wells from precast concrete rings. However, their installation often requires the use of hoisting equipment
Collect drainage well from polymer-sand elements is much easier than from concrete rings. Products produced with the items for the device and the bottom hatch
Plastic products for drainage device
Brick facility drainage system
well device of concrete rings
Manufacture of concrete well rings presents a number of problems. Because of the heavy weight of concrete structures may have to hire special equipment and invite helpers. They need to make holes for the pipe, which is also quite difficult.
However, the complexity of the installation of the concrete well justified by its high reliability, durability and longevity. Concrete structures virtually immune to any negative impacts.
They can be installed in any location, even in areas facing on soils prone to hydrothermal movement and heave during freezing, which can deform plastic construction.
Modern containers, plastic is also very reliable, and in addition, easy to use and easy to install, weigh little and are easy to install. Their body are already required diameter holes for pipe connections.
Many resort to save the installation to a combined embodiment. For inspection and pivot wells become plastic tanks and filter and storage made of concrete rings. There is another option available - to make the well of plastic pipes, how to do this is described below.
Containers made of plastic of various sizes are available on their body already has outlets required diameter for pipe connections
Basic principles of arrangement of drainage at the site
For drainage device selects the highest point portion, and away from the dug trench with a gradient from 2 to 5 cm depth of two meters, which lays the pipe. The corners are set rotary shafts, and in places of joint connections - inspection.
To provide natural water current through the pipes, the trench for laying sewer digs under bias at least 2 cm from the upper portion of the point
sewer system endpoint, which are all arranged with a bias tubeIt is a filter or a collecting pit, from where the forced or natural drainage.
For sewage drainage devices recommended the use of special perforated corrugated pipe made from PVC or polyethylene. They have no technical limitations of packing, very easy to install. Depending on the dimensions of the taps in the drain pit, can be purchased tube diameter of 50 to 200 mm.
The entire area of the drainage pipes are small slits which are necessary for the infiltration of water from the soil
For full operation of the entire sewer system is necessary to hold a series of preparatory activities. At the bottom of the trench a layer of poured sand 5 cm and carefully compacted. Then, the bottom and sides of the ditch dimmed geotextile that will serve as a filter, preventing the silting up of the system.
This is followed by a layer of gravel, about 10 cm. which put perforated pipe, Poured another layer of crushed stone and wrapped in geotextile overlapping. On top of this "cake" poured layer of soil, which was selected during the digging of the trench.
To ensure the full functioning of the drainage system, it is necessary to carefully prepare the base, and to lay the pipe in such a manner as shown in the picture
Production and installation of plastic wells
The installation process is dependent on the type of the well. For viewing, rotating and storage structures necessary to make a concrete base. Absorption wells bottomless demand arrangement the filter system.
Assembling system with the installation of the drainage wells polymer produced with the highest rate
For the construction of systems and installation of wells produced all kinds of items, greatly facilitates and speeds up installation work
The structure of polymer wells not affect aggressive environment, it is indifferent neighborhood water and temperature fluctuations
Everything for the well mouth produced hatches in the lineup can be found for high performance options
The advantages of plastic manholes
Construction of the well mouth
How to install audit and collector well
If you have purchased a ready-made plastic container, it is necessary to install it only on a prepared foundation. Installation of both types of wells is virtually identical. The difference may be only in the size, number of branch pipes as well as in a horizontal or vertical position.
Inspection usually have a vertical structure, savings can be made horizontally or vertically embodiment. In addition, the pit usually equipped with the drain pump and produce a sump outlet pipes.
Connecting pipes must be carried out after the installation of the container on a carefully prepared base, then made sealing pipes and backfilling wells
Before the well apparatus for collecting and draining the drainage water dig a ditch, perform the preparatory operation as described above, and route the tubes, but do not go to sleep.
Installation of the well consists of the following stages:
- deepen the portion where it is supposed to establish a well, it should be 40 cm below the level of the passage pipe;
- pour and tamp layer of sand and gravel;
- prepare concrete solution (3 parts sand to 1 part cement) and the bottom fill them;
- after the base has cured and is fully ready (it will take approximately 2 days), place a layer of geotextile;
- set capacity the concrete sole, to connect the pipe bends;
At the end of mount on top of the hatch, pour design on all sides rubble and soil.
Mounting structure absorptive plastic
To install the filter well need plastic containers with no bottom. Their assembly is performed the same way as described above, except for pouring of the concrete base. Instead, it is made at the bottom of the well filter system, cleaning incoming water in a natural way.
To the absorption-type well productively worked for a long time, you need to properly perform its installation, as shown in the figure (+)
At the bottom is filled with a layer of gravel, crushed stone or other similar material of 20-30 cm thick. In the upper part of the well pipe is supplied, the construction is filled on all sides with crushed stone or gravel, covered by geotextile top and closes the hatch.
Production capacity of plastic pipes
If you do not finished plastic container, You can make yourself. You will need plastic pipe of a certain diameter (35-45 cm - for viewing and swivel designs and 63-95 cm - for collector and absorption). Furthermore, it is necessary to purchase a round bottom and a plastic cover, in accordance with the size of the pipe and the rubber gasket.
- Cut the plastic tube the required size corresponding to the depth of the well.
- At a distance of 40-50 cm from the bottom holes for pipes and fittings to equip them with rubber gaskets.
- Attach to the bottom of the container and seal the seams with mastic all of the bitumen or other sealant.
Setting a self-made drainage tank is produced by the above scheme.
well structure made of concrete rings
For the well need to purchase reinforced concrete rings, which are made from moisture-resistant concrete. The size and diameter of the rings are selected based on the type and purpose of the well. But be aware that the depth of their occurrence should not be less than two meters.
Concrete ring are produced in different sizes (heights from 10 cm to 1 m and a diameter of from 70 cm to 2 m), so that the product does not pick up difficult. To a well ring is generally selected height of 50-60 cm and a diameter of 70-150. Their weight depending on the size ranges from 230-900 kg.
Concrete ring one after another fall into a pit dug in advance and mounted on each other
Of course, this weight is not impossible to pick one, so you have to bring one or two assistants. Install design can be in two ways. If the diameter of the ring allows you to fit inside a person, it can be easy to put on the ground, and then proceed with the excavation of soil from the inside.
The ring will push its own weight to the ground and gradually sink as the digging of the soil beneath it. Thus it is possible to set all the rings, superimposing them on each other and bonding together of metal staples.
Second Embodiment - first dig a pit whose width should be about 40 cm longer than the diameter of the rings. If the ground is soft, you need to fill the bottom of the gravel layer of 15-20 cm, and then lower the ring of concrete. In this method, if a revision is made or storage well, it is desirable to set a lower ring with a closed bottom.
After installing the concrete rings in place, must be carefully zagermetiziroat all cracks with bitumen. The overlap can be made viewing window for visual inspection of the well
If the bottom is not, it will need to do it yourself. To this end, the lower part of the well is filled with a concrete solution to the reinforcement. When installing the absorbent structure, the bottom of the container is equipped with a filtering system, as described above.
All joints between the rings are coated cement-sand mixture, and then after drying, sealed with bitumen-polymer waterproofing.
Further, according to the well of developed scheme dug a trench for drainage pipes, but do not run them in a hurry, because you first have to perform another quite hard work - make holes in concrete pipes to connect. This can be done with the gun and pobeditovye or diamond drill bits for concrete. They have different diameters, so easy to find the right size, but the cost is quite high.
If the economy did not find the crown on the concrete, and to spend money to buy it, you do not want to, you can resort to other cheaper ways. In the place where it is supposed to make removal enclose the pipe and draw a circle of pencil required diameter. Along the contour lines held hammer drill-holes.
Drill holes drilled on the concrete steps of 1-2 cm from each other, one is in the center of the circle
Point the waste in a central hole and begin to slowly break it, as the hole expands, take a big hammer or sledgehammer and bring the process to the end. Now it is possible to bring the pipe and putting them on the protective rubber gaskets made aperture in the insert. I also place promazhte bitumen. Install ceiling.
Concrete well on all sides is filled with gravel, to a height of about 50 cm, and then poured to the top and well compacted clay. This clay pillow prevent seepage of water and prolong the life of the well.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
For detailed information on the arrangement of the drainage system at home, you can look at the following video:
How to make a drainage well from concrete rings, you tell the next video:
Installing drainage wells - not an easy process, but mandatory for areas with high groundwater. If time does not equip the territory of a full drainage system, the periodic flooding of the basement of the house will inevitably lead to the destruction of the structure of the base.
We are looking forward to your stories about how you constructed on a plot of drainage and put drainage wells. Write about their own experiences, to comment on and discuss the article, ask questions, you can block located below.