The construction of the autonomous heating system - technically and technologically complex process to implement that should be approached with great responsibility. In order to make a perfectly working circuit, many factors must be considered. It is necessary to observe building regulations and requirements.
We'll show you how, in what manner and by what rules should be organized heating cottage. In the present article we describe the steps of system design and implementation. Recommendations for the calculation, selection of equipment, the introduction of the system in operation.
The content of the article:
- Requirements for the heating system
Basic installation steps
- Preparations for drafting
- Select the type of coolant
- What is the amount of build circuits?
- Fuel for Boiler
- Engineering and design work
- Purchase of the necessary equipment
- Construction of the boiler room in the house
- Flue and flue exhaust
- Adjustment of heating radiators in the house
- Checking and adjustment of the system
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Requirements for the heating system
Regardless of whether the old system upgraded or it is designed "from scratch" in a newly built house, the first thing need to start - is to familiarize with the standard documentation. It is painted in detail, how the equipment is put into operation, and describes the details and features of its future use.
After spending some time on it, you can be sure that the heating system will last more than a year away. From year to year the requirements are corrected and updated. But there are some principles that everyone should know the owner of the cottage. The first thing that you need for the installation of the heating system - it is explosion and fire.
For safe operation of the installation process you need to take care of the free access to the equipment for its cleaning and regular checks
In the list of rules that will make private house not only comfortable, but also safe to live in, should include the following aspects:
- heating elements open temperature should not be higher than recommended by the manufacturer.
- Equipment and all the devices should be insulated properly. This will prevent burns, avoid the formation of moisture and reduce heat loss. Besides hot components may cause ignition of dust, gas or aerosol into the room.
- When using a coolant temperature of the latter should be below its autoignition temperature or evaporation at 20 degrees Celsius. For example, if the system is water, it is necessary to prevent it from boiling. A great solution is to raise the pressure.
Also, the heating system performance requirements imposed. After all, any equipment should be as strong, durable, easy to operate, silent and easy to repair.
Better to order equipment from trusted manufacturers. These companies produce really high-quality products, as responsible for her own name
By selecting the boiler, radiators and pipe, maximally corresponding to the above criteria, you can rid themselves of the many problems.
Basic installation steps
When the planned improvement of the heating system in a brand new house, then the best solution is to think through all the details at the design stage.
Preparations for drafting
Properly preparing the plan and conducted expert calculations allow still "in its infancy" to solve many problems. For example, such an approach would know whether to allocate a separate room for boiler needed.
Before the start of finishing work it is recommended to ensure that, where and how are hidden pipes. The best solution is heating system installation before the floor screed.
Experts recommend embarking on the design and selection of equipment only after the thermal circuit of the house will be closed. That is, you need to do this after the doors have been installed, the windows and the roof is covered.
To simplify the process of the cottage heating system installation work is divided into several stages:
- selection of the type of heating system;
- designing and conducting settlement operations;
- Custom equipment;
- boiler arrangement;
- installation of radiators;
- carrying out commissioning.
Each of the above steps has its own characteristics. Knowing the ins and outs in this area, any newcomer to handle the assembly at the highest level, and the equipment is not confident will last one year.
Particular attention should be paid to the season. It is better to deal with the heating system installation in the warmer months. After the cold adversely affect the quality of construction materials. Besides it is necessary to calculate all the way to meet the harsh winter in the warmth and comfort
Select the type of coolant
Manufacturers offer a wide range of heating equipment. On the one hand, it allows you to select all the necessary for the realization of the most complicated and uncomplicated system.
But because such a large lineup from any unprepared buyer, of course, a lot of problems will appear. Therefore, before going to the store should be as detailed as possible to deal with this issue.
There are several types of heating systems. So, it is depending on the heat transfer medium:
Aircraft equipment as is clear from the name for heat transfer uses air. It is taken from outside the building is heated and fed directly to the desired area. The main advantage of this system is its safety.
Its drawbacks - it is a low heat, high cost, and in order to carry out installation, will have much to delve into the technical literature.
The most easy to operate the heating system is water. As coolant This equipment uses water, antifreeze or a mixture thereof in certain proportions. But for simplicity I have to pay (literally). After the fluid movement is required to mount the pipe, put the radiator and the unit for its heating.
The vapor plays a major role in the steam heating arrangement, but it will take to build steam lines and put the pipe to collect the condensate. A heating furnace using hot gases transfer heat through its wall in the room, passing through the channels.
As for liquid systems, then today they are most popular. This is due to their ease of installation and high efficiency. Such equipment is divided into one- and two-circuit
One of the options - electric heating, Ie system without coolant. To get the heat need electricity, and it is passed through a solid medium. Used standalone or infrared oil batteries, electric heaters, electric fireplaces or special fans.
But for simplicity I have to pay (literally). After all, this equipment uses a lot of electricity. And its performance is quite low, which makes it a cost-effective solution for occasional use only in small country houses.
What is the amount of build circuits?
The main difference two-circuit boiler It is that it heats the water and for space heating and domestic hot water system. On the one hand, this is advantageous since the purchase and maintenance of such equipment will be cheaper than purchasing single-circuit devices and a separate arrangement of the hot water system.
It should be understood that to ensure a constant temperature of hot water to be continuously or expend energy to install additional equipment savings
And if the boiler is still a dual-select the type of heater between the instantaneous and cumulative. Given that the first option is suitable for a family of 2-3 people and the other will save fuel, but it will take place an additional storage tank hot water.
As for single-system, then today - this is the best solution for many houses. It is going faster and require fewer components.
Fuel for Boiler
boilers for heating systems are categorized according to the type of energy source used. There is a gas, solid fuel and oil-fired equipmentAs well as devices running on electricity. Before you make a final choice, it is recommended to evaluate which type would be most beneficial.
Also pay attention to whether the runs close to home network pipeline, how much is available in the region, solid and liquid fuel, and there is a problem with the stability of electricity supply.
When installing equipment using solid or liquid fuel as an energy source, it is necessary to deal with those that will store coal, wood and other stocks
The most effective solution would be the installation of a boiler operating on gas. But its installation will require some financial investment and time. After all, it would have to obtain a permit. And yet there is a problem in the allocation of space for storage of fuel reserves, if mounted gasholder or to use liquefied gas analogue instead of the network.
Engineering and design work
Once the issue was resolved related to the views of the heating system, you can begin to develop the project. If the cottage has a fairly modest size, then make all the calculations and draw up a scheme to succeed.
But the best solution would be to entrust this work to an experienced heating equipment. A professional will do all the calculations correctly, thereby avoiding many of the problems that may arise in the installation phase.
when designing design of the heating system the document should indicate:
- place radiator assembly;
- Solution combustion products, if present;
- place where the boiler is installed;
- a detailed plan of pipework where exactly indicate the location of fittings, valves and other components.
Order Engineering and design work is recommended only from approved companies authorized to provide such services. Often engaged in this organization who work in the field of installation of heating systems or sales necessary for this equipment.
A time to spend, you can save more than one day, which will need to study all necessary technical documentation, and far more than one hundred dollars, to be paid in the future for the admitted at the design stage errors
All calculations can be done independently. To do this, have to deal with drawings, diagrams and detailed description in reference books. Need to become better acquainted with the information about the characteristics of the heat generator, the type of wiring, the overall network configuration, location and equipment and other specifications.
Purchase of the necessary equipment
When he was selected boiler type, should decide his power, given that the performance of equipment for dual-circuit system should be large, as in this case, the heat loss will be significantly higher.
Right calculated output of the boiler It means that the temperature in the combustion chamber will not exceed 90 degrees Celsius. By following this rule, the equipment will last much longer. For example, for the cottage, an area of 100 m2The best solution is the equipment up to 15 kW.
The next thing you will need for the installation of the heating system - it is the heat transfer devices. to properly calculate the radiators, It is necessary to determine the amount of these elements and the number of sections. Their characteristics are entirely dependent on the size of the living rooms. As for the material, the experts recommend to stay on the cast-iron products or bimetallic models.
The last part, which should be given attention in the store - a pipe. rather polypropylene products. They are easy soldering, and low weight that allows you to do the installation yourself, without the involvement of specialists.
Do not buy a large number of pipes and fittings. Follow the previously developed scheme heating system
Construction of the boiler room in the house
After it was ordered and delivered to the site all the necessary equipment, you can begin the installation of the heating system. Catching installation is important to strictly follow the project documentation that will avoid problems and unplanned financial expenses.
Installation of the heating device is performed as specified in the manual, supplied by the manufacturer.
the following basic rules should be followed in the absence of manufacturer's instructions:
- the front of the boiler to be at least 1 m of free space, and the rear and sides - about 70 cm;
- device must not be installed closer than 70 cm from the other devices;
- if the set of two or more of the boiler, it is necessary to leave a distance between them of about 2 m.
If the equipment has been ordered wall, then to his face more sparing requirements. For this kind of boiler you need only leave the place, which will be enough for easy access to the device.
Installation should start from the basic element of the system - boiler. If low power is used (up to 60 kW), the device, it can be installed directly in the kitchen, hallway or in a closet. If the performance of the device exceeds the number of the above, the boiler will have to allocate a separate room
Flue and flue exhaust
The next stage of installation of the heating system cottage is the organization of the chimney. When properly designed by the chimney there is a risk of occurrence of a fire in the house or the chance of poisoning by carbon monoxide tenants.
To build a structure for discharging combustion products recommended from metal, brick or ceramic. ceramic chimney It is the best solution in most cases.
Pottery combines the low heat dissipation, and a modular design. The only drawback of the chimney - it is a high cost. Besides the construction shall have a strictly vertical configuration.
As regards metal products, they are the ideal solution for liquid and gas equipment models. After all, these chimneys are resistant to mechanical and chemical stress. The list of advantages is also necessary to include easy installation (construction is assembled from modules).
The main disadvantage of the metal chimney - it is a fairly large heat loss
Masonry chimneys are most often used with boilers working on solid fuel. Their main advantage is the low heat output, but construction should be engaged in only by a qualified specialist.
In the design of the chimney it is important to adhere to the following rules:
- be sure to put the peak at the end of construction. This element will provide protection from moisture and extraneous matter;
- form of the chimney must be circular. In this case, the combustion products accumulate less;
- the number of turns of the chimney can not exceed three;
- design set above the flat roof on two feet, and for this parameter ridge is 0.5-1.5 m.
If the decision was made to install an external chimney, it is necessary to adhere to a certain standard. Experts recommend display such design upward by a distance not less than half a meter from the surface of the roof.
Adjustment of heating radiators in the house
Installation of radiators requires adherence to certain rules. First of all, they must be set exactly horizontally, without any distortions. If going to a single pipe heating system, it is desirable to set the radiators on the same level.
To minimize heat loss, strengthen the elements necessary to a distance of 8-12 cm from the floor and the sill, as well as 3-5 cm from the wall. In addition, the radiator size should be at least 3/4 of the window size. This will prevent condensation.
The best choice will be brass adapters and fittings. If you compare them with other products offered by modern manufacturers, their main feature - it universality (the above fine metal reacts completely with any materials) and a good heat transfer corrosion resistance
To date, used three ways radiator connection: Lateral, and diagonal bottom. The first option, in turn, is divided into single-sided and the diagonal. Sometimes experts prefer fifth wheel method.
Which way is better? When installing the heating system in a newly built cottage ideal solution would be a way to connect the bottom. It allows you to mount the pipe on the floor, hiding them under the screed. This will save precious square footage, as well as make interior room more harmonious and orderly.
Checking and adjustment of the system
After all the heating equipment connected, you should verify the accuracy of the work done. To do this, the system is filled with coolant, then you need to follow it and check for the absence of leaks.
Then the boiler starts. Heating of the liquid will allow definitively verify the accuracy of the collection scheme and the absence of any disturbance.
If the error still was made and in some cases found to leak, then it needs to:
- drain the coolant;
- fix defect;
- be checked again.
The final step is to seal cutting grooves, which were laid pipe. If the installation was carried out on the floor, then the best solution is to tie. In the case when the conduit is installed on the wall, is used putty or plasters. Next, you can do the finishing work.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. Heating a private house area of 300 m2:
Video # 2. Heating a large house, which did not let down the pipeline:
Video # 3. Subtleties heating arrangement in a private home, the area of which 150 m2:
Design, selection and installation of the heating system cottage - those processes that require proper attention to himself and responsible attitude. If it was decided to do everything with your hands, you have to plunge into the work and closely monitor all the details.
But even when the work was entrusted to professionals, you will have to control the whole process. Remember, only in this case it is possible to organize a high-quality heating system that will make private house really a warm, cozy and, of course, safe.
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